Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access February 21, 2018

The preparation and antibacterial activity of cellulose/ZnO composite: a review

  • Si-Wei Zhao , Chong-Rui Guo , Ying-Zhu Hu , Yuan-Ru Guo EMAIL logo and Qing-Jiang Pan EMAIL logo
From the journal Open Chemistry


The infectious diseases caused by various bacteria pose serious threat to human health. To solve this problem, antibacterial agents have been widely used in people’s daily life to deactivate or kill these bacteria. Among the antibacterial agents, ZnO is one of the most promising metal oxide antibacterial agents due to its non-toxic nature and safe properties. To expand its application, many composites of ZnO have been widely studied. Cellulose, as one of the most abundant biopolymers, has many merits like biodegradability, biocompatibility and low cost. Thus, many studies focus on synthesized cellulose/ZnO. The synthetic strategy includes both chemical and physical methods. Many of them have been shown that cellulose/ZnO composites have excellent antibacterial activity and are environment-friendly and have many applications for example food packing, antibacterial fibers and so on. This review mainly discusses the preparation methods of cellulose/ZnO and their effect on the morphology and properties.

1 Introduction

The use of antibacterial agents is necessary to prevent the microorganism growth and reduce the harmful effects in our life at the same time [1,2]. Today, inorganic antimicrobial agents are promising such as metal salts, nano-sized metals and metal oxides [3,4]. In the metal oxide, CuO, TiO2, ZnO, A12O3, SiO2, Fe2O3 and CeO2 are arequently-used as antibacterial agents [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18]. Among them, ZnO has excellent antibacterial activities and its application field is very broad. Thus, different methodology is applied to preparation of ZnO [19,20,21]. The gelatin/ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) composite films could be applied for food preservation due to their excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria [22]; the ZnO/GO composites could be used in surface coatings on various substrates to effectively inhibit bacterial growth, propagation and survival in medical devices [23]; filters functionalized with ZnO nanorods (NRs) possess high air filtration efficiencies and high antibacterial activities and could be applied in industrial gas purification devices and indoor air cleaning systems [24].

In addition to its antibacterial agent, ZnO is proven to be a promising material due to its excellent mechanical properties, excellent chemical stability and heat resistance [25]. The application fields of ZnO nanoparticles are very broad such as electrodes, piezoelectric devices, optics, optoelectronics, photodiode devices, sensors, light-emitting diodes photocatalysts and so on [26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34]. The core-shell nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mats could be quite applicable as a filtering/membrane material for treatment of organic pollutants for water purification due to their efficient photocatalytic properties, structural flexibility and stability [35], for example.

Cellulose, one of the most abundant biopolymers, has been widely used as a reinforcing material for fiber-thermoplastic composite materials [36] and is considered to be an almost inexhaustible source of raw material for the increasing demand for biodegradable and biocompatible products [37,38]. Cellulose derivatives also have many advantages, such as environmentally friendly, biocompatible, sustainable and cost-effective sources of carbon-based polymers and substrates for the development of sophisticated nanocomposite materials [39]. Cellulose acetate (CA) is one of the cellulose derivatives and has many exceptional properties, such as non-toxic, renewable, low cost and biodegradable [40]. CA is an important bio-based polymer that has been used in a broad field of applications such as plastics, lacquers, photographic films and textile [41,42,43,44]. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is derived from raw cellulose materials by alkalization and acidification. Different from natural cellulose, CMC is a kind of water-soluble cellulose ether [45,46] and is widely applied in many fields, such as chemical, geological, light industry, petroleum, drug, food and pharmaceutical [47,48,49].

However, cellulose does not have any antibacterial activity, which limited its application for food packaging. To endow cellulose with antibacterial properties, functional nanomaterials are widely used to compose with cellulose [50,51,52,53]. Several metal and metal oxide nanostructures, such as TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag and Cu etc., have been incorporated into paper products [54,55,56]. One of the effects of ZnO NPs on paper and applications have been investigated: coatings containing ZnO nanoparticles improved resistance to microbial attack [57] and ZnO is considered to be non-toxic [58] which can be used in food packaging [59].

Recently the food packing industry has gained much more attention in many countries [60]. However, food bacterial contamination is a common problem in this easy-cooked food industry [61] which can lead to cross contamination, discoloration, stinky odor, and food borne illness [62,63]. Antimicrobial packaging is a type of active packaging which interacts with the product or the headspace inside to reduce, inhibit or retard the growth of microorganisms [64]. ZnO is currently listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) material by the Food and Drug Administration and is used as food additive [58]. ZnO in the nanoscale has shown antimicrobial properties and potential applications in food preservation [58]. Moreover, ZnO is a source of zinc and has essential micronutrient and serves important roles in growth, development and well-being in humans and animals [65].

2 The source of cellulose and the preparation of cellulose/ZnO

With the fast development of nanotechnology, high-quality nanomaterials have been fabricated successfully through different physical and chemical strategies during the past two decades [66]. Cellulose/ZnO composites can be prepared by the following methods: electrospinning [67,68], microwave [69,70], sol-gel [71], ultrasonic [72,73,74], hydrothermal [54,75], and precipitation [76,77] and so on. Compared with physical methods, chemical methods have shown some distinct advantages for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including easy scale-up, low reaction temperature and inexpensive equipment [50]. In this section, the main methods are chosen to discuss such as electrospun method, microwave method, sol-gel method, hydrothermal synthesis method, ultrasonic method and precipitation method. All synthesis methods of cellulose/ ZnO composites mentioned in this work can also be conducted on a laboratory scale.

The source of cellulose is varied such as cotton fiber, cellulose acetate (CA), bacterial cellulose (BC), soft wood pulp, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as shown in Table 1. The source of the zinc ion is usually ZnO directly or synthesized indirectly by using Zn(Ac)2·2H2O, ZnCl2 and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O. Some groups prepared though simple, green and facile method [69,73] but some used organic agents [67,71].

Table 1

The source of cellulose, materials and method of synthesis.

The source of celluloseMaterials(mainly)MethodComposite
Cotton linter pulp; ZnO; NaOH; Na2SO4Microwave method and One-step coagulation methodRCZ [69]
Plain-woven cotton fabric; Zn(Ac)2·2H2O; NaOH; TEOS;Sol-gel methodZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite
Cotton fiberHNO3; NH3(25%); Ethanol[71]
Cotton fibers; Zn(NO3)2; SA; NH4OHPrecipitation methodZnO-SACNF [76]
Cotton bandage; Zn(Ac)2·H2O; NH3·xH2O; EthanolSonochemical methodZnO-Fabric nanocomposite [74]
CACA; Zn(Ac)2·2H2O; DMF; AcetoneEletrospun methodZnO embedded CA membrane [67]
CA; ZnCl2; NaOH; DMFHydrothermal methodZOLCA [75]
BCBC; Zn(Ac)2·2H2O; NH4OH; EthanolUltrasonic-assisted synthesis methodZnO particles-incorporated BC sheet [72]
Paper; ZnO; NH4OHUltrasonic methodZnO nanoparticles coated paper [73]
WoodBleached softwood cellulose fibers; ZnCl2; Na2CO3; EthanolHydrothermal methodZ-P [54]
Filter paper; Zn(Ac)2·2H2O; NaOH; Ethanol; Sulfuric acidZnO-Ag/CNCs Nanoparticles [77]
AgNO3Precipitation method
Softwood; ZnO; PDDA; PSSEletrospun methodNFC/ZnO [78]
P-cellulose,Zn(Ac)2·2H2O; AgNO3; HMT; NH3aq(25-29 wt%);Microwave assistedAg/ZnO modified cellulose fillers
α-CelluloseP-cellulose; α-Cellulose; Polyvinyl chloride; PVC RB3 resinsynthesis method[70]
MCCMCC; HCl; Citric acid; NH3·H2O; Zn(NO3)2·6H2O; NaOHSimple precipitation through electrostatic interactionCNC/ZnO nanohybrids [79]
MCC; PHBV; HCl; Citric acid; Chloroform; Ethanol; Zn(NO3)2-6H2O; NaOHEletrospun methodCNC-ZnO [68]
CMCCMC; ECH; Zn(NO3)2·6H2O; NaOH; HClIn situ formationCMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels [80]
CMC; Chitosan; Glycerol; Oleic acid; Tween 80; ZnO NPsCasting methodCMC-CH-OL-ZnO [81]
  1. TEOS: Tetraethylorthosilicate; SA: Sodium alginate; DMF: Dimethyl formamide; HMT: Hexamethylenetetramine; MCC: Microcrystalline cellulose; PHBV: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-valerate); ECH: Epichlorohydrin; PDDA: poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride); PSS: poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate); RCZ: cellulose based ZnO nanocomposite; ZnO-SACNF: nano zinc oxide-sodium alginate cellulose fibres; Z-P: ZnO nanowire-immobilized paper matrices; NFC: nanofibrillated cellulose; CNC: cellulose nanocrystal; CMC-CH-OL-ZnO: carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan-oleic acid incroporated with zinc oxide nano particles; ZOLCA: ZnO nanoparticles loaded cellulose acetate;

Different sources of cellulose cause different morphology as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1a shows the smooth texture of the pristine cotton bandage [74], Figure 1b a plain cellulose acetate film exhibiting a smooth surface [75], Figure 1c the pristine BC sheet shows a nonwoven network structure of nanofibrous cellulose, with fiber diameter 55.00 ± 10.54 nm [72] and in Figure 1d, the morphology of the bleached softwood cellulose fibers is not smooth [54].

Figure 1 The SEM of cellulose a: pristine bandage fabric [74]; b: plain cellulose acetate [75]; c: pristine bacterial cellulose [72]; d: bleached softwood cellulose fibers [54].
Figure 1

The SEM of cellulose a: pristine bandage fabric [74]; b: plain cellulose acetate [75]; c: pristine bacterial cellulose [72]; d: bleached softwood cellulose fibers [54].

According to these studies, we conclude that different source of cellulose could be prepared as films (cotton fiber, cellulose acetate), paper (wood), hydrogels (CMC), foams (BC) and this would affect the morphology of the cellulose/ZnO. The morphology of the cellulose/ZnO included 1): ZnO nanoparticles grow on the cellulose fibers; 2): ZnO microparticles deposited on the surface of cellulose; 3): ZnO particles mixed with cellulose. The size of ZnO is affected by the preparation methods: the size of ZnO at 20~40 nm was usually prepared by precipitation, hydrothermal, ultrasonic, eletrospun, in situ formation and sonochemical method; while the size of ZnO more than 1 μm are usually prepared by microwave, hydrothermal method.

3 The properties of cellulose/ZnO

Phase and thermal stability have been widely used to analyze the cellulose/ZnO. XRD results show that both cellulose I and II types can be used to prepared the cellulose/ZnO. While different content of ZnO and the crystalline in the cellulose/ZnO would affect 2θ of the strongest diffraction peak, which means the major phase in the cellulose/ZnO would be influenced by the ZnO content, as shown in Figure.2. In Figure. 2a, the two broad peaks and one intense peak appear in the cellulose/ ZnO near to the 2θ angles of 14.8°, 16.8°, 22.2° and 34.1°, which are characteristic of the (101), (101), (002) and (040) reflections of cellulose I, respectively [54,71,82,83]. In Figure 2b, the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 12°, 20°, and 22° are ascribed to the (110), (110), and (020) planes of the cellulose II crystalline type, respectively [69,84]. In comparison to the strong intensity diffraction peak of ZnO the diffraction peak of cellulose in RCZ are very weak [69] which could be attributed to ZnO growing on the surface of cellulose in the cellulose/ZnO which makes it harder to collect the diffraction data of cellulose during the XRD test. In additional, the types and ratio of precursors, the pH of solution (basicity) and the preparation method will affect the major phase of cellulose/ZnO (analyzed by XRD) and the related data is shown in Table 2. The intensity of ZnO diffraction peak in composites will increase when the increasement of the ZnO content in composites. Moreover, the good crystalline of cellulose will also obtain high diffraction intensity. Due to the crystallinity character of ZnO and cellulose, the content of ZnO in cellulose/ZnO is the primary factor which determine major phase in composites.

Table 2

The influence factors on major phase and thermal stability of cellulose/ZnO.

The major phase Cellulose/ZnOThe thermal stability
Reference[54, 71, 73, 79, 86, 87, 88][69, 84][85][77, 79, 84][71, 73]
Affecting factorSource of cellulose, basicity in reaction system; the ratio of precursorsPreparation methods

Figure 2 The XRD plots of cellulose/ZnO (a): Cellulose as major phase in composites [54]; (b): ZnO as major phase in composites [69].
Figure 2

The XRD plots of cellulose/ZnO (a): Cellulose as major phase in composites [54]; (b): ZnO as major phase in composites [69].

Thermal degradation of cellulose involved depolymerization, dehydration, and decomposition of glycosyl units followed by formation of a charred residue [77]. Compared with the CNCs, the thermal degradation curves with a single degradation peak shifted to higher temperature for the CNC/ZnO nanohybrids in Figure 3a. These results indicated that the thermal stability of the nanohybrids was better than that of the CNCs. This was ascribed to the stronger interactions between oxygen atoms of the CNCs and ZnO nanoparticles, thus providing a thermal barrier for the cellulose skeleton by absorbing the heat [77,79]. However, ZnO also reduced thermal stability of the cellulose in some composites as shown in Figure 3b [71]. ZnO reduced thermal stability is likely because ZnO has high thermal conductivity and cellulose a very low conductivity but direct interaction of ZnO nanoparticles and cellulose make heat transportation much easier which resulted in the lower thermal decomposition temperature [85].

In conclusion, different prepared method will also affect the thermal stability of the cellulose/ZnO. ZnO prepared by precipitation method will increase thermal stability in the cellulose/ZnO, but ultrasonic method and sol-gel method will reduce the thermal stability in the cellulose/ZnO.

Many studies focus on the preparation of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surface by appropriate surface modification of the sample. Contact angle measurements are carried out to evaluate the wetting properties of the cellulose/ZnO and the results are summarized in Table 3. The water contact angle of RCZ films varies from 87.5° to 102.0° as the ZnO content increase, which is significantly larger than that of the regenerated cellulose (RC) film (79.7°) [69]. In the case of pure CA fibrous membrane, the measured contact angle is found to be 47° initially and the ZnO embedded CA is about 124°, which is much higher than that of the pure CA fibers so that the wetting property of the CA has changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic when ZnO is impregnated into it [67]. The hydrophobic properties of the cellulose/ZnO is much better than cellulose which may due to the interspaces among the ZnO particles trapping air whose water contact angle is considered as 180°. Therefore, the trapped air could be served as part of the surface, resulting in a solid/ air composite surface to increase the hydrophobicity of composite [67,69].

Table 3

Comparison of the AW, εb, E, σb properties of the cellulose/ZnO.

SampleAw (deg)εb (%)E (GPa)σb (MPa)
RCZ4 [69]87.510.13.055.0
RCZ8 [69]
RCZ12 [69]103.410.62.749.0
RCZ16 [69]
ZnO-SACNF (0.5% SA) [76]22.10.27529.5
ZnO-SACNF (1.5% SA) [76]24.90.37946.5
ZnO embedded CA membrane [67]122.4-124.2

Figure 3 TG curves of cellulose/ZnO (a): the thermal stability increased compared to cellulose [79]; (b): the thermal stability reduced compared to cellulose [71].
Figure 3

TG curves of cellulose/ZnO (a): the thermal stability increased compared to cellulose [79]; (b): the thermal stability reduced compared to cellulose [71].

RC film has good tensile strength (εb) and Young’s modulus (E), with values of 40.6 MPa and 2.5 GPa, respectively. The ZnO content from 2.7 wt % (RCZ4) to 7.4 wt % (RCZ8) led to a slight decrease in the elongation at break (εb) compared with the RC film. However, the E and σb values slightly increase and reach 3.1 GPa and 57.1 MPa with 7.4 wt % ZnO loaded which are comparable with the cellulose−carbon nanotube film. The εb values of the films decrease with increased ZnO content over 7.4 wt %. This can be attributed to the tendency of ZnO nanoparticles to form larger agglomerates at higher content, leading to relatively poor dispersion in the cellulose matrix. However, all of the RCZ films display higher tensile strength than RC films, which further confirm the strong interactions between ZnO nanoparticles and the cellulose matrix [69]. The εb, σb and E of ZnO–SACNF fibers are depicted in Table 3. The results indicate that the ZnO–SACNF could be utilized for the longer duration of use without any significant damage or breakage [76].

The hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surface was usually used MCC, CA and cotton fiber and prepared by electrospinning, microwave and the solvent evaporation method and the contact angle over 100°. Along an increase in the ZnO content in the cellulose/ZnO, the contact angle and the tensile strength were also increased.

Many analytical methods have been adopted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles. The common methods were colony forming count method, disc diffusion method and so on. In order to quantitatively determine the antibacterial activity, the colony forming count method was applied. Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are mainly chosen as model bacteria to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles. The obtained bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E. coli had cell concentrations around 108 CFU·mL-1. The bacterial suspension accompanying with the sample then incubated at 37°C. After incubation, taking a certain amount of the cell suspension diluted with 0.85-0.9% saline solution and then spread on sterilized petri-plates and incubated at 37°C. The number of the bacterial colonies referred to the number of the bacterial cells which survived. The reduction in viable bacterial cells (R %) was calculated by the following equation: R % = (Viable cells at 0 h – Viable cells after test) / (Viable cells at 0 h) × 100% [54,56,72,86,87]. The results were shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Viable cell reduction activity of samples on E. coli and S. aureus.

ZnO contents (wt %)Reduction in cell viability (%) or Antibacterial ratio (%)
Crystalline size (nm)E. coliS. aureus
2.0 Z-P [54]2.062.5895.3097.48
7.0 Z-P [54]10-207.066.3498.7299.81
10.0Z-P [54]10.083.1199.7499.98
18.0 Z-P [54]18.095.8899.9799.99
40 wt% Zn [87]10-204039.982.996.7
70 wt% Zn [87]7042.890.098.7
ZnO-BC-1 [72]5537.3±0.699.80±0.0299.80±0.03
ZnO-BC-2 [72]5645.5±0.999.79±0.0299.79±0.02
ZnO-BC-3 [72]6346.7±0.899.79±0.0399.80±0.03
G-ZnO [56]30.980.4957.78
S-ZnO [56]28.385.3766.68
St-ZnO [56]
AA-ZnO [56]19.086.0681.71
0.75%ZnO [74]300.7599.8410066.4099.93
ZCB [86]153.116356

40 wt% Zn: zinc oxide bionanocomposite foam by a bacterial cellulose mediated with a ZnO loading of 40 wt%; 70 wt% Zn: zinc oxide bionanocomposite foam by a bacterial cellulose mediated with a ZnO loading of 70 wt%; ZnO-BC: nanocrystalline ZnO particles into bacterial cellulose pellicle; G-ZnO: glucose-ZnO; S-ZnO: sucrose-ZnO; St-ZnO: starch-ZnO; AA-ZnO: alginic acid; 0.75% ZnO: bandage coated with 0.75% ZnO nanoparticles; ZCB: ZnO-coated cotton bandage.

For the agar diffusion method, the samples were cut into disc shapes with a certain diameter. The fresh strain was diluted, then obtained a certain concentration of bacteria suspension was around 108 CFU·mL-1. After that, the bacteria suspension was spread on the plates uniformly and the samples were placed on the center of the plate and then incubated for 18-24 hours at 37°C. After incubation, a bacterial inhibition zone was formed around the samples and the width of the bacterial inhibition zone was measured and recorded as the antibacterial effect of composites. The width of the inhibition zone (Winh) was calculated using the following equation: Winh = (d1-d2) / 2 [69,74]. The results were shown in Table 5.

Table 5

The mean value of the inhibition zone width of composites.

Crystalline size (nm)ZnO contents (wt %)Winh (mm)
SamplesE. coliS. aureus
RCZ4 [69]
RCZ8 [69]
RCZ12 [69]
RCZ16 [69]
ZnO-BC-1 [72]5537.3±0.65.7±0.292.9±0.75
Z1 [80]3.5±15±1.5
Z2 [80]10-204.5±16.5±1
Z3 [80]6±0.58.5±0.5
Z4 [80]7.5±111.5±1
RBC-ZnO1 [84]774.89.5
RBC-ZnO2 [84]813
ZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite (A) [71]11.2072.255.75
ZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite (B) [71]3.4893.258.25
ZnC [89]50152.54.25

The agar diffusion and the colony forming count method could qualitative and quantitative analyse the antibacterial activity of cellulose/ZnO. Cellulose/ZnO show super antibacterial activity compared with both ZnO and cellulose. The higher percentage of ZnO incorporate, the better antibacterial activity of composites could be obtained, despite the source or the contents of cellulose in the cellulose/ZnO.

Cellulose/ZnO have advantages compared to ZnO with the antibacterial activity of the composite better than ZnO. According to Guo and her group’s study [85], the cellulose/ ZnO shows excellent antibacterial activity compared to ZnO. The width of the inhibition zone of cellulose/ZnO is 11.9 mm (against S. aureus) and 10.2 mm (against E. coli); while the width of inhibition zone of ZnO is 2.48 mm (against S. aureus) and 1.26 mm (against E. coli). Xu and his group got the same result from ZnO/BC by using BC (bacterial cellulose) as cellulose source. They found the ZnO/BC foam could make viability reduce to 96.7~98.7% when against E. coli, while ZnO powder is 93.6% [87].

4 Self-assembly and antibacterial mechanism

The self-assembly mechanisms of the cellulose/ZnO should be clarified. Hydrogen bonding was used to expound the self-assembly mechanisms of cellulose/ZnO in the previous reports[90]. Different from above, there were two driving forces in fabricating cellulose/ZnO by experiment and theory[85] - electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. In the cellulose/ZnO, the Zn atoms of ZnO on its (001) plane would self-assemble to the Os atom of cellulose to stabilize system, which was driven by the electrostatic attraction and formed the morphology which was cellulose as matrix and ZnO crystal nucleus grow on it. The second driving force was the intermolecular hydrogen bonding, which has been well known in cellulose-involving materials.

The antibacterial mechanism of cellulose/ZnO was due to the highly reactive species such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl (O2-, H2O2 and OH-) which were formed on the surface of ZnO activated by both UV and visible light. Many researchers have proposed the generation of H2O2 on the surface of ZnO as the main effect in the inhibition of bacteria growth [11,91]. The establishments of H2O2 as follow:


5 Application and outlook

The cellulose/ZnO could be used in many fields such as food packaging, photoluminescent papers, antimicrobial and bioactive paper and functional paper which ZnO particles could not be used in these fields [51,54,56,92]. The composite could also be used in biomedical and healthcare, catalysis, and electronic fields just like ZnO particles [69,86]. The composite of cellulose/ZnO also has another advantage compared to ZnO. As powder ZnO is easy to mix with other materials but it is hard to made into a device or moulding by itself. While cellulose has the advantage to make into the shape of device because of its suppleness. The combining of ZnO and cellulose would enable the composite of suppleness, excellent antibacterial and fluorescence properties. Thus it will expand the application of both cellulose and ZnO.

The cellulose/ZnO will be used widely in the future due to its advantages like low cost, simple, environmental friendly and functional. Since cellulose/ZnO is mixed the merits of cellulose and ZnO, it can be used in many fields. After coating ZnO powders, the cellulose composite can possess super antibacterial activity and good fluorescence properties which could be used to prepare antimicrobial, bioactive paper, photoluminescent papers and functional paper. Due to its excellent properties and simple preparation method, cellulose/ZnO paper could be widely used as food packaging, biomedical application and healthcare.

6 Conclusions

This review article mainly discussed the preparation methods of cellulose/ZnO and its properties, especially the antibacterial activities investigated in recent years. Different sources of cellulose could be prepared as films (cotton fiber, cellulose acetate), paper (wood), hydrogels (CMC), foams (BC) and would affect the morphology of the cellulose/ZnO. The morphology of the cellulose/ZnO included 1): ZnO nanoparticles grown on the cellulose fibers, 2): ZnO microparticles deposited on the surface of cellulose, 3) ZnO particles mixed with cellulose. And the hydrogen bonding is used to expounded composite mechanisms of cellulose/ZnO.

The major phase in the cellulose/ZnO would be affected by factors of preparation method, pH of reaction system and the source of cellulose as well as the ratio of precursors. However, the contents of ZnO in the composites is key factor to dominate the major phase because of its high crystalline.

Both the thermal stability and antibacterial activity of cellulose/ZnO vary according to different preparation methods. High thermal stability of the cellulose/ZnO will be achieved if prepared with precipitation method. However, when the sol-gel method and ultrasonic method have been applied, composites with low thermal stability will be obtained. To antibacterial property of cellulose/ ZnO composites, it only controlled by the contents of ZnO since cellulose itself don’t have any antibacterial activity. The higher percent incorporation of ZnO in composites, the better antibacterial activity it could be obtained, despite the source or the contents of cellulose in the cellulose/ ZnO.


This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2572017EB07).

  1. Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.


[1] Paladini F., Pollini M., Sannino A., Ambrosio L., Metal-Based Antibacterial Substrates for Biomedical Applications, Biomacromolecules, 2015, 161, 1873-1885.10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00773Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] Sharifalhoseini Z., Entezari M.H., Jalal R., Evaluation of antibacterial activity of anticorrosive electroless Ni-P coating against Escherichia coli and its enhancement by deposition of sono-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles, Surface & Coatings Technology, 2015, 2661, 160-166.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.035Search in Google Scholar

[3] Ibrahim N.A., Abou Elmaaty T.M., Eid B.M., Abd El-Aziz E., Combined antimicrobial finishing and pigment printing of cotton/polyester blends, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 951, 379-388.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.02.078Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Petkova P., Francesko A., Fernandes M.M., Mendoza E., Perelshtein I., Gedanken A., Tzanov T., Sonochemical Coating of Textiles with Hybrid ZnO/Chitosan Antimicrobial Nanoparticles, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014, 61, 1164-1172.10.1021/am404852dSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] Basnet P., Larsen G.K., Jadeja R.P., Hung Y.C., Zhao Y.P., alpha-Fe2O3 Nanocolumns and Nanorods Fabricated by Electron Beam Evaporation for Visible Light Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Applications, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2013, 51, 2085-2095.10.1021/am303017cSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Rajendran V., Dhineshbabu N.R., Kanna R.R., Kaler K., Enhancement of Thermal Stability, Flame Retardancy, and Antimicrobial Properties of Cotton Fabrics Functionalized by Inorganic Nanocomposites, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2014, 531, 19512-19524.10.1021/ie502584mSearch in Google Scholar

[7] Li M., Zhu L., Lin D., Toxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: Mechanism and the Influence of Medium Components, Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, 451, 1977-1983.10.1021/es102624tSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Kavyashree D., Shilpa C.J., Nagabhushana H., Prasad B.D., Sreelatha G.L., Sharma S.C., Ashoka S., Anandakumari R., Premkumar H.B., ZnO Superstructures as an Antifungal for Effective Control of Malassezia furfur, Dermatologically Prevalent Yeast: Prepared by Aloe Vera Assisted Combustion Method, Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2015, 31, 1066-1080.10.1021/sc500784pSearch in Google Scholar

[9] Li Y., Niu J., Zhang W., Zhang L., Shang E., Influence of Aqueous Media on the ROS-Mediated Toxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles toward Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Escherichia coli under UV-365 Irradiation, Langmuir, 2014, 301, 2852-2862.10.1021/la5000028Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[10] Manna J., Goswami S., Shilpa N., Sahu N., Rana R.K., Biomimetic Method To Assemble Nanostructured Ag@ZnO on Cotton Fabrics: Application as Self-Cleaning Flexible Materials with Visible-Light Photocatalysis and Antibacterial Activities, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015, 71, 8076-8082.10.1021/acsami.5b00633Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] Prasanna V.L., Vijayaraghavan R., Insight into the Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity of ZnO: Surface Defects Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Even in the Dark, Langmuir, 2015, 311, 9155-9162.10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02266Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Ibrahim N.A., Nada A.A., Hassabo A.G., Eid B.M., Noor El-Deen A.M., Abou-Zeid N.Y., Effect of different capping agents on physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of ZnO nanoparticles, Chemical Papers, 2017, 711, 1365-1375.10.1007/s11696-017-0132-9Search in Google Scholar

[13] Suo B., Li H., Wang Y., Li Z., Pan Z., Ai Z., Effects of ZnO nanoparticle-coated packaging film on pork meat quality during cold storage, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2017, 971, 2023-2029.10.1002/jsfa.8003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[14] Sonia S., Jayasudha R., Jayram N.D., Kumar P.S., Mangalaraj D., Prabagaran S.R., Synthesis of hierarchical CuO nanostructures: Biocompatible antibacterial agents for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Current Applied Physics, 2016, 161, 914-921.10.1016/j.cap.2016.05.006Search in Google Scholar

[15] Ahmad R., Mohsin M., Ahmad T., Sardar M., Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2015, 2831, 171-177.10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.073Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[16] Ansari M.A., Khan H.M., Khan A.A., Pal R., Cameotra S.S., Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin exudates, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2013, 15l.10.1007/s11051-013-1970-1Search in Google Scholar

[17] Wang S., Hou W., Wei L., Jia H., Liu X., Xu B., Antibacterial activity of nano-SiO2 antibacterial agent grafted on wool surface, Surface & Coatings Technology, 2007, 2021, 460-465.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.06.012Search in Google Scholar

[18] Nath B.K., Chaliha C., Kalita E., Kalita M.C., Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:CeO2: nanocellulose:PANI bionanocomposite. A bimodal agent for arsenic adsorption and antibacterial action, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 1481, 397-405.10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.091Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[19] Liu A., Zhang J., Wang Q., STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ZNO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY DIFFERENT SOL-GEL PROCESSES, Chemical Engineering Communications, 2011, 1981, 494-503.10.1080/00986445.2010.500168Search in Google Scholar

[20] Kumar R., Anandan S., Hembram K., Rao T.N., Efficient ZnO-Based Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalyst for Antibacterial Applications, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014, 61, 13138-13148.10.1021/am502915vSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] Zhong Z., Xu Z., Sheng T., Yao J., Xing W., Wang Y., Unusual Air Filters with Ultrahigh Efficiency and Antibacterial Functionality Enabled by ZnO Nanorods, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015, 71, 21538-21544.10.1021/acsami.5b06810Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[22] Shankar S., Teng X.N., Li G.B., Rhim J.W., Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of gelatin/ZnO nanocomposite films, Food Hydrocolloids, 2015, 451, 264-271.10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.12.001Search in Google Scholar

[23] Wang Y.W., Cao A.N., Jiang Y., Zhang I., Liu J.H., Liu Y.F., Wang H.F., Superior Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide/Graphene Oxide Composites Localized around Bacteria, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014, 61, 2791-2798.10.1021/am4053317Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Zhong Z.X., Xu Z., Sheng T., Yao J.F., Xing W.H., Wang Y., Unusual Air Filters with Ultrahigh Efficiency and Antibacterial Functionality Enabled by ZnO Nanorods, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015, 71, 21538-21544.10.1021/acsami.5b06810Search in Google Scholar

[25] Aal N.A., Al-Hazmi F., Al-Ghamdi A.A., Al-Ghamdi A.A., El-Tantawy F., Yakuphanoglu F., Novel rapid synthesis of zinc oxide nanotubes via hydrothermal technique and antibacterial properties, Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2015, 1351, 871-877.10.1016/j.saa.2014.07.099Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Zhang G.Z., Wu H., Wang X., Wang T., Liu C., Transparent capacitors with hybrid ZnO:Al and Ag nanowires as electrodes, Nanotechnology, 2016, 27l.10.1088/0957-4484/27/10/105204Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] Rinaldi A., Araneo R., Celozzi S., Pea M., Notargiacomo A., The Clash of Mechanical and Electrical Size-Effects in ZnO Nanowires and a Double Power Law Approach to Elastic Strain Engineering of Piezoelectric and Piezotronic Devices, Advanced Materials, 2014, 261, 5976-+.10.1002/adma.201401026Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] Goncalves G., Marques P., Neto C.P., Trindade T., Peres M., Monteiro T., Growth, Structural, and Optical Characterization of ZnO-Coated Cellulosic Fibers, Crystal Growth & Design, 2009, 91, 386-390.10.1021/cg800596zSearch in Google Scholar

[29] Rana S.B., Bhardwaj V.K., Singh S., Singh A., Kaur N., Influence of surface modification by 2-aminothiophenol on optoelectronics properties of ZnO nanoparticles, Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 2014, 91, 877-891.10.1080/17458080.2012.736640Search in Google Scholar

[30] Yang Z., Wang M.Q., Shukla S., Zhu Y., Deng J.P., Ge H., Wang X.Z., Xiong Q.H., Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/ Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application, Scientific Reports, 2015, 5l.10.1038/srep11377Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[31] Mirzaei A., Park S., Kheel H., Sun G.J., Lee S., Lee C., ZnO-capped nanorod gas sensors, Ceramics International, 2016, 421, 6187-6197.10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.12.179Search in Google Scholar

[32] Kim K., Gil Y., Jeong S., Oh M., Kim H., Lee S.N., Ahn K.S., ZnO Transparent Conductive Electrodes Embedded with Pt Nanoclusters for High-efficiency GaN-based Light-emitting Diodes, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 2016, 681, 274-278.10.3938/jkps.68.274Search in Google Scholar

[33] Hatamie A., Khan A., Golabi M., Turner A.P.F., Beni V., Mak W.C., Sadollahkhani A., Alnoor H., Zargar B., Bano S., Nur O., Willander M., Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material, Langmuir, 2015, 311, 10913-10921.10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02341Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Eydivand S., Nikazar M., Degradation of 1,2-Dichloroethane in Simulated Wastewater Solution: A Comprehensive Study by Photocatalysis Using TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles, Chemical Engineering Communications, 2015, 2021, 102-111.10.1080/00986445.2013.826208Search in Google Scholar

[35] Kayaci F., Ozgit-Akgun C., Donmez I., Biyikli N., Uyar T., Polymer-Inorganic Core-Shell Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Atomic Layer Deposition: Flexible Nylon-ZnO Core-Shell Nanofiber Mats and Their Photocatalytic Activity, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2012, 41, 6185-6194.10.1021/am3017976Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[36] Gouda M., Hebeish A.A., Aljafari A.I., Synthesis and characterization of novel drug delivery system based on cellulose acetate electrospun nanofiber mats, Journal of Industrial Textiles, 2014, 431, 319-329.10.1177/1528083713495250Search in Google Scholar

[37] Bazant P., Kuritka I., Munster L., Kalina L., Microwave solvothermal decoration of the cellulose surface by nanostructured hybrid Ag/ZnO particles: a joint XPS, XRD and SEM study, Cellulose, 2015, 221, 1275-1293.10.1007/s10570-015-0561-ySearch in Google Scholar

[38] Ibahim N.A., Eid B.M., Abd El-Aziz E., Abou Elmaaty T.M., Functionalization of linen/cotton pigment prints using inorganic nano structure materials, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 971, 537-545.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.084Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[39] Jimenez A., Ruseckaite R.A., Binary mixtures based on polycaprolactone and cellulose derivatives - Thermal degradation and pyrolysis, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2007, 881, 851-856.10.1007/s10973-005-7452-7Search in Google Scholar

[40] Khan S.B., Alamry K.A., Bifari E.N., Asiri A.M., Yasir M., Gzara L., Ahmad R.Z., Assessment of antibacterial cellulose nanocomposites for water permeability and salt rejection, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2015, 241, 266-275.10.1016/j.jiec.2014.09.040Search in Google Scholar

[41] Fei Z.B., Huang S.B., Yin J.Z., Xu F.Q., Zhang Y.Q., Preparation and Characterization of Bio-based Degradable Plastic Films Composed of Cellulose Acetate and Starch Acetate, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2015, 231, 383-391.10.1007/s10924-015-0711-1Search in Google Scholar

[42] Hauser R., Calafat A.M., Phthalates and human health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2005, 62l.10.1136/oem.2004.017590Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[43] Billy M., Da Costa A.R., Lochon P., Clement R., Dresch M., Etienne S., Hiver J.M., David L., Jonquieres A., Cellulose acetate graft copolymers with nano-structured architectures: Synthesis and characterization, European Polymer Journal, 2010, 461, 944-957.10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2010.01.021Search in Google Scholar

[44] Law R.C., Cellulose acetate in textile application, Macromolecular Symposia, 2004, 2081, 255-265.10.1002/masy.200450410Search in Google Scholar

[45] Abdel-Halim E.S., Alanazi H.H., Al-Deyab S.S., Utilization of olive tree branch cellulose in synthesis of hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015, 1271, 124-134.10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.037Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[46] Duan L., Wang H., Sun Y., Xie X.M., Biodegradation of Phenol from Wastewater by Microorganism Immobilized in Bentonite and Carboxymethyl Cellulose Gel, Chemical Engineering Communications, 2016, 2031, 948-956.10.1080/00986445.2015.1074897Search in Google Scholar

[47] Joshi G., Naithani S., Varshney V.K., Bisht S.S., Rana V., Gupta P.K., Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management, Waste Management, 2015, 381, 33-40.10.1016/j.wasman.2014.11.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[48] Oun A.A., Rhim J.-W., Preparation of multifunctional chitin nanowhiskers/ZnO-Ag NPs and their effect on the properties of carboxymethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite film, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2017, 1691, 467-479.10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.04.042Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[49] Rakhshaei R., Namazi H., A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel, Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, 2017, 731, 456-464.10.1016/j.msec.2016.12.097Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[50] Cheng F., Betts J.W., Kelly S.M., Wareham D.W., Kornherr A., Dumestre F., Schaller J., Heinze T., Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with antibacterial carboxymethyl starch stabilized ZnO nanoparticles, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2014, 21, 3057-3064.10.1039/C3TB21734ESearch in Google Scholar

[51] Jiao L., Ma J., Dai H., Preparation and Characterization of Self-Reinforced Antibacterial and Oil-Resistant Paper Using a NaOH/ Urea/ZnO Solution, Plos One, 2015, 10l.10.1371/journal.pone.0140603Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[52] Azizi S., Ahmad M.B., Ibrahim N.A., Hussein M.Z., Namvar F., Cellulose Nanocrystals/ZnO as a Bifunctional Reinforcing Nanocomposite for Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Chitosan Blend Films: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2014, 151, 11040-11053.10.3390/ijms150611040Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[53] El-Feky O.M., Hassan E.A., Fadel S.M., Hassan M.L., Use of ZnO nanoparticles for protecting oil paintings on paper support against dirt, fungal attack, and UV aging, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2014, 151, 165-172.10.1016/j.culher.2013.01.012Search in Google Scholar

[54] Chauhan I., Aggrawal S., Mohanty P., ZnO nanowire-immobilized paper matrices for visible light-induced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Environmental Science-Nano, 2015, 21, 273-279.10.1039/C5EN00006HSearch in Google Scholar

[55] Kamal T., Ul-Islam M., Khan S.B., Asiri A.M., Adsorption and photocatalyst assisted dye removal and bactericidal performance of ZnO/chitosan coating layer, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015, 811, 584-590.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.08.060Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[56] Khatri V., Halasz K., Trandafilovic L.V., Dimitrijevic-Brankovic S., Mohanty P., Djokovic V., Csoka L., ZnO-modified cellulose fiber sheets for antibody immobilization, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2014, 1091, 139-147.10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.061Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[57] Petkova P., Francesko A., Perelshtein I., Gedanken A., Tzanov T., Simultaneous sonochemical-enzymatic coating of medical textiles with antibacterial ZnO nanoparticles, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2016, 291, 244-250.10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.09.021Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[58] Espitia P.J.P., Soares N.D.F., Coimbra J.S.D., de Andrade N.J., Cruz R.S., Medeiros E.A.A., Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Food Packaging Applications, Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2012, 51, 1447-1464.10.1007/s11947-012-0797-6Search in Google Scholar

[59] Tankhiwale R., Bajpai S.K., Preparation, characterization and antibacterial applications of ZnO-nanoparticles coated polyethylene films for food packaging, Colloids and Surfaces B-Biointerfaces, 2012, 901, 16-20.10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.09.031Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[60] Sanyang M.L., Sapuan S.M., Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application, Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore, 2015, 521, 6445-6454.10.1007/s13197-015-1759-6Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[61] Lambrechts A.A., Human I.S., Doughari J.H., Lues J.F.R., Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries, Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 2014, 301, 755-758.Search in Google Scholar

[62] Pittarate C., Yoovidhya T., Srichumpuang W., Intasanta N., Wongsasulak S., Effects of poly(ethylene oxide) and ZnO nanoparticles on the morphology, tensile and thermal properties of cellulose acetate nanocomposite fibrous film, Polymer Journal, 2011, 431, 978-986.10.1038/pj.2011.97Search in Google Scholar

[63] Paisoonsin S., Pornsunthorntawee O., Rujiravanit R., Preparation and characterization of ZnO-deposited DBD plasma-treated PP packaging film with antibacterial activities, Applied Surface Science, 2013, 2731, 824-835.10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.03.026Search in Google Scholar

[64] Espitia P.J.P., Soares N.D.F., Teofilo R.F., Coimbra J.S.D., Vitor D.M., Batista R.A., Ferreira S.O., de Andrade N.J., Medeiros E.A.A., Physical-mechanical and antimicrobial properties of nanocomposite films with pediocin and ZnO nanoparticles, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 941, 199-208.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[65] Wu W.D., Bromberg P.A., Samet J.M., Zinc ions as effectors of environmental oxidative lung injury, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2013, 651, 57-69.10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.048Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[66] Liang H.W., Zhang W.J., Ma Y.N., Cao X., Guan Q.F., Xu W.P., Yu S.H., Highly Active Carbonaceous Nanofibers: A Versatile Scaffold for Constructing Multifunctional Free-Standing Membranes, Acs Nano, 2011, 51, 8148-8161.10.1021/nn202789fSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[67] Anitha S., Brabu B., Thiruvadigal D.J., Gopalakrishnan C., Natarajan T.S., Optical, bactericidal and water repellent properties of electrospun nano-composite membranes of cellulose acetate and ZnO, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 971, 856-863.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[68] Abdalkarim S.Y.H., Yu H.-Y., Wang D., Yao J., Electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-valerate)/cellulose reinforced nanofibrous membranes with ZnO nanocrystals for antibacterial wound dressings, Cellulose, 2017, 241, 2925-2938.10.1007/s10570-017-1303-0Search in Google Scholar

[69] Fu F., Li L., Liu L., Cai J., Zhang Y., Zhou J., Zhang L., Construction of Cellulose Based ZnO Nanocomposite Films with Antibacterial Properties through One-Step Coagulation, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015, 71, 2597-2606.10.1021/am507639bSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[70] Bazant P., Kuritka I., Munster L., Machovsky M., Kozakova Z., Saha P., Hybrid nanostructured Ag/ZnO decorated powder cellulose fillers for medical plastics with enhanced surface antibacterial activity, Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, 2014, 251, 2501-2512.10.1007/s10856-014-5274-5Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[71] Barani H., Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric, Applied Surface Science, 2014, 3201, 429-434.10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.09.102Search in Google Scholar

[72] Katepetch C., Rujiravanit R., Tamura H., Formation of nanocrystalline ZnO particles into bacterial cellulose pellicle by ultrasonic-assisted in situ synthesis, Cellulose, 2013, 201, 1275-1292.10.1007/s10570-013-9892-8Search in Google Scholar

[73] Ghule K., Ghule A.V., Chen B.-J., Ling Y.-C., Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles coated paper and its antibacterial activity study, Green Chemistry, 2006, 81, 1034-1041.10.1039/b605623gSearch in Google Scholar

[74] Perelshtein I., Applerot G., Perkas N., Wehrschetz-Sigl E., Hasmann A., Guebitz G.M., Gedanken A., Antibacterial properties of an in situ generated and simultaneously deposited nanocrystalline ZnO on fabrics, ACS applied materials & interfaces, 2009, 11, 361-366.10.1021/am8000743Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[75] Chaurasia V., Chand N., Bajpai S.K., Water Sorption Properties and Antimicrobial Action of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-Loaded Cellulose Acetate Films, Journal of Macromolecular Science Part a-Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2010, 471, 309-317.10.1080/10601320903539207Search in Google Scholar

[76] Varaprasad K., Raghavendra G.M., Jayaramudu T., Seo J., Nano zinc oxide-sodium alginate antibacterial cellulose fibres, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 1351, 349-355.10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.08.078Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[77] Azizi S., Ahmad M.B., Hussein M.Z., Ibrahim N.A., Synthesis, Antibacterial and Thermal Studies of Cellulose Nanocrystal Stabilized ZnO-Ag Heterostructure Nanoparticles, Molecules, 2013, 181, 6269-6280.10.3390/molecules18066269Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[78] Martins N.C.T., Freire C.S.R., Neto C.P., Silvestre A.J.D., Causio J., Baldi G., Sadocco P., Trindade T., Antibacterial paper based on composite coatings of nanofibrillated cellulose and ZnO, Colloids and Surfaces a-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2013, 4171, 111-119.10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.10.042Search in Google Scholar

[79] Yu H.-Y., Chen G.-Y., Wang Y.-B., Yao J.-M., A facile one-pot route for preparing cellulose nanocrystal/zinc oxide nanohybrids with high antibacterial and photocatalytic activity, Cellulose, 2015, 221, 261-273.10.1007/s10570-014-0491-0Search in Google Scholar

[80] Yadollahi M., Gholamali I., Namazi H., Aghazadeh M., Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015, 741, 136-141.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.11.032Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[81] Noshirvani N., Ghanbarzadeh B., Mokarram R.R., Hashemi M., Coma V., Preparation and characterization of active emulsified films based on chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose containing zinc oxide nano particles, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017, 991, 530-538.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[82] Lefatshe K., Muiva C.M., Kebaabetswe L.P., Extraction of nanocellulose and in-situ casting of ZnO/cellulose nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2017, 1641, 301-308.10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.020Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[83] Aladpoosh R., Montazer M., The role of cellulosic chains of cotton in biosynthesis of ZnO nanorods producing multifunctional properties: Mechanism, characterizations and features, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015, 1261, 122-129.10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.036Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[84] Ul-Islam M., Khattak W.A., Ullah M.W., Khan S., Park J.K., Synthesis of regenerated bacterial cellulose-zinc oxide nanocomposite films for biomedical applications, Cellulose, 2014, 211, 433-447.10.1007/s10570-013-0109-ySearch in Google Scholar

[85] Zhao S.-W., Zheng M., Zou X.-H., Guo Y., Pan Q.-J., Self-Assembly of Hierarchically Structured Cellulose@ZnO Composite in Solid-Liquid Homogeneous Phase: Synthesis, DFT Calculations, and Enhanced Antibacterial Activities, Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2017, 51, 6585-6596.10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00842Search in Google Scholar

[86] Manna J., Begum G., Kumar K.P., Misra S., Rana R.K., Enabling Antibacterial Coating via Bioinspired Mineralization of Nanostructured ZnO on Fabrics under Mild Conditions, Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2013, 51, 4457-4463.10.1021/am400933nSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[87] Wang P., Zhao J., Xuan R., Wang Y., Zou C., Zhang Z., Wan Y., Xu Y., Flexible and monolithic zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams by a bacterial cellulose mediated approach for antibacterial applications, Dalton Transactions, 2014, 431, 6762-6768.10.1039/c3dt52858hSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[88] Zhang J., Zhang B., Chen X., Mi B., Wei P., Fei B., Mu X., Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites, Materials, 2017, 10l.10.3390/ma10030239Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[89] Ali A., Ambreen S., Maqbool Q., Naz S., Shams M.F., Ahmad M., Phull A.R., Zia M., Zinc impregnated cellulose nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and applications, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 2016, 981, 174-182.10.1016/j.jpcs.2016.07.007Search in Google Scholar

[90] Yang Q., Qi H., Lue A., Hu K., Cheng G., Zhang L., Role of sodium zincate on cellulose dissolution in NaOH/urea aqueous solution at low temperature, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011, 831, 1185-1191.10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.09.020Search in Google Scholar

[91] Ba-Abbad M.M., Takriff M.S., Benamor A., Mahmoudi E., Mohammad A.W., Arabic gum as green agent for ZnO nanoparticles synthesis: properties, mechanism and antibacterial activity, Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics, 2017, 281, 12100-12107.10.1007/s10854-017-7023-2Search in Google Scholar

[92] Goncalves G., Marques P.A.A.P., Neto C.P., Trindade T., Peres M., Monteiro T., Growth, Structural, and Optical Characterization of ZnO-Coated Cellulosic Fibers, Crystal Growth & Design, 2009, 91, 386-390.10.1021/cg800596zSearch in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-09-27
Accepted: 2017-11-28
Published Online: 2018-02-21

© 2018 Si-Wei Zhao et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.

Downloaded on 3.3.2024 from
Scroll to top button