Arterial blood pressure is one of the most important cardiovascular parameters. Yet, current-generation devices for continuous, noninvasive acquisition are few, expensive and bulky. Novel signal processing applied to easily acquired unimodal signals can alleviate this issue, reducing size, cost and expanding the use of such devices to ambulatory, everyday settings. The features of pulse waves acquired by photo- or impedance-plethysmography can be used to estimate the underlying blood pressure. We present a progressive dynamic time warping algorithm, which implicitly parametrizes the morphological changes in these waves. This warping method is universally applicable to most pulse wave shapes, as it is largely independent of fiducial point detection or explicit parametrization. The algorithm performance is validated in a feature selection and regression framework against a continuous, noninvasive Finapres NOVA monitor, regarding systolic, mean and diastolic pressures during a light physical strain test protocol on four clinically healthy subjects (age18- 33, one female). The obtained mean error is 2.13 mmHg, the mean absolute error is 5.4 mmHg and the standard deviation is 5.6 mmHg. These results improve on our previous work on dynamic time warping. Using single-sensor, peripherally acquired pulse waves, progressive dynamic time warping can thus improve the flexibility of noninvasive, continuous blood pressure estimation.
© 2020 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston
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