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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter October 9, 2021

Needle insertion planning for obstacle avoidance in robotic biopsy

  • Stefan Gerlach , Maximilian Neidhardt , Thorben Weiß , Max-Heinrich Laves , Carolin Stapper , Martin Gromniak , Inga Kniep , Dustin Möbius , Axel Heinemann , Benjamin Ondruschka and Alexander Schlaefer

Abstract

Understanding the underlying pathology in different tissues and organs is crucial when fighting pandemics like COVID-19. During conventional autopsy, large tissue sample sets of multiple organs can be collected from cadavers. However, direct contact with an infectious corpse is associated with the risk of disease transmission and relatives of the deceased might object to a conventional autopsy. To overcome these drawbacks, we consider minimally invasive autopsies with robotic needle placement as a practical alternative. One challenge in needle based biopsies is avoidance of dense obstacles, including bones or embedded medical devices such as pacemakers. We demonstrate an approach for automated planning and visualising suitable needle insertion points based on computed tomography (CT) scans.

Needle paths are modeled by a line between insertion and target point and needle insertion path occlusion from obstacles is determined by using central projections from the biopsy target to the surface of the skin. We project the maximum and minimum CT attenuation, insertion depth, and standard deviation of CT attenuation along the needle path and create two-dimensional intensity-maps projected on the skin. A cost function considering these metrics is introduced and minimized to find an optimal biopsy needle path. Furthermore, we disregard insertion points without sufficient room for needle placement. For visualisation, we display the color-coded cost function so that suitable points for needle insertion become visible.

We evaluate our system on 10 post mortem CTs with six biopsy targets in abdomen and thorax annotated by medical experts. For all patients and targets an optimal insertion path is found. The mean distance to the target ranges from (49.9 ± 12.9)mm for the spleen to (90.1 ± 25.8)mm for the pancreas.

Published Online: 2021-10-09
Published in Print: 2021-10-01

© 2021 The Author(s), published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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