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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter September 2, 2022

Magnetic extraction of calcium oxalate crystals with iron oxide nanoparticles

  • Sebastian P. Schwaminger EMAIL logo , Helen Werner , Michael Wengler and Shyam Srinivasan


Residual fragments can remain after kidney stone extraction which may necessitate another intervention. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be applied due to their properties of being able to bind to residual fragments and to be extracted by an external magnetic field. Calcium oxalate crystals and magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized, characterized and used for binding and magnetic separation studies. The separation is validated by simulation and experimentally. MNP bind covalently to the fractals and a magnetic extraction of calcium oxalate fractals is possible. The agglomeration of MNP can be induced with the addition of salt which improves the extraction process. This proof-of-concept study is the fundament for a new way of stone extraction and can pave the way for new procedures in urology.

Published Online: 2022-09-02

© 2022 The Author(s), published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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