To increase learning success in surgical training, physical simulators are supplemented by measurement technology to generate and record objective feedback and error detection. An opportunity to detect fractures following hip stem implantation early can be measurement of occurring strains on bone surface. These strains can be determined while using strain gauges, digital image correlation (DIC) or photoelasticity. In this research strain gauges and DIC were compared regarding their suitability as strain measurement tools for use in physical simulators. Therefore a testing method was described to replicate the implantation of a hip stem. Testing devices modelled on a realistic prosthesis were pressed into prepared porcine femora in a two-step procedure with a material testing machine. The local strains occurring on bone surface were determined using an optical measurement system for DIC and strain gauges. The initial fractures in the tested femora are located medial-anterior in most cases (73,6%). With increasing indentation depth of the test device, the strains on bone surface increase. Comparing the local strains determined by DIC and strain gauges consistencies in curves are noticeable. Maximal determined strains before fracturing amount to 0,69% with strain gauges and 0,75% with DIC. In the range of the fracture gap, strain gradients are determined by using DIC. However the detected surfaces are of low quality caused by gaps and motion artefacts. The results show strains on bone surfaces for early fracture detection are measurable with strain gauges and DIC. DIC is assessed as less suitable compared to strain gauges. Furthermore strain gauges have greater level of integration and economic efficiency, so they are preferred the use in surgical training simulators.
© 2020 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston
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