Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton November 11, 2021

Personality traits as predictors of language learner engagement

Tanja Angelovska EMAIL logo , Sarah Mercer and Kyle Read Talbot

Abstract

Engagement is seen as a highly desirable outcome and process contributing to successful learning. In second language acquisition (SLA), we know comparatively little about the nature of engagement for learning a language, in particular the kind of individual differences in learners that account for variations in engagement. In this study, we investigate whether a relationship exists between the engagement of tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students and one key individual difference, student personality traits, as measured by Goldberg, Lewis R. 1992. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment 4(1). 26–42, Big-Five Personality Markers. Participants in this study were 154 EFL tertiary-level students from two universities in Austria. Language learning engagement (LLE) was measured using a modified version of the standardized Student Engagement Instrument (Appleton et al. 2006) adapted specifically for the tertiary-level EFL context in which this study was conducted. The study revealed that trait neuroticism and age predicted LLE and its two dimensions, the cognitive and the affective. Pedagogical implications of the study are presented and discussed.


Corresponding author: Tanja Angelovska, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria, E-mail:

References

Ackerman, Phillip L. & Maynard Goff. 1992. Personality-intelligence relations: Assessment of typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology 84(4). 537–552. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.4.537 (accessed 28 August 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Ackerman, Phillip L. & Maynard Goff. 1994. Typical intellectual engagement and personality: Reply to Rocklin (1994). Journal of Educational Psychology 86(1). 150–153. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.1.150 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Ainley, Mary. 2012. Students’ interest and engagement in classroom activities. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 283–302. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_13 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Appleton, James J., Sandra L. Christenson, Dongjin Kim & Amy L. Reschly. 2006. Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instrument. Journal of School Psychology 44(5). 427–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.04.002 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Betts, Joseph, James J. Appleton, Amy L. Reschly, Sandra L. Christenson & E. Scott Huebner. 2010. A study of the factorial invariance of the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI): Results from middle and high school students. School Psychology Quarterly 25(2). 84–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020259 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Boulton, Chris A., Emily Hughes, Carmel Kent, Joanne R. Smith & Hywel T.P. Williams. 2019. Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution. PloS One 14(11). 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225770 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Busato, Vittorio V., Frans J. Prins, Jan J. Elshout & Christiaan Hamaker. 2000. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences 29(6). 1057–1068. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0191-8869(99)00253-6 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Caraway, Kirsten, Carolyn M. Tucker, Wendy M. Reinke & Charles Hall. 2003. Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools 40(4). 417–427. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10092 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Chamorro-Premuzic, Thomas & Adrian Furnham. 2009. Mainly openness: The relationship between the Big Five personality traits and learning approaches. Learning and Individual Differences 19(4). 524–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.06.004 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Clark, Margaret H. & Christopher A. Schroth. 2010. Examining relationships between academic motivation and personality among college students. Learning and Individual Differences 20(1). 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/e682442007-001 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, Anat & Orit Baruth. 2017. Personality, learning, and satisfaction in fully online academic courses. Computers in Human Behavior 72. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.030 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Costa, Paul T. & Robert R McCrae. 1992. Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO personality inventory. Psychological Assessment 4(1). 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.5 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Costa, Paul T. & Robert R. McCrae. 2016. NEO personality inventory [Data set]. American Psychological Association.Search in Google Scholar

Damian, Lavinia E., Joachim Stoeber, Oana Negru-Subtirica & Adriana Băban. 2017. Perfectionism and school engagement: A three-wave longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 105. 179–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.044 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

De Raad, Boele & Henri C. Schouwenburg. 1996. Personality in learning and education: A review. European Journal of Personality 10(5). 303–336. DOI: 10.1016/j.iree.2015.12.003 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1002/(SICI)1099-0984(199612)10:5<303::AID-PER262>3.0.CO;2-2Search in Google Scholar

Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2012. Personality: Personality traits as independent and dependent variables. In Sarah Mercer, Stephen Ryan & Marion Williams (eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice, 42–57. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137032829_4 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2013. The link between foreign language classroom anxiety and psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism among adult bi‐ and multilinguals. The Modern Language Journal 97(3). 670–684. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12036.x (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12036.xSearch in Google Scholar

Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2021. Personality. In Tammy Gregersen & Sarah Mercer (eds.), The Routledge handbook of the psychology of language learning and teaching, 112–123. London: Routledge.10.4324/9780429321498-12Search in Google Scholar

Dewaele, Jean-Marc & Adrian Furnham. 2000. Personality and speech production: A pilot study of second language learners. Personality and Individual Differences 28(2). 355–365. DOI: 10.1016/s0191-8869(99)00106-3 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00106-3Search in Google Scholar

Dewaele, Jean-Marc & Peter D. MacIntyre. 2019. The predictive power of multicultural personality traits, learner and teacher variables on foreign language enjoyment and anxiety. In Masatoshi Sato & Shawn Loewen (eds.), Evidence-based second language pedagogy, 263–286. New York & Oxford: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351190558-12 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Dincer, Ali, Savaş Yeşilyurt, Kimberly A. Noels & Dayuma I. Vargas Lascano. 2019. Self-determination and classroom engagement of EFL learners: A mixed-methods study of the self-system model of motivational development. SAGE Open 9(2). 1–15. DOI: 10.1177/2158244019853913 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1177/2158244019853913Search in Google Scholar

Diseth, Åge. 2003. Personality and approaches to learning as predictors of academic achievement. European Journal of Personality 17(2). 143–155. DOI: 10.1002/per.469 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1002/per.469Search in Google Scholar

Dörnyei, Zoltán. 2005. The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. London: Routledge.10.1075/aila.19.05dorSearch in Google Scholar

Dörnyei, Zoltán & Stephen Ryan. 2015. The psychology of the language learner revisited. London: Routledge.10.4324/9781315779553Search in Google Scholar

Finn, Jeremy D & Kayla S. Zimmer. 2012. Student engagement: What is it? Why does it matter? In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 97–131. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_5 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Fredricks, Jennifer A., Phyllis C. Blumenfeld & Alison H. Paris. 2004. School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research 74(1). 59–109. DOI: 10.3102/00346543074001059 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.3102/00346543074001059Search in Google Scholar

Goldberg, Lewis R. 1992. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment 4(1). 26–42. DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.26 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.26Search in Google Scholar

Henning, Marcus A., Christian U. Krägeloh, Rachel Dryer, Fiona Moir, Rex Billington & Andrew G. Hill (eds.). 2018. Wellbeing in higher education: Cultivating a healthy lifestyle among faculty and students. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.10.4324/9781315641539Search in Google Scholar

Hiver, Phil, Ali Al-Hoorie & Sarah Mercer (eds.). 2020. Student engagement in the language classroom. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.10.21832/HIVER3606Search in Google Scholar

John, Oliver P., Alois Angleitner & Fritz Ostendorf. 1988. The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research. European Journal of Personality 2(3). 171–203. DOI: 10.1002/per.2410020302 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1002/per.2410020302Search in Google Scholar

John, Oliver P., Laura P. Naumann & Christopher J. Soto. 2008. Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins & L. A. Pervin (eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 114–158. New York: Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0004136 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, John A. 2014. Measuring thirty facets of the Five Factor Model with a 120-item public domain inventory: Development of the IPIP-NEO-120. Journal of Research in Personality 51. 78–89. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.05.003 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.jrp.2014.05.003Search in Google Scholar

Juvonen, Jaana, Guadalupe Espinoza & Casey Knifsend. 2012. The role of peer relationships in student academic and extracurricular engagement. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 387–401. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_18 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Kappe, Rutger & Henk van der Flier. 2010. Using multiple and specific criteria to assess the predictive validity of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance. Journal of Research in Personality 44(1). 142–145. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.11.002 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.jrp.2009.11.002Search in Google Scholar

Komarraju, Meera & Steven J. Karau. 2005. The relationship between the Big Five personality traits and academic motivation. Personality and Individual Differences 39(3). 557–567. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.013 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.013Search in Google Scholar

Komarraju, Meera, Steven J. Karau & Ronald R. Schmeck. 2009. Role of the Big Five personality traits in predicting college students’ academic motivation and achievement. Learning and Individual Differences 19(1). 47–52. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.07.001 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.lindif.2008.07.001Search in Google Scholar

Komarraju, Meera, Steven J. Karau, Ronald R. Schmeck & Alen Avdic. 2011. The Big Five personality traits, learning styles, and academic achievement. Personality and Individual Differences 51(4). 472–477. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.019 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.019Search in Google Scholar

Lambert, Craig, Jenefer Philp & Sachiko Nakamura. 2017. Learner-generated content and engagement in second language task performance. Language Teaching Research 21(6). 665–680. DOI: 10.1177/1362168816683559 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1177/1362168816683559Search in Google Scholar

MacIntyre, Peter & Catherine Charos. 1996. Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 15(1). 3–26. DOI: 10.1177/0261927x960151001 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1177/0261927X960151001Search in Google Scholar

MacIntyre, Peter & Tammy Gregersen. 2012. Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive-broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2(2). 193. DOI: 10.14746/ssllt.2012.2.2.4 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.14746/ssllt.2012.2.2.4Search in Google Scholar

MacIntyre, Peter, Tammy Gregersen & Sarah Mercer. 2019a. Setting an agenda for positive psychology in SLA: Theory, practice, and research. The Modern Language Journal 103(1). 262–274. DOI: 10.1111/modl.12544 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1111/modl.12544Search in Google Scholar

MacIntyre, Peter, Jessica Ross, Kyle Read Talbot, Sarah Mercer, Tammy Gregersen & Claire Ann Banga. 2019b. Stressors, personality and wellbeing among language teachers. System 82. 26–38. DOI: 10.1016/j.system.2019.02.013 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.system.2019.02.013Search in Google Scholar

McCrae, Robert R. & Oliver P. John. 1992. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality 60(2). 175–215. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.xSearch in Google Scholar

McGeown, Sarah P., Dave Putwain, Emma Geijer Simpson, Elizabeth Boffey, Jessica Markham & Adrienne Vince. 2014. Predictors of adolescents’ academic motivation: Personality, self-efficacy and adolescents’ characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences 32. 278–286. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.022 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.022Search in Google Scholar

Mercer, Sarah. 2019. Language learner engagement: Setting the scene. In Xuesong Gao (ed.), Second handbook of English language teaching, 664–660. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02899-2_40 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Mercer, Sarah & Zoltán Dörnyei. 2020. Engaging language learners in contemporary classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024563 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Mercer, Sarah, Kyle Read Talbot & Isobel Kai-Hui Wang. 2021. Fake or real engagement – looks can be deceiving. In Phil Hiver, Ali Al-Hoorie & Sarah Mercer (eds.), Student engagement in the language classroom, 143–162. Bristol: Multilingual Mattesr.10.21832/9781788923613Search in Google Scholar

Moreira, Paulo A.S., Paulo Dias, Filipa Machado Vaz & João Machado Vaz. 2013. Predictors of academic performance and school engagement—Integrating persistence, motivation and study skills perspectives using person-centered and variable-centered approaches. Learning and Individual Differences 24. 117–125. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.10.016 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.lindif.2012.10.016Search in Google Scholar

Newmann, Fred M., Wehlage Gary & Susie D. Lamborn. 1992. The significance and sources of student engagement. In Fred M. Newmann (ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools, 11–39. New York: Teachers College Press.Search in Google Scholar

Newman, Alexander, Donohue Ross & Eva Nathan. 2017. Psychological safety: A systematic review of the literature. Human Resource Management Review 27(3). 521–535. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.001 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.001Search in Google Scholar

Noels, Kimberly A., Dayuma I. Vargas Lascano & Kristie Saumure. 2019. The development of self-determination across the language course: Trajectories of motivational change and the dynamic interplay of psychological needs, orientations, and engagement. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 41(04). 821–851. DOI: 10.1017/S0272263118000189 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1017/S0272263118000189Search in Google Scholar

O’Connor, Melissa C. & Sampo V. Paunonen. 2007. Big Five personality predictors of post-secondary academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences 43(5). 971–990. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.017 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.017Search in Google Scholar

Oga-Baldwin, W. L. Quint & Yoshiyuki Nakata. 2017. Engagement, gender, and motivation: A predictive model for Japanese young language learners. System 65. 151–163. DOI: 10.1016/j.system.2017.01.011 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.system.2017.01.011Search in Google Scholar

Oliver, Rhonda, Jenefer Philp & Susan Duchesne. 2017. Children working it out together: A comparison of younger and older learners collaborating in task based interaction. System 69. 1–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.system.2017.08.001 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/j.system.2017.08.001Search in Google Scholar

Ożańska-Ponikwia, Katarzyna & Jean-Marc Dewaele. 2012. Personality and L2 use: The advantage of being openminded and self-confident in an immigration context. EUROSLA Yearbook 12. 112–134. DOI: 10.1075/eurosla.12.07oza (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1075/eurosla.12.07ozaSearch in Google Scholar

Philp, Jenefer & Susan Duchesne. 2016. Exploring engagement in tasks in the language classroom. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 36. 50–72. DOI: 10.1017/s0267190515000094 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1017/S0267190515000094Search in Google Scholar

Pianta, Robert C., Bridget K. Hamre & Joseph P. Allen. 2012. Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 365–386. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_17 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Poropat, Arthur E. 2009. A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin 135(2). 322–338. DOI: 10.1037/a0014996 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1037/a0014996Search in Google Scholar

Portilla, Ximena A., Parissa Ballard, Nancy Adler, W. Thomas Boyce & Jelena Obradović. 2014. An integrative view of school functioning: Transactions between self-regulation, school engagement, and teacher-child relationship quality. Child Development 85(5). 1915–1931. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12259 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1111/cdev.12259Search in Google Scholar

Reschly, Amy L. & Sandra L. Christenson. 2012. Jingle, jangle, and conceptual haziness: Evolution and future directions of the engagement construct. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 3–19. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_1 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Robinson, David, Norman Gabriel & Olga Katchan. 1994. Personality and second language learning. Personality and Individual Differences 16(1). 143–157. DOI: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90118-x (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1016/0191-8869(94)90118-XSearch in Google Scholar

Schaie, Klaus Warner, Sherry L. Willis & Grace I.L. Caskie. 2004. The Seattle longitudinal study: Relationship between personality and cognition. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 11(2–3). 304–324. DOI: 10.1080/13825580490511134 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1080/13825580490511134Search in Google Scholar

Schunk, Dale H. & Carol A. Mullen. 2012. Self-efficacy as an engaged learner. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 219–235. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_10 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Shao, Zeshu, Esther Janse, Karina Visser & Antje S. Meyer. 2014. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults. Frontiers in Psychology 5. 1–10. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00772 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00772Search in Google Scholar

Shernoff, David J. 2013. Optimal learning environments to promote student engagement. New York: Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7089-2 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Sijtsma, Klaas. 2009. On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s Alpha. Psychometrika 74(1). 107–120. DOI: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0Search in Google Scholar

Sinatra, Gale M., Benjamin C. Heddy & Doug Lombardi. 2015. The challenges of defining and measuring student engagement in science. Educational Psychologist 50(1). 1–13. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2014.1002924 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1080/00461520.2014.1002924Search in Google Scholar

Skinner, Ellen A. & Jennifer R. Pitzer. 2012. Developmental dynamics of student engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly & Cathy Wylie (eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement, 21–44. Boston: Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_2 (accessed 28 July 2021).Search in Google Scholar

Soares, André Escórcio & Miguel Pereira Lopes. 2020. Are your students safe to learn? The role of lecturer’s authentic leadership in the creation of psychologically safe environments and their impact on academic performance. Active Learning in Higher Education 21(1). 65–78. DOI: 10.1177/1469787417742023 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1177/1469787417742023Search in Google Scholar

Sutin, Angelina R., Antonio Terracciano, Melissa H. Kitner-Triolo, Manuela Uda, David Schlessinger & Alan B. Zonderman. 2011. Personality traits prospectively predict verbal fluency in a lifespan sample. Psychology and Aging 26(4). 994–999. DOI: 10.1037/a0024276 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1037/a0024276Search in Google Scholar

Svalberg, Agneta M.-L. 2009. Engagement with language: Interrogating a construct. Language Awareness 18(3–4). 242–258. DOI: 10.1080/09658410903197264 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1080/09658410903197264Search in Google Scholar

Svalberg, Agneta. M.-L. 2018. Researching language engagement: Current trends and future directions. Language Awareness 27(1–2). 21–39. DOI: 10.1080/09658416.2017.1406490 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1080/09658416.2017.1406490Search in Google Scholar

Terracciano, Antonio, Robert R. McCrae, Larry J. Brant & Paul Costa. 2005. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of the NEO-PI-R scales in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Psychology and Aging 20(3). 493–506. DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.20.3.493 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1037/0882-7974.20.3.493Search in Google Scholar

Zepke, Nick & Linda Leach. 2010. Improving student engagement: Ten proposals for action. Active Learning in Higher Education 11(3). 167–177. DOI: 10.1177/1469787410379680 (accessed 28 July 2021).10.1177/1469787410379680Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-01-15
Accepted: 2021-06-19
Published Online: 2021-11-11
Published in Print: 2021-10-26

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 7.12.2022 from frontend.live.degruyter.dgbricks.com/document/doi/10.1515/cercles-2021-2026/html
Scroll Up Arrow