Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access September 12, 2022

Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants in Kastamonu province (Türkiye)

  • Gökhan Şen , Sefa Akbulut EMAIL logo and Mustafa Karaköse
From the journal Open Chemistry

Abstract

This study is aimed at determining some of the plants traditionally used in the treatment of diseases by the local people living in Kastamonu province center and surrounding villages. A face-to-face questionnaire was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 informants, 34 women and 18 men. Identification of 92 plants belonging to 41 families has been confirmed and their medicinal uses have been recorded. The most used families were Rosaceae (13 taxa), Asteraceae (11), and Lamiaceae (11). The most preferred folk recipes of medicinal plants was decoction (55 taxa) and in preparations and applications, the most used were the leaves (45 taxa). According to the International Classification of Primary Care categories, plants were the most used for digestive disorders (37 taxa), respiratory disorders (27 taxa), and urological disorders (24 taxa). The highest use-value was recorded for Urtica dioica (0.519), and highest relative frequency citation was recorded for Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica (0.231). Male genital diseases had the highest informant consensus factor value (0.83). New areas of use were also determined for Pilosella leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama, Galium palustre, and Astragalus nitens. With this study, new information for folkloric medicines is presented and the usage of herbal drugs in the study area are enhanced.

Graphical abstract

1 Introduction

Component of cultures, beliefs, and even folk remedies that make up societies are plants [1]. During their travel, European explorers and adventurers observed and documented how and for what indigenous peoples traditionally used plants. Thus, began the science of ethnobotany [2]. However, records of medicinal use of plants are found in Sumer, Assyria, Egypt, and Hittite civilizations until about 5,000 years ago, when writing was found [3]. Ethnobotany compiles all local knowledge about plants used in various ways and for various purposes [4]. The oldest source written on this subject in Anatolia is Dioscorides’ “De Materia Medica,” which contains information about more than 600 plants [5].

Plants play an important role for human beings from past to present. Healing with plants is one of the indispensable treatment methods since the existence of humanity. The use of plants by humans for health purposes dates back to the primeval era [6]. The majority of the world’s population, especially in developing countries, obtain the necessary source for their food and health from plants [7]. This rate reaches 80% in developing countries [8]. The number of plants used only in traditional and modern medicine varies between 50,000 and 75,000 worldwide [9]. Plants are used for various purposes such as food, medicine, spices, dyes, healing, religious beliefs, clothing, shelter, and ornaments. Plants produce a wide variety of organic compounds [10]. While primary metabolites (nucleotides, amino acids, and organic acids) are directly effective in the key functions of the plant, secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenolics) are compounds that are not directly effective in terms of the vital function of the plant. Secondary metabolites are at least as important as primary metabolites in terms of the plant’s vital function, as they form a defense mechanism against pests and diseases. People use secondary metabolites (with essential oils obtained from plants) in medicine and food industries [11,12]. Essential oils are usually colorless or light yellow, volatile, and strong smelling. These oils produced from parts of plants such as roots, stems, leaves, fruits, bark, and flowers are liquid at room temperature, sometimes freeze, and can quickly crystallize. [13]. Essential oil of plants with high economic value has gained more importance day by day. Beside these, essential oils and aromatic extracts are also used in the fragrance and flavor industry (especially the species belonging to the Lamiaceae family), in perfumes, cleaning products, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical preparations [14]. The recognition of the biological features of many secondary metabolites has influenced the search for new drugs, antibiotics, insecticides, and also herbicides.

Türkiye is very rich in terms of climate and soil characteristics. It is one of the most glorious countries, especially because it has favorable conditions for the natural growth of medicinal and aromatic plants. Today, Türkiye is one of the important biodiversity centers, with 11,707 plant taxa, 3,649 of which are endemic [15]. Anatolian territories, the cradle of civilization, have hosted various civilizations and cultures since 3000 BC [16]. These two issues are the most important references for ethnobotany.

Although ethnobotanical research has gained momentum since the 1990s in Türkiye, it still has a significant accumulation of information that needs to be recorded. One of these centers is Kastamonu province, which has a rich historical and cultural structure, geography with a maritime and continental climate, and biological diversity. It has over 1,000 plant taxa, about 20% of which are endemic, registered to the province flora, which can be the subject of botanical and ethnobotanical research. If the plant is endemic, the information about it is also endemic. Even if the plant is not endemic, its knowledge may be endemic; in other words, the specific use of that plant may be unique to a region, culture, or even an individual [3]. This study revealed and recorded this cultural accumulation in the Kastamonu region.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Study area

Kastamonu province is in the western part of the Black Sea region between 41–42° north latitudes and 33–46° east longitudes (Figure 1). The province, which has a surface area of 13,152 km2, constitutes approximately 1.7% of Türkiye’s surface area [17]. The known history of Kastamonu begins with the Hittite Empire. After the Hittites, Phrygian and Lydian Kingdoms ruled this area. The inhabitants of this region, which was named Paphlagonia after prehistoric times, are the Gaska Turks, one of the oldest branches of the Sumerians. B.C. The Gaslar, who ruled between 2000 and 1300, constantly had political, commercial, and cultural relations with Egyptians, Syrians, and Chaldeans. Afterwards, Macedonian Kingdom, Pontus Kingdom, Romans, Byzantine Empire, Anatolian Seljuks, and Ottoman Empire ruled in this region. Due to these relations and Kastamonu being one of the commercial and administrative centers, the interaction of many peoples has taken place [18]. The local language in the region is Turkish.

Figure 1 
                  The geographical location of Kastamonu Province.
Figure 1

The geographical location of Kastamonu Province.

Kastamonu is located in the Euxine province of the Circumboreal phytogeographical region and falls within the A4–A5 squares according to the grid system [19]. Kastamonu, between the Western Black Sea and Kızılırmak Basins, is bordered by the Isfendiyar (Küre) Mountains to the north and the Ilgaz Mountains to the south. The Black Sea coastline of Kastamonu is 170 km long and 780 m above sea level; the mountains stretch parallel to the sea. Therefore, while the Black Sea climate is seen on the coasts, continental climate features are observed in the interior. The temperature ranges from −26.9°C to +38.7°C. Annual precipitation varies between 450 and 1,215 mm depending on the region. The annual precipitation average for Kastamonu Province is 500 mm (between 1930 and 2018). The annual number of rainy days is 128, and the annual average temperature is 9.8°C (1981–2010) [17,20,21].

There are two national parks in Kastamonu province. These are Küre Mountains National Park and Ilgaz Mountain National Park. Küre Mountains National Park has a Protected Areas Network certificate (PAN Parks) and Platinum Wilderness Certificate [17].

65% of Kastamonu, which is quite mountainous, is covered with forests and this rate is above Türkiye’s average of 28.6%. 26.2% of Kastamonu forests (1,239,498 ha) are degraded forests. 79.8% of these forests are productive and 20.1% are degraded forests [20,21]. Kastamonu Province is located in a very rich area in terms of forest vegetation. The dominant species in the area are Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, Pinus sylvestris var. hamata Steven, Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Coode & Cullen, and Juniperus spp. (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pall., Juniperus oxycedrus L.) from coniferous species, Quercus spp. (Quercus petraea subsp. iberica (Steven ex M.Bieb.) Krassiln., Quercus pubescens Willd., Quercus cerris L., Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky), Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Carpinus betulus L., Castanea sativa Mill., Populus tremula L., and other leafy species [22].

2.2 Data collection

This study was conducted in Kastamonu city center and surrounding villages (Yukarıbatak, Eşen, Çavundur, Ayvalı, Kuşkara, Bükköyü, Bozoğlak, Alınören, Belençal, Kızıleller, Serdar Köyü, Dereberçin, Haydarlar, Küçükkızılca, Büyükkızılca, Çukurköy, Yenidoğan, Aşağıkayı, Ermelik, Şekerköy, Kovanlı, Guzyaka, Gölköy, Yürekveren, Ahlatcı, Çevrik, Asıklı Köyü, Harmangeriş, Edeler, Aybasan, Uzunyol, Valay, Kuztekke, Dağlı, Küçükmutlu, Büyükmutlu, Bürnük, Akseki, Hacımuharrem, Hatip, Emirler, and Kurusaray) during the vegetation period between March and September 2021. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 informants, 34 women and 18 men. A face-to-face questionnaire (Appendix) was applied to determine the demographic characteristics of the people, the plants they used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, preparation methods, and the parts used (Figure 2). The guidelines of International Society of Ethnobiology were taken into account in the ethical rules. Prior informed consent was provided orally before each interview. [23]. Plant species were identified and named according to the Flora of Türkiye by the botanists (Dr. Sefa Akbulut and Dr. Mustafa Karaköse) [19,24,25]. The current names of the plants have been reviewed according to the World Flora Online [26]. The voucher specimens were kept in Kastamonu University Herbarium (KÜH).

Figure 2 
                  Interviews with local people (a, b), samples of herbal drogs sold by locals (c–e).
Figure 2

Interviews with local people (a, b), samples of herbal drogs sold by locals (c–e).

2.3 Data analysis

Three different statistical methods were used and evaluated in the analysis of the data obtained from the local population. These are use-value (UV), relative frequency citation (RFC), and informant consensus factor (FIC).

UV is a method for determining how frequently individuals in the country utilize plants in daily life. The formula used in the calculations is [27]

(1) UV = U N ,

where U = number of usage citations by informants, and N = number of informants.

The RFC was used to quantitatively evaluate the ethnobotanical data. When calculating the RFC, only the citation frequency and the total number of informants are taken into account. The categories of use of plants are not taken into account here. The formula used in the calculations is [28]

(2) RFC = FC N = UR N ( 0 < RFC < 1 ) ,

where FC = number of informants who mentioned the species’ use, and N = total number of informants participating in the survey.

FIC is a technique used to determine the homogeneity between specific ailments and the plant species used in its treatment and the potentiality of the species. The formula used in the calculations is [27,29]

(3) FIC = Nur Nt Nur 1 ,

where Nur = number of citations in each category, and Nt = number of species used.

3 Results

3.1 Demographic features

Thirty-four participants were female and 18 were male (total 52). The ages of the participants ranged from 32 to 81, with an average of 58. The education level of 84.6% of the participants was low (30.8% were illiterate, and 53.8% were primary school graduates) (Table 1).

Table 1

Demographic features of informants

Indicator Number of informants Percentage
Gender Male 18 34.6
Female 34 65.4
Educational level Illiterate 16 30.8
Primary 28 53.8
Secondary 7 13.5
University 1 1.9
Age groups 20–40 2 3.8
40–50 9 17.4
>50 41 78.8

3.2 Medicinal plants and folk remedies

Information on the use of 92 plants belonging to 41 families in folk medicine is given in Table 2. The taxonomic order was made alphabetically, first by family and then by scientific names.

Table 2

Traditional uses of medicinal plants

Family Botanical name (voucher specimen) Vernacular name Used parts FC UR RFC UV Purpose of usage Mode of preparation/application Reported literature uses
Acoraceae Acorus calamus L. Hazanbel, Eğir kökü Root 2 4 0.038 0.077 Prostate, cancer, urinary tract infection The dried root is ground, then drunk with the infusion or decoction method Bronchitis, cramps, diarrhea, digestive problems, nervous disorders, rheumatism, sedative, vascular problems [30]
(Kastamonu University Herbarium (KÜH) 21101)
Adoxaceae Sambucus ebulus L. Şahmelik Leaf, petiole 1 2 0.019 0.038 Anti-allergy, analgesic The leaves are directly applied to the allergic area. Leaves of Urtica dioica, Elymus repens, Juglans regia, Salix × fragilis, and Sambucus ebulus are boiled and the aching place is immersed in water Laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, common colds, rheumatism, intestinal disorder, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, cough, diarrhea, gastro-intestinal disorders, liver, lungs, leg pain, bruises, injuries, abscess, burns, eczema, fungal diseases, wounds, urticaria, asthma, high fever, sore throat, sunstroke, bee bite, scorpion bite, snake bite, edema, inflammation, malaria, mastitis, expelling worms, stomach ache, sterility, analgesic, tonic [5,3148]
(KÜH 21102)
Adoxaceae Sambucus nigra L. Yalangöz Flower 2 4 0.038 0.077 Diuretics, anemia, antipyretic Flowers are put in hot water to make infusion and drunk. The flowers are made into a paste with honey and consumed for anemia. Flowers are consumed fresh for antipyretics Abscess, asthma, diuretic, diaphoretic, hemorrhoids, laxative, fungal itches, eczema, cough, prostatitis, heart diseases, respiratory diseases, emollient, expectorant, diarrhea, dysentery, ear inflammations, vasodilatory, anti-atherosclerotic, cholagogue, liver disorders, jaundice, skin diseases, kidney disorders, laxative, malaria, puerperal fever, rabies, influenza, flu, tonic, stimulant, rheumatism, arthritis, sore eyes [5,34,37,4956]
(KÜH 21103)
Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L. Soğan Root 3 4 0.058 0.077 Wound healing, bone fracture, sprains, cough The roots are applied directly or after cooking to the wounded area. Onions are put in water to make decoction and drunk Vulnerary, emollient, abscess, rheumatism, cicatrizing, earache, diabetes, otitis, anuria, whitlow, sprain, bruise, edema, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, constipation, weep, gynecological diseases, asthma, cancer, diuretic, fungal infection, headache, hypertension, cough, galactagogue, panacea, bone fracture, gastric ulcer and reflux, injuries, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal diseases, insect bite, burns, scabies, arteriosclerosis, bronchitis, common colds, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, sore throat, urinary inflammation, uterus inflammation, woman infertility, paralysis, abortifacient, analgesic, laxative, expectorant [33,3538,42,44,45,51,54,5768]
(KÜH 21104)
Apiaceae Anethum graveolens L. Dereotu Leaf, seed, aerial parts 4 6 0.077 0.115 Osteoarthritis, nausea, goiter, galactagogue The infusion is prepared from leaves and seeds and drunk. The aerial parts are consumed fresh carminative, diuretic, galactagogue, stimulant, stomachic, intestinal spasms, griping, colic, appetite, gas, digestion, urinary complaints, mental disorders [69]
(KÜH 21105)
Apiaceae Angelica sylvestris L. Melekotu Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Stomach disorder Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Appetite, anorexia, anemia, migraine, vertigo, influenza, bronchitis, general dizziness, expectorant, cough, cold, sore throat, cystitis, urinary antiseptic, muscular craps, headache, rheumatic pain, asthma, digestive disorders [70,71,72]
(KÜH 21106)
Apiaceae Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W.Hill Maydanoz Leaf, aerial parts 4 5 0.077 0.096 Urinary tract infection, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk. The parsley is crushed with lemon. The mixture is drunk every morning on an empty stomach Diabetes, anemia, eczema, diuretic, hemorrhoids, cholesterol, stomach diseases, kidney stones, abdominal pain, kidney ache, anti-inflammatory, halitosis, sore throat, constipation, eye health, stomach ache, infection, kidney diseases, dyspnea, sore in mouth, urethral inflammation, urinary system infections, vaginitis, bronchitis, cough, edema, urethritis, diarrhea, menstrual problem, carminative, anti-flatulence, relieves breast pain [5,32,33,35,36,39,42,51,53,58,59,63,65,7378]
(KÜH 21107)
Araceae Arum orientale M.Bieb. Yılan yastığı Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Hemorrhoid The leaves are roasted and eaten Eczema, cardiovascular [79,80]
(KÜH 21108)
Araliaceae Hedera helix L. Duvar sarmaşığı Leaf 2 3 0.038 0.058 Cough, gallstone Decoction is prepared from dried leaves and drunk Abortion, asthma, bronchitis, burns, chills, common cold, abscess, renal failure, vesicant, diaphoretic, laxative, wound healing, stomach ache, stomach disorders, menstrual regulator, anthelmintic, increases bile production, expectorant, skin inflammation, exudative, skin diseases [5,34,35,41,53,54,68,73,77,81,82]
(KÜH 21109)
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L. Civanperçemi Flower, leaf 4 4 0.077 0.077 Cough, menstrual irregularity Infusion is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk Diuretic, eye inflammations, antidermatotic, hemorrhoids, wound healing, anemia, breath freshener, gynecological diseases, hemostatic, hypertension, increases sweating, antispasmodic, diarrhea, menstrual problem, abdominal pain [5,34,38,40,55,62,65,73,76,78,8386]
(KÜH 21110)
Asteraceae Artemisia absinthium L. Pelin otu Leaf, flower, stem 2 4 0.038 0.077 Cough, diabetes, cholesterol, liver disorder The infusion is prepared from leaves, flowers, and stems and drunk. Decoction is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk for diabetes Gastric, stomach disorders, ulcer, dyspepsia, intestinal parasites, liver problems, renal colic, chronic fevers, swellings, inflammation of liver, menstrual disorders, hepatocyte enlargement, hepatitis, gastritis, jaundice, wound healing, splenomegaly, dyspepsia, indigestion, flatulence, gastric pain, anemia, anorexia, esophageal bowel syndrome with irritation, weak memory tremors, depression, epilepsy, chronic fever, skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, antipyretic, abdominal pain, digestive [65,8790]
(KÜH 21111)
Asteraceae Bellis perennis L. Çayır papatyası, Döndön çiçeği Leaf, flower, stem 3 10 0.058 0.192 Liver disorder, common cold, sinusitis, insomnia, sedative, mental disorder, stomach ache Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves, flowers, and stems and drunk. The flowers and stem are boiled and a vapor bath is made Purgative, common cold, flu, diuretic, bronchitis, tonsillitis, eye inflammations, hemorrhoids, headache, respiratory, tranquilizer, gynecological diseases, stomach disorders, stomach ache, intestinal disorder, gastric complaints, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, asthma, panacea, expectorant, antipyretic, laxative, tonic, sedative, rheumatism [3235,46,50,54,65,68,73,9193]
(KÜH 21112)
Asteraceae Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L. Aynısefa Flower, leaf 1 2 0.019 0.038 Diuretic, diaphoretic Leaves and flowers are put in water to make decoction and drunk Disinfectant, antispasmodic, diuretic, anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, sudorific, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, sedative, wound healing, gastrointestinal ulcers, dysmenorrhea, burns, cancer, diaphoretic, mental tension, insomnia [94]
(KÜH 21113)
Asteraceae Cichorium intybus L. Yabani hindiba Root, whole plant 3 3 0.058 0.058 Liver disorder, eczema, insect sting Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk. Decoction is prepared from whole plant and drunk for eczema. The plant is crushed and applied directly Cancer, heart diseases, liver disorders, cough, bronchitis, rheumatism, indigestion, wound healing, jaundice, tonic, diuretic, laxative, anti-bilious, antipyretic, blood purification, strengthens the stomach [89,95,96]
(KÜH 21114)
Asteraceae Inula germanica L. Andızotu Root 1 2 0.019 0.038 Liver disorder, gall bladder Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk Gastrointestinal diseases [97]
(KÜH 21115)
Asteraceae Matricaria chamomilla L. var. recutita (L.) Mayıs papatyası Flower, stem, branch 8 21 0.154 0.404 Eye diseases, antiseptic, tonsillitis, influenza, headache, cough, sinusitis, stomach ache, common cold, insomnia, sedative, mental disorder, sore throat, anti-inflammatory Decoction or infusion is prepared from flowers and stems and drunk. The flower, branch and stem are boiled and a vapor bath is made for sinusitis or common cold Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, carminative, healing, sedative, spasmolytic activity, stomach ache, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia, bactericidal, relaxant activities, acaricidal properties, cholesterol, wound healing, diabetes, colds and flu, hair wash, common cold, cough, expectorant, flu, sedative, sore throat [65,98,99]
Fiori (KÜH 21116)
Asteraceae Pilosella leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama (Nägeli & Peter) Gottschl. (KÜH 21117) Ot kesme otu Aerial parts 1 1 0.019 0.019 Wound healing The aerial parts of the plant are burned, the ash is turned into mush and applied to the wound No record
Asteraceae Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Deve dikeni Seed 1 1 0.019 0.019 Liver disorder The seeds are pounded in a mortar and then consumed by infusion Liver disorders, jaundice, cholesterol, bladder, prostate, heart diseases, nervous system [100]
(KÜH 21118)
Asteraceae Taraxacum serotinum (Waldst. & Kit.) Fisch. Karahindiba, Aslandişi otu Leaf, flower 2 2 0.038 0.038 Liver disorder, intestinal disorders The infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk. Decoction is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk for intestinal disorder Cardiotonic, appetizer, digestant [101]
(KÜH 21119)
Asteraceae Tussilago farfara L. Öksürük otu Flower, stem 1 1 0.019 0.019 Common cold Decoction is prepared from flowers and stems and drunk Cough, expectorant, dyspnea, asthma, flu, common cold, bronchitis, sedative [5,40,50,53,65,73,102104]
(KÜH 21120)
Boraginaceae Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss. Havacivaotu Root 1 1 0.019 0.019 Intestinal disorder Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk Wound healing, ambustion, scar, festering sore, asthma, bronchitis, stomach ache, ophthalmia [105,106]
(KÜH 21121)
Boraginaceae Symphytum officinale L. Karakafesotu Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Bone fracture The infusion is prepared from dried leaved and drunk Painkiller, wound healing [107]
(KÜH 21122)
Boraginaceae Trachystemon orientalis (L.) D.Don Ispıt Leaf, flower, petiole 1 3 0.019 0.058 Diaphoretic, diuretic, cough Leaf, flower, and petiole are cooked and consumed Abscess, tonsillitis, insomnia, dysmenorrhea, diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic, dyspepsia, intestinal diseases, anti-inflammation, constipation, expectorant, anti-depressive, breast cancer, carminative, stomach ache, wounds, rheumatism, lengthen the life [5,3436,41,42,45,54,68,108]
(KÜH 21123)
Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea L. Karalahana Leaf 2 2 0.038 0.038 Analgesic, headache The heated or fresh leaf is wrapped around the aching place or forehead Dyspepsia, expectorant, rheumatism, heartburn, earache, wounds, varicose, sore throat, boil, abscess, hordeolum, cough, fever, pneumonia, headache, hoarseness, stomach ache, ulcer, tearing, watery eyes, bone pain, sooth pain, hair loss, analgesic, anemia, sedative, tonic, kidney stones, inappetence, asthma, gout, hypnotic, anthelmintics [5,35,36,42,44,45,54,61,62,68,73,7678,109]
(KÜH 21124)
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Çoban çantası Aerial parts 2 5 0.038 0.096 Kidney sand, kidney stone, hemostatic The infusion is prepared from the aerial parts and drunk. Aerial parts are used to buffer the nose Internal bleeding, wounds, impotence, hemostatic, diuretic, antipyretic, edema, nephritis, dysuria, chyluria, hemafecia, menorrhagia, hypertension [65,110]
(KÜH 21125)
Brassicaceae Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. sativus (L.) Domin Turp Root 3 3 0.058 0.058 Ulcer, cough The radish is crushed to extract the juice with honey and drunk. The radish is grated, mixed with black cumin, and wrapped around the aching area Orexigenic, diuretic, depilatory, weaken hairs, stimulant, inappetence, diuretic, antiseptic, expectorant [5,50,51,111]
(KÜH 21126)
Cannabaceae Humulus lupulus L. Şerbetçi otu Leaf 1 3 0.019 0.058 Roborant, insomnia, inappetence The infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk spasms, anxiety, fever, inflammation, gastric, sleeplessness, nervousness, headache, appetite, digestion, toothache, earache, neuralgia, diuretic, antispasmodic, anaphrodisiac, sedative, rheumatism, analgesic, pneumonia, intestinal pain, dyspepsia [112,113]
(KÜH 21127)
Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Kuşotu, Kedicırnığı Aerial parts 1 2 0.019 0.038 Antipyretic, roborant Decoction is prepared from aerial parts and drunk Rheumatism, broken bones, anti-inflammatory, renal, astringent, headache, swelling, refrigerant, demulcent, emollient, vulnerary, antipruritic, diarrhea, itching, gastrointestinal disorders, asthma, measles, jaundice, digestive, reproductive and respiratory tracts inflammations, [36,114,115]
(KÜH 21128)
Cornaceae Cornus mas L. Kiren, Kızılcık Fruit 2 3 0.038 0.058 Diabetes, stomach ache, cancer, aphtha The fruits are consumed as marmalade or compost Abdominal pain, diarrhea, diabetes, common cold, bronchitis, sunstroke, insomnia, constipation, wound healing, flu, urinary inflammations, cough, cardiac diseases, hyperglycemia, nephritis, anti-fungal, antipyretic, incurable diseases, sooths pain, eases child birth, headache, toothache [5,33,35,36,43,4547,50,54,58,62,63,65,66,74,109,116,117]
(KÜH 21129)
Equisetaceae Equisetum hyemale L. At kuyruğu, Katır kuyruğu, Kırkkilit otu Aerial parts, leaves 5 8 0.096 0.154 Bone fracture, kidney disorder, kidney stone, kidney sand, diuretic, urinary tract infection The infusion is prepared from the aerial parts and drunk. Leaves are made to paste and used externally. The infusion is prepared from dried leaves and drunk Hypertension, inflammation, acute stroke, bleeding, cancer [118]
(KÜH 21130)
Ericaceae Erica arborea L. Funda Leaf 1 3 0.019 0.058 Urinary tract infection, anti-inflammatory, kidney sand The infusion is prepared from dried leaves and drunk Bedwetting, urinary, urolithiasis, inflammations, hypertension, prostate, blood heating, diuretic, antiseptic, laxative [5,119]
(KÜH 21131)
Ericaceae Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Kara çilek, Ayı üzümü Fruit 1 3 0.019 0.058 Cholesterol, heart health, anti-inflammatory Fruits are consumed as fresh Constipation, kidney diseases, gastro-intestinal inflammations, memory, anemia, cold, diabetes, inflammation, stomach ache [5,33,35,40,78,104]
(KÜH 21132)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia falcata L. Sütleğen Latex 2 2 0.038 0.038 Wart The latex is dripped onto the wart Hypertension, warts, skin diseases [120]
(KÜH 21133)
Fabaceae Astragalus nitens Boiss. & Heldr. Geven Root 1 1 0.019 0.019 Earache The oil obtained from the root is dripped into the ear No record
(KÜH 21134)
Fabaceae Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr. Sarıyonca Flower, leaf 2 2 0.038 0.038 Dyspepsia, rheumatism Decoction is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk Emollient, arthritis, rheumatism demulcent, aphrodisiac, tonic, carminative, painkiller, aches, leukoderma, bronchitis, brachialgia, hemorrhoids, [121,122]
(KÜH 21135)
Fagaceae Quercus infectoria Oliv. subsp. veneris (A.Kern.) Meikle Meşe Leaf, fruit 2 3 0.038 0.058 Intestinal disorders, diarrhea, anti-inflammatory Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk. The fruits are dried, ground, and consumed as coffee. The leaves and fruit are boiled and applied directly to the infected area Alopecia, ulcer, diarrhea, gingivitis, hemorrhage hematuria, menorrhagia, pharyngitis, ringworm, wound healing, postpartum practices, skin disease [123,124]
(KÜH 21136)
Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. Sarı kantaron Flower, leaf 4 11 0.077 0.212 Intestinal worm, diuretic, sedative, inappetence, mental disorder, wound healing, diarrhea, rheumatism, blood purifier Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk. The flowers are crushed, boiled, and the juice is drunk Anemia, cough, antiseptic, sedative, urogenital, anthelmintic, stomach ache, neoplastic disease, diabetes, dyspepsia, cancer, wound healing, burns, hypertension, sedative, hemorrhoids, chest emollient, diuretic, antipyretic, ulcer, abrasion, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, bronchitis, constipation, depurative, diarrhea, enterocolitis, gastric-ulcer, genitourinary disorders, jaundice, neurosis, urinary tract infection, influenza, arthritis, abdominal pain, enteritis, expelling worms, stomach diseases, hypertensive, arteriosclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, chest diseases, common cold, pharyngitis, dyspnea, tuberculosis, cancer, eczema, herpes labialis, cardiac diseases, skin diseases, earache, facial paralysis, insomnia, internal hemorrhage, osteoporosis, rheumatism, toothache, anti-fungal, inappetence, diaphoretic, sedative, prostates, gynecological diseases, neurological diseases, vasodilator, dysmenorrhea, herpes zoster, migraine [5,3335,39,43,44,46,47,50,51,5759,61,65,68,7476,81,83,85,86,102,116,117,125,126]
(KÜH 21137)
Iridaceae Crocus ancyrensis (Herb.) Maw Çiğdem Whole plant 1 1 0.019 0.019 Earache The whole plant is boiled and dripped into the ear Abdominal pain, diuretic [127]
(KÜH 21138)
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Ceviz Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Analgesic Leaves of Urtica dioica, Elymus repens, Juglans regia, Salix × fragilis, and Sambucus ebulus are boiled and the aching place is immersed in water Diabetes, eczema, antiseptic, inappetence, goiter, cholesterol, hyperglycemia, abscess, sore throat, cancer, joint pain, kidney stone, wounds, intestinal worm, analgesic, acne, asthma, rheumatism, leg pain, hemorrhoids, bee bite, eczema, edema, cardiac disorders, vasodilator, dyspepsia, hair care, headache, vaginitis, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, respiratory tract problem, skin diseases, sunstroke, anti-fungal, hemostatic, hypoglycemic, tonic, psoriasis, cough, mnemonic, wounds, burns, myalgia and neurogenic pain, body skin conditioner, anthelmintics, itching, toothache, smoking cessation [5,3436,38,39,42,44,47,51,54,5759,6163,65,66,73,76,78,8183,86,92,117,128130]
(KÜH 21139)
Lamiaceae Lamium maculatum L. Ballıbaba Flower, leaf 2 3 0.038 0.058 Hemorrhoid, mumps Infusion is prepared from flowers and leaves and drunk Trauma, fracture, hypertension [131]
(KÜH 21140)
Lamiaceae Lavandula stoechas L. Karabaş otu Flower 1 1 0.019 0.019 Heart health It is drunk using the method of infusion with Melissa officinalis and Crataegus orientalis Obesity, cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart disease, hyperglycemia [132]
(KÜH 21141)
Lamiaceae Marrubium vulgare L. Bertikotu Aerial parts 1 1 0.019 0.019 Joint pain Aerial parts are boiled with milk, applied to the aching place Gallstone, hair loss, headache, measles, stomach ache, urinary tract infection, liver problems, flu, antiseptic, cholagogue, antispasmodic, stimulant, cough, hoarseness, bronchitis [133,134,135]
(KÜH 21142)
Lamiaceae Melissa officinalis L. Melisa Leaf, petiole, branch, flower 4 7 0.077 0.135 Heart health, hypertension, insomnia, mental disorder Decoction or infusion is prepared from dried leaves and drunk Promotes sleep, gastrointestinal disorders, hysteria, melancholia, migraine, toothache, earache, headache, cholesterol, rheumatism, nerve pains, stiff neck, neuralgia, heart problems, bronchitis, digestive, diarrhea, hemostasis, tracheobronchitis, otitis, arthritis, pharyngitis, migraine, insomnia, gynecological diseases, gout, dizziness, anemia, sedative, galactagogue, bruises, burns, furunculosis, parodontids [35,136,137]
(KÜH 21143)
Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley Yarpuz Leaf, stem, flower 3 5 0.058 0.096 Nausea, abdominal pain Decoction is prepared from leaves, stems, and flowers and drunk Abdominal pain, carminative, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, digestive disorders, intestinal diseases, stomach disorders, cough, common cold, flu, tonsillitis, halitosis, headache, lumbago, sunstroke, skin diseases, rheumatism, dyspnea, menstrual disorders, infertility [38,42,43,47,54,59,63,66,67,68,82,117]
(KÜH 21144)
Lamiaceae Mentha spicata L. Nane Leaf, petiole 2 3 0.038 0.058 Common cold, headache, sinusitis The decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk with lemon. Leaves and petioles are boiled, and then a vapor bath is made Hemorrhoids, nerves, tincture, common cold, nausea, respiratory disease, stomach ache, abdominal pain, cough, flu, dyspnea, gastrointestinal diseases, cardio tonic, vasodilator, eczema, gastric ulcer, reflux, stimulates lactation of nursing mothers, digestive disorders, vomiting, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, increases bile production, anti-infective, diarrhea, nasal bleeding, nervous headaches, migraine, intestinal disorder, hiccups [35,42,53,54,57,74,76,78,82,93,104,109,138140]
(KÜH 21145)
Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum L. Fesleğen Leaf, stem, flower 3 3 0.058 0.058 Dyspepsia, dizziness The infusion is prepared from leaves, stems, and flowers and drunk Diabetics, cardiovascular disorders, pimples, headache, cough, kidney malfunction, insect sting, snake bite, skin infection, ache, pain, sedative, purgative, antidepressant, vulnerary, rheumatism, diarrhea, orexigenic, digestive, carminative, anti-inflammatory [35,141,142]
(KÜH 21140)
Lamiaceae Salvia tomentosa Mill. Adaçayı Leaf, flower 3 5 0.058 0.096 Asthma, common colds Decoction is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk Pharyngitis, respiratory tract diseases, flu, bronchitis, diarrhea, asthma, rheumatism, tonsillitis, throat ache, toothache, gastrointestinal diseases, neurotic, abdominal pain [57,68,85,143,144]
(KÜH 21146)
Lamiaceae Teucrium chamaedrys L. Mayasırotu Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Hemorrhoid Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Malaria, spasmodic, appetizing, diabetes, hemorrhoid, gastric pain, heart diseases, intestinal colic, kidney diseases, chapped, fissure [145]
(KÜH 21147)
Lamiaceae Thymus longicaulis C.Presl Dağ kekiği Aerial parts 3 6 0.058 0.115 Influenza, common cold The infusion is prepared from the aerial parts and drunk Antiseptic, expectorant, spasmolytic, enteralgia, stomach ache, diabetes [146,147]
(KÜH 21148)
Lamiaceae Thymus sipyleus Boiss. Yumuşak kekik Leaf, branch, flower, aerial parts 4 8 0.077 0.154 Anemia, cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, influenza, insomnia, bronchitis, common colds Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves, branches, flowers, or aerial parts and drunk Abdominal pain, diabetes, expectorant, breath problems, sunstroke, laxative, pulmonary diseases, common colds, ulcer, stomach ache, hypotension, emollient, toothache [141,148150]
(KÜH 21149)
Lauraceae Laurus nobilis L. Defne Leaf 2 2 0.038 0.038 Rheumatism, anti-inflammatory Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Analgesic, anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antistress, cough, bee sting, cardiovascular, common cold, chokes, diabetes, diaphoretic, diarrhea, diuretic, dyspepsia, dyspnea, eczema, enteritis, emmenagogue, expectorant, flatulence, hair care, headache, hemorrhoid, inappetence, intestinal diseases, itching, kidney diseases, prostatitis, respiratory disease, rheumatism, scorpion bite, sedative, skin diseases, snake bite, stomach ache, stomach disorders, sweaty, tonic, ulcer, wound, weakness [5,38,39,43,45,46,51,52,65,83,92,108,130,144,148,151]
(KÜH 21150)
Malvaceae Althaea officinalis L. Hatmi çiçeği Flower 2 3 0.038 0.058 Expectorant, common cold, toothache Decoction is prepared from flowers and drunk Diuretic, expectorant, ulcer, antilithic, emollient, demulcent, wound, bronchitis [52,61,141]
(KÜH 21151)
Malvaceae Malva sylvestris L. Ebegömeci, Kaba otu Leaf, stem 4 5 0.077 0.096 Cough, sore throat, stomach ache, bronchitis, dyspnea Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk Gargle, sore throat, skin disorders, wound, maturation, dyspepsia, internal injury, abscess, abortive, common colds, flu, cough, stomach diseases, cancer, diuretic, stomach ache, rheumatism, infertility, carminative, mouth, kidney, gut and throat inflammations, abdominal pain [33,35,41,50,51,53,73, 77,81,82,102,109]
(KÜH 21152)
Malvaceae Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V.Engl. Ihlamur Flower, bract, seed 12 21 0.231 0.404 Abdominal pain, common cold, cough, influenza, bronchitis Decoction or infusion is prepared from flowers, bracts, and seeds and drunk Diuretic, diaphoretic, cough, asthma, stomach diseases, tonsillitis, gastric diseases, common cold, tachycardia, liver disease, sedative, flu, dyspepsia, sore throat [5,34,35,42,45,59,65,74,81,84,85,86]
(KÜH 21153)
Moraceae Morus nigra L. Kara dut Leaf, fruit 2 2 0.038 0.038 Diabetes, anemia Decoction or infusion is prepared from dried leaves and drunk. The molasses of the fruit is consumed Worm, hematinic, anti-inflammatory, cancer, expectorant, stomach disorder, cholesterol, blood forming, gargle, oral wound, diabetes, odor, gingival disease [5,50,51,65,68,85]
(KÜH 21154)
Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. Üzerlik otu Leaf, stem, flower 1 3 0.019 0.058 Stomach ache, expectorant, joint pain The infusion is prepared from leaves, stems, and flowers and drunk Snake repellent, cardiac pains, muscle spasm, food poisoning, rabies, vermicide, rheumatic, hair-fall, aphrodisiac, headache, nervous seizure, blood purification, hepatitis, antibacterial, eczema, pruritus, gangrene, tranquilizing, sterility, epilepsy, varicose veins, allergic influenza, hay fever, joint and rheumatic pains, hemorrhage, sexual potency enhancer elephantiasis and urinal incontinence/bed wetting [152,153,154]
(KÜH 21155)
Oleaceae Olea europaea L. Zeytin Leaf 1 2 0.019 0.038 Lose weight, edema Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk Diabetes, cholesterol, bronchitis, toothache, defuse, diuretic, inappetence, constipation, antipyretic, wound healing, burns, bruises, sprains, broken and dislocated bones, abscess, alopecia, oral wounds, nail/slivers, scorpion bite, cardio tonic, tachycardia, vasodilator, carminative, cancer, hemorrhoids, common cold, cough, diabetes, earache, eye diseases, foot swelling, hypertension, nodule, rheumatism, hemostatic, febrifuge, memory improvement, hyperuricemia, sore throat [5,35,38,39,42,45,47,51,54,57,61,62,67,73,74,86,117]
(KÜH 21156)
Onagraceae Epilobium angustifolium L. Yakı otu Leaf 2 3 0.038 0.058 The prostate, urinary tract infection Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk Ulcers, swelling, gastritis, colitis, dysentery, diarrhea, prostate, urinary problems, voiding disorders, mouth wounds, skin disorders, burns, skin irritation, swelling and boils of the skin, blood purifier, antiseptic, migraine headaches, insomnia, anemia, delirium, infections, cold [155,156]
(KÜH 21157)
Orobanchaceae Euphrasia pectinata Ten. Gözotu Seed 1 1 0.019 0.019 Eye diseases The seed is boiled and a vapor bath is applied to the eye Wound healing [5]
(KÜH 21158)
Papaveraceae Chelidonium majus L. Temre otu Leaf, stem 1 1 0.019 0.019 Antiseptic Leaves and stems are crushed, then applied directly Abscess, analgesic, bronchitis, burns, diuretic, fistulae, herpes, foot corns, laxative, cholagogue, sedative, stomach ache, stomach diseases, stimulant, eczema, skin diseases, acne, warts, jaundice, pains, wound healing, gall bladder, liver, fungal infection, moles, eye diseases, alopecia areata, sores, calluses, callosities [5,33,34,37,40,41,54,56,68,77,86,104,139,157]
(KÜH 21159)
Papaveraceae Fumaria officinalis L. Şahtere otu, Tilki kişnişi Leaf, flower, stem 1 3 0.019 0.058 Blood purifier, diaphoretic, diuretic Decoction is prepared from leaves, flowers, and stems and drunk Rheumatism, skin disorders, hypertension, asthma, blood purifier, itching, scabies treatment, liver ailments, constipation, cystitis, arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypoglycemia, infections [158]
(KÜH 21160)
Papaveraceae Papaver rhoeas L. Gelincik Flower 2 2 0.038 0.038 Whooping cough Decoction is prepared from flowers and drunk Cough, insomnia, sedative, painkiller [159]
(KÜH 21161)
Pinaceae Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe Karasakız Resin, bark, cone 4 11 0.077 0.212 Stomach disorder, bronchitis, common cold, kidney disorder, sprains, lung disease, asthma Resin is consumed fresh. Decoction is prepared from bark and drunk. The heated resin is applied directly to the bone fracture or sprains. Cones are used in jam making and are consumed Asthma, wound, bronchitis, common cold, cough [160]
(KÜH 21162)
Pinaceae Pinus sylvestris L. var. hamata Steven Çam Cone, resin 6 10 0.115 0.192 Common cold, influenza, asthma, anti-inflammatory, wound healing Cones are used in jam making and are consumed. Decoction is prepared from cones and drunk. The resin is heated and applied directly to the infected area. The resin is cooked with butter, turned into a paste with starch, and applied to the relevant wound or infected area Abscess, anthelmintic, anti-fungal, antiseptic, cough, asthma, bronchitis, burns, calmative, cancer, common cold, colophony, diabetes, diaphoretic, diarrhea, diuretic, dyspnea, eczema, emollient, expectorant, immune system booster, internal diseases, kidney disorders, lung infections, panacea, podagra, rheumatism, scabs, sinusitis, skin diseases, snake bites, stops bleeding, stomach ache, tonic, tuberculosis, ulcer, vulnerary, whooping cough, wound healing, backache, bone fracture, dysmenorrhea, tetanus, neurotic [5,32,3537,40,45,50,51,68,73,86,104,157]
(KÜH 21163)
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. Sinir otu Leaf 3 7 0.058 0.135 Lung disease, dyspepsia, diarrhea, stomach disorder, wound healing Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk. Leaves are applied directly to the wounds Hemostatic, burns, sinusitis, ulcer, gynecological diseases, stomach disorder, ulcer, wound healing, antiseptic, acne, mouth sores odor, inappetence, dyspepsia, embolism, abscess, bee bites, eczema, wart, asthma, bronchitis, cough, tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, urinary tract inflammation, antipyretic, sedative, dyspnea, diabetes, stomach ache, intestinal disorder, sedative, osteoarthritis, constipation, urinary tract infection, goiter, heart ailments [5,33,34,39,42,43,44,46,47,51,54,59,61,63,65,66,73,78,82,86,117,128]
(KÜH 21164)
Plantaginaceae Plantago major L. Siğilotu, Eyvadana otu, Sivilce otu Leaf 8 11 0.154 0.212 Wart, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, low back pain, abdominal pain, analgesic, abscess Leaves are made to apply directly on the wart, abscess, inflamed area, or wound Anti-inflammatory, erysipelas, rash, urticaria, toothache, asthma, dyspnea, diabetes, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, embolism, edema, goiter, kidney stone, vaginitis, analgesic, influenza, warts, knee pain, vulnerary, abscess, wound healing, antiseptic, acne, rheumatism, stomach ache, cough, sedative, osteoarthritis, urinary tract disorder, goiter, heart ailments, sinusitis, stomach disorder, psoriasis, hair loss, infarction, cholesterol, eczema, cancer, coronary diseases, bleeding, digestive disorder, gastritis, gastro-intestinal disorders, expectorant, jaundice, bronchitis, diuretic vasodilator, pricks, felons, cardiovascular diseases, panacea, kidney cancer, constipation [5,32,3335,36,38,39,44,46,47,51,53,54,56,58,59,62,63,65,66,67,77,78,81,85,86,92,104,105]
(KÜH 21165)
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis L. Çınar Leaf 2 2 0.038 0.038 Bronchitis, rheumatism Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Constipation, antipyretic, arthrolith, edema, kidney disorders, kidney stones, dyspnea, diarrhea, wound healing, tonic, toothache, diuretic, mouthwash, diabetes, rheumatism, osteoarthritis, backache, joint pain, severe eye inflammation, dysentery, peeling skin, snakebite, urinary tract disorder [5,36,46,54,55,67,73,86,92,143,148,161,162]
(KÜH 21166)
Poaceae Avena sativa L. Yulaf Leaf 1 2 0.019 0.038 Diuretic, stomach disorder Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk Nervous exhaustion, insomnia, weakness of the nerves, antispasmodic, antitumor, cyanogenetic, demulcent, diuretic, neurotronic, stimulant, tonic, vulnerary [163]
(KÜH 21167)
Poaceae Elymus repens (L.) Gould Ayrık otu Root, leaf 8 14 0.154 0.269 Kidney sand, kidney stone, edema, kidney disorder, urinary tract infection, osteoarthritis, analgesic Decoction or infusion is prepared from fresh leaves and drunk. Infusion is prepared from roots and drunk. Leaves of Urtica dioica, Elymus repens, Juglans regia, Salix × fragilis, and Sambucus ebulus are boiled and the aching place is immersed in water Diuretic, calming, pain in urinary tract disorders, demulcent, tonic, cystitis, urethritis, prostate [164]
(KÜH 21168)
Poaceae Zea mays L. Mısır Style 1 1 0.019 0.019 Urinary tract infection Decoction is prepared from styles and drunk Hemorrhoids, urinary system, kidney stones, burns, prostate cancer, pyelonephritis, diabetes, diarrhea, diuretic, gonorrhea, aphrodisiac, hypertension, ringworm, prostate, whitlow, rheumatism, abdominal pain, intestinal worms, stomach ache, cough, sore throat, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, edema, urinary tract inflammation, goiter [32,33,35,37,39,42,45,47,54,59,61,62,63,65,66,77,78,83,86,91,92,108,139]
(KÜH 21169)
Polygonaceae Rumex acetosella L. Kuzukulağı Root 1 1 0.019 0.019 Diuretic Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, diuretic, diabetes, cholesterol, abscess, hypertension, stomachic, digestive disorders, tooth inflammation, abdominal pain, sinusitis, eczema, cardiovascular diseases, constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, melancholia, palpitations, infectious disease, gastric acidity, metabolic disorders, diseases of the adrenal glands, skin diseases, neck tumors, women’s diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, hemostatic, liver diseases, acne [5,33,34,35,65,73,81,157,165,166]
(KÜH 21170)
Polygonaceae Rumex crispus L. Develik, Labada Seed, root 2 4 0.038 0.077 Diarrhea, itch, urinary bladder Decoction is prepared from seeds and drunk. Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk for itching Constipation, diarrhea, eczema laxative, diuretic, antipyretic, wound cure, anti-inflammatory [5]
(KÜH 21171)
Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria L. subsp. asiatica (Juz.) Skalicky Burçotu Leaf, stem 3 4 0.058 0.077 Sprains, liver disorder, rheumatism, dyspepsia Leaves are applied directly to the wounds. Decoction is prepared from leaves and stems and drunk Emollient, expectorant, varicose veins, phlebitis, liver disorder, diuretic, tuberculosis, astringent [49]
(KÜH 21172)
Rosaceae Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. Aslan pençesi Leaf, flower 8 10 0.154 0.192 Menopause, menstrual irregularity, migraine Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk. Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk for migraine Menopausal discomfort, gynecological disorders, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, menstrual pain, wounds, skin disorders [167]
(KÜH 21173)
Rosaceae Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. Alıç, Yemişen Leaf, fruit, flower 5 8 0.096 0.154 Heart health, vessel stiffness, hypertension, eye diseases Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk. Fruits are consumed as fresh or marmalade. It is drunk using the method of infusion with Melissa officinalis and Lavandula stoechas Hypertension, throat inflammation, diabetes, blood pressure, nerves, kidney sands, insomnia, itching, asthma, bronchitis, intestinal problems, vascular occlusion, kidney stones, shortness of breath, heart diseases, urinary tract disorder, stomach disorders, cough [76,168]
(KÜH 21174)
Rosaceae Cydonia oblonga Mill. Ayva Leaf, fruit, seed 4 6 0.077 0.115 Common cold, cough, acne, tonsillitis Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk. The seeds are kept in water for one night, and then they are pounded and when turned into mush, they are applied to the acne. The fruit is cut in half, cooked on embers and wrapped in the throat Galactagogue, edema, heart, diarrhea, expectorant, common cold, cough, dyspepsia, breast feeding nipple wound, psoriasis, cancer, cardiac diseases, sore throat, respiratory tract problem, cystitis, dysuria, kidney stone, urinary disorders, sterility, gastrointestinal diseases, stomach ache, diuretic, earache, headache, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, appetizer, tranquilizer, nausea, heartburn, pyrosis, sedative, dysmenorrhea, hemorrhoids, dyspnea [33,35,36,38,39,4547,54,5759,61,62,67,68,74,76,85,93,102,116,117,128,151,169]
(KÜH 21175)
Rosaceae Fragaria vesca L. Çilek Leaf 2 2 0.038 0.038 Hypertension Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Tonic, diabetes, constipation, inappetence, diuretic, headache, blood pressure, kidney disorder, heart disorder, diarrhea, fever, skin diseases, laxative, digestive disorders, hemorrhoids, common cold [5,34,35,55,68,102,170,171]
(KÜH 21176)
Rosaceae Mespilus germanica L. Döngel Leaf 1 2 0.019 0.038 Urinary tract infection, kidney disorder Fir cones, barley and Mespilus leaves are boiled and drunk Kidney disorder, diarrhea, gastric, abdominal pain, anthelmintic, hemorrhoids, asthma, bronchitis, common colds, cough, flu, tuberculosis, diabetes, eczema, hypertension, diuretic, kidney stone, bladder stone, hemostatic, stomach and intestinal disorders, urinary sand, sedative, gastroenterology diseases, dysentery, angina, laryngitis, toothache, varicose veins, scabies, inflamed digestive tracts, dyspepsia, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, urolithiasis [36,39,45,47,54,68,77,81,89,116,157,161]
(KÜH 21177)
Rosaceae Potentilla recta L. Beşparmak otu Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Toothache Infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk Dental and oral healthcare, skin diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, neurological disorders, respiratory disorders [172]
(KÜH 21178)
Rosaceae Prunus avium (L.) L. Kiraz Pedicel 2 3 0.038 0.058 Lose weight, urinary tract infection Decoction or infusion is prepared from pedicels with corn styles and drunk Intestinal disorders, urinary tract disorder, diarrhea, diuretic, abdominal pain, carminative, dysuria, kidney stone, bronchitis, constipation, renal diseases, edema, common cold, anti-inflammatory, immune system booster, anti-coagulant, cough, hemorrhoids, whooping cough, stomach disorder, dyspepsia [33,36,42, 45,47,53,54,61,68,74,83,84,86,93]
(KÜH 21179)
Rosaceae Prunus divaricata Ledeb. Erik Fruit 2 2 0.038 0.038 Analgesic, intestinal disorder Fruit leather, applied directly to the aching place for one night. Fruits are consumed fresh Urinary system disorders, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders [172]
(KÜH 21180)
Rosaceae Prunus mahaleb L. Mahlep Fruit, leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Diuretic Decoction is prepared from leaves and fruits and drunk Urinary system disorders, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders [172]
(KÜH 21181)
Rosaceae Rosa canina L. Kuşburnu Fruit 4 9 0.077 0.173 Influenza, roborant, stomach ache, anemia, diabetes, heart health, common cold Fruits are consumed as jam, marmalade or put in water to make decoction or infusion and drunk. Herpes zoster, flu, hemorrhoids, common cold, diarrhea, diabetes, kidney stone, sedative, tonic, constipation, tinea pedis, prostatitis cancer, cough, hepatitis, malaria, stomach ache, dyspnea, ease inhalation, influenza, healthy living, analgesic, abdominal pain, anemia, antiemetic, antipyretic, hemostatic, atherosclerosis, bronchitis, bruises, carminative, dysuria, eye hemostatic, foot pain, gallstones, heartaches, inflamed gall bladder, inappetence, intestinal disorders, reduce thirst, gastric inflammation, mouthwash, snake bites, sore throat, stomach disorders, sudorific, abscess, burns, eczema, itching, rash, wart, wound healing, allergy, respiratory tract disorders, cancer, cystitis, intrauterine inflammation, kidney disorders, eye strain, heart diseases, hypertension, thyroid, rheumatism, aphrodisiac, urine retention, tuberculosis, vasodilator, panacea [5,3335,38,39,4247,4951, 5355,58,59,61,63,65,67,68,73, 76,85, 92,105,116,117,128,151,157,173,174]
(KÜH 21182)
Rosaceae Rubus canescens DC. Böğürtlen Leaf, branch 2 2 0.038 0.038 Hemostatic, kidney sand The leaves are chewed in the mouth and applied to the bleeding area. The leaves and branches are boiled with the root of Elymus repens and drunk Aphthae, burn, cancer, gingival bleeding, cardiac diseases, diuretic, diabetes, gonorrhea, hypertension, hemostatic, hemorrhoids, infertility, cough, anemia, tonsillitis, antiemetic, antipyretic, asthenopia, diarrhea, wounds, anti-aging, eye and mouth sore, hair care, anti-inflammatory, stomach disorder [35,45,50,65,68,83,85,102,151,175,176]
(KÜH 21183)
Rosaceae Rubus hirtus Waldst. & Kit. Böğürtlen Leaf, fruit, roots 4 7 0.077 0.135 Rheumatism, stomach disorder, anemia, eye diseases, kidney sand, urinary tract infection Fruits are consumed fresh. Decoction or infusion is prepared from leaves and drunk. Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk as kidney sand Burn, wound healing, hemostatic, tonic, anemia, dyspnea, diabetes, eczema, hemorrhoids, nephritis, prostate [34,50,68,176]
(KÜH 21184)
Rubiaceae Galium palustre L. Yapışkan otu Leaf 2 4 0.038 0.077 Anemia, diuretic, intestinal disorder Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk No record
(KÜH 21185)
Salicaceae Salix × fragilis L. Söğüt Leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Analgesics Leaves of Urtica dioica, Elymus repens, Juglans regia, Salix × fragilis, and Sambucus ebulus were boiled and the aching place was immersed in water Fever [177]
(KÜH 21186)
Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus L. Sığırkuyruğu Aerial parts, leaves 2 2 0.038 0.038 Hemorrhoid, bronchitis Aerial parts are boiled, then vapor bath is made. Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk Wounds, asthma, bronchitis, ulcers, tumors, piles, analgesic, lumbago, joints, diarrhea, dysentery, skin infections, demulcent, astringent, aphrodisiac, tuberculosis, respiratory tract disorders, cough, blood purifier, influenza, burns, ear ailments, blood diseases, cuts, diuretic, infections, sores, abscess, colds, constipation, dysentery, mental relaxation, pulmonary problems, sores, styptic, anti-inflammatory, gynecological problems [178]
(KÜH 21187)
Solanaecae Hyoscyamus niger L. Ban otu Flower, leaf 1 1 0.019 0.019 Heart health The infusion is prepared from leaves and flowers and drunk Analgesic, sedative, itching, stomatitis, dyspnea, toothache, earache, expel worms from eyes, headache, antitumor, febrifuge, neuralgia, rheumatism, hysteria, migraine, sinusitis [5,50,54,57,68,73,102]
(KÜH 21188)
Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum L. Patates Root 4 6 0.077 0.115 Intestinal disorders, dyspepsia, cancer, headache, stomach ache The bark of the root is grated, the juice is squeezed and half a tea glass is drunk. The potato is cut in half and applied directly to the forehead Headache, eye disorders, burns, eczema, edema, swelling, analgesic, diarrhea, sunburn, anti-inflammatory, fever, cough, sedative, stomach ache, stomach disorders, [33,35,36,42,47,54,61,62,67,68,73,76,109]
(KÜH 21189)
Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. Isırgan Root, leaf, aerial parts, seed, petiole 16 27 0.308 0.519 Cancer, stomach ache, analgesic, hypertension, urinary tract infection, prostate, rheumatism, common cold, heart health, hemorrhoids, jaundice, dyspepsia, roborant, immunity, joint pain The cleaned root is boiled for 10 min and drunk. Leaves are cut pasted and used externally on rheumatism for one night. Decoction is prepared from leaves and drunk. A meal made from leaves and seeds is consumed. Leaves of Urtica dioica, Elymus repens, Juglans regia, Salix × fragilis, and Sambucus ebulus are boiled and the aching place is immersed in water. Leaves, stems, and seeds are boiled, then applied to the aching area Immune system booster, evil-eye, anemia, alopecia, fever, neuralgia, cicatrizing, anthrax, scabby, kidney disorder, nose bleeding, malicious wounds, ulcer, joint pain, antiseptic, sedative, hypertension, bleeding, cholesterol, cardiovascular, acne, oily seborrhea, radiculitis, liver disease, biliary tract, uterine, pneumonic, intestinal hemorrhages, dysentery, purgative, expectorant, anastatic, anticonvulsant, antipyretic, podagra, bruises and injuries, diuretic, stomach ache, cancer, dyspepsia, hypertension, jaundice, leg pain, measles, rheumatism, dandruff, anemia, diabetes, bronchitis, depurative, anti-inflammatory, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, measles, allergic diseases, low back pain, cough, eczema, respiratory disease, tonsillitis, analgesic, anthrax, antiseptic, arthritis, common colds, flu, gynecological disorders, tuberculous, gout, menstrual irregularity, dysmenorrhea, intestinal worm, hair cleaning, whooping cough, dyspnea, prostate [5,3236,38,39,42,45,47,4951,6163,65,66,68,74,83,93,105,117,151]
(KÜH 21190)
Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zencefil Root 1 1 0.019 0.019 Migraine Decoction is prepared from roots and drunk Nausea, pains, vomiting, asthma, cough, constipation, palpitation, inflammation, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, indigestion [179]
(KÜH 21191)

The most used families were Rosaceae (13 taxa), Asteraceae (11), and Lamiaceae (11) (Figure 3). The most preferred folk recipes of medicinal plants were decoction (55 taxa) and infusion (40 taxa), followed by boiled (16 taxa) and direct application (11 taxa). Other uses of plants included fresh, crushing, cooked, marmalade, heating, paste, jam, grated, ground, roasted, mush, and molasses (Figure 4). In preparation and application, leaves were mostly used (45 taxa), followed by flowers (26 taxa) and roots (14 taxa) (Figure 5). The locals also used the stem, aerial parts, fruit, seed, petiole, branch, resin, cone, whole plant, bract, latex, pedicel, bark, and style parts for medicinal purposes.

Figure 3 
                  The most-cited plant families.
Figure 3

The most-cited plant families.

Figure 4 
                  Preparation methods of folk medicines in the region.
Figure 4

Preparation methods of folk medicines in the region.

Figure 5 
                  Plant parts used.
Figure 5

Plant parts used.

The highest UVs were observed for Urtica dioica L., Matricaria chamomilla L. var. recutita (L.) Fiori, and Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V.Engl. (0.519, 0.404, and 0.404, respectively). The highest RFC values belonged to Urtica dioica (0.308), followed by Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica (0.231), Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Elymus repens (L.) Gould, andPlantago major L. (all with a value of 0.154) (Table 2). Plant taxa with high UV values used to treat different disease categories also have high RFC values.

According to the International Classification of Primary Care/2nd edition (ICPC-2) ailment categories (WHO, 2022), plants were the most used for digestive disorders (37 taxa), respiratory disorders (27 taxa), and urological disorders (24 taxa). According to FIC values, male genital disorders were in the first place (FIC = 0.83), followed by respiratory disorders (FIC = 0.73), and heart health disorders (FIC = 0.53) (Table 3).

Table 3

FIC values by category of ailment within the present study

ICPC-2 categories Ailments Nur Nt FIC
A-General and unspecified Analgesic (UR:9), cancer (UR:8), edema (UR:4), roborant (UR:4), antipyretic (UR:2), hemostatic (UR:2) 29 17 0.43
B-Blood, blood forming organs and immune mechanism Anemia (UR:8), blood purifier (UR:2) 10 8 0.22
D-Digestive Stomach ache (UR:12), dyspepsia (UR:9), liver disorder (UR:8), diarrhea (UR:6), intestinal disorder (UR:6), stomach disorder (UR:4), nausea (UR:4), abdominal pain (UR:3), toothache (UR:2), gall bladder (UR:2), mumps (UR:1), jaundice (UR:1), aphtha (UR:1), ulcer (UR:1), intestinal worm (UR:1) 61 37 0.4
F-Eye Eye disease (UR:4) 4 4 0
H-Ear Earache (UR:2) 2 2 0
K-Cardiovascular Heart health (UR:14), hemorrhoids (UR:6), hypertension (UR:5), cholesterol (UR:4), hypotension (UR:1), vessel stiffness (UR:1) 31 15 0.53
L-Musculoskeletal Rheumatism (UR:11), bone fracture (UR:6), arthralgia (UR:4), sprains (UR:1), osteoarthritis (UR:2), osteoporosis (UR:1), low back pain (UR:1) 28 17 0.41
N-Neurological Headache (UR:6), mental disorder (UR:4), migraine (UR:2), dizziness (UR:1) 13 10 0.25
P-Psychological Insomnia (UR:5), sedative (UR:3) 8 6 0.29
R-Respiratory Common cold (UR:31), influenza (UR:20), cough (UR:18), bronchitis (UR:6), asthma (UR:5), sinusitis (UR:4), tonsillitis (UR:3), sore throat (UR:2), expectorant (UR:2), whooping cough (UR:2), lung disease (UR:2), dyspnea (UR:1) 96 27 0.73
S-Skin Wound healing (UR:11), anti-inflammatory (UR:11), wart (UR:3), antiseptic (UR:2), anti-allergy (UR:1), abscess (UR:1), itching (UR:1), acne (UR:1), eczema (UR:1), scorpion sting (UR:1) 33 18 0.47
T-Endocrine/metabolic and nutritional Diabetes (UR:6), diaphoretic (UR:3), inappetence (UR:3), lose weight (UR:3), immunity (UR:1), goiter (UR:1), galactagogue (UR:1) 18 14 0.24
U-Urological Urinary tract infection (UR:16), diuretic (UR:11), kidney sand (UR:10), kidney disorder (UR:5), kidney stone (UR:4), urinary bladder (UR:1) 47 24 0.5
X-Female genital Menopause (UR:4), menstrual irregularity (UR:3) 5 3 0.5
Y-Male genital Prostate (UR:5) 7 2 0.83

4 Discussion

Plants and recipes used in folk medicine in the current study were compared with ethnobotanical studies in Türkiye and around the world.

In many studies, the infusion and decoction have been the most preferred preparations for using plants for medicinal purposes [34,68,85,180,181,182]. In this study, decoction and infusion were the most preferred methods, respectively.

Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae were the families that contain the most medicinal plants. Although the rankings differ, the families most commonly used in the literature were similar [33,78,82,86]. The most cited plants were Urtica dioica (27 citations), Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica (21 citations), and Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita (21 citations). Urtica dioica is a species that naturally spreads in wide areas in Türkiye and is frequently used medicinally [67,75,168]. Additionally, being an edible plant has caused it to become the most preferred plant.

It was recorded in this study that Bellis perennis L., Trachystemon orientalis D. Don, Cornus mas L., Lamium maculatum L., Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, Rubus canescens DC., R. hirtus Waldst. & Kit., and Galium palustre L., which were known to be used medicinally in the literature, were used to treat different diseases. Table 2 shows crosscheck of the information of medicinal plants in Kastamonu with the previously recorded literature on plant usage in Türkiye and some near countries.

It has been reported that Bellis perennis has been used to treat antipyretic, asthma, bronchitis, common cold, cough, diuretic, eye inflammations, expectorant, flu, gastric complaints, gynecological diseases, hemorrhoids, headache, insomnia, intestinal disorder, laxative, nausea, panacea, purgative, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, tonic, tonsillitis, tranquilizer, sedative, stomach disorders, stomach ache, and vomiting, in various sources [32,33,34,50,54,65,91,92,93,183] in Türkiye. It was recorded for the first time that local people used to treat sinusitis and nervousness. There are already many pharmacological studies on Bellis perennis in the literature. According to aqueous and methanol extract of B. perennis cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (0–2.2%), γ-himachalene (5.2–17.4%), germacrene D (0.2–6.4%), tetradecanal (0.1–8.6%), pentadecanal (tr-4.4%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (0–2.2%), phytol (3.5–30.4%), nonacosane (0–3.2%), and hexadecenoic acid (14.0–87.6%) were determined as the major constituents [184]. Previous studies reported that B. perennis showed wound healing activity, anxiolytic properties, antitumor activity, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, postpartum antihemorrhagic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor cytotoxic activity, and antimicrobial activity [185,186,187,188,189,190,191].

Trachystemon orientalis is both a medicinal and an edible plant. It was used medicinally for abscess, tonsillitis, insomnia, dysmenorrhea, diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic, dyspepsia, intestinal diseases, anti-inflammation, constipation, expectorant, anti-depressive, breast cancer, carminative, stomach ache, wounds, rheumatism, lengthen the life, abscess, digestive, intestinal, insomnia, dysmenorrhea, and inflammation [5,34,35,36,41,42,45,54,65,68,108,192]. It was recorded that the plant, which was consumed by cooking leaves, flowers, and petiole, was used as a cough suppressant in Kastamonu. Antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antifungal activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Trachystemon orientalis were evaluated [193,194,195,196,197]. In addition, it has been investigated whether this plant is suitable for use in the cosmetic industry and it has been determined that it can be used for photoprotective and antiaging purposes [198]. Beside these medicinal properties, T. orientalis is traditionally known as an important food source, and its nutritional and mineral contents have also been analyzed [199,200]. As a result of these analyzes, it was determined that this plant is a natural antioxidant source that can be used instead of synthetic antioxidants. These features of Trachystemon orientalis describe and show its traditional use and significance in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

In Kastamonu, the locals make a compote from the ripe fruit of Cornus mas and use it to gargle to treat oral aphtha. It was reported that the fruit and other parts of C. mas are used in traditional practices for abdominal pain, antifungal, antipyretic, atherosclerosis, bleeding, bronchitis, cardiac diseases, cancer, carminative, cholera, common cold, constipation, cough, degenerative diseases, diabetes, diarrhea, ease child birth, flu, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, herpes zoster, hyperglycemia, incurable diseases, insomnia, intestinal disease, kidney stones, marsh fever, nephritis, sooth pain, sunstroke, toothache, urinary diseases, urinary inflammations, and wound healing [5,33,36,43,45,46,47,50,54,58,62,63,65,66,68,74, 109,117,201,202] in Türkiye and Iran. C. mas is a medicinal and food plant that has been the subject of extensive studies for its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential. Main components Delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside, and pelargonidin 3-O-β -galactopyranoside characterized the chemical profile of the essential oil from C. mas [203]. Important flavonoids, anthocyanins, and iridoids were determined from the essential oils of the fruits and leaves of C. mas [204]. Essential oils of C. mas were proved to have anticarcinogenic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, anticancer, anticoagulant, antiparasitic, hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, antiviral, antioxidative, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, renal protective, neuroprotective, reproductive organ protective, antiplatelet, antiglaucoma, radioprotective, aldose reductase inhibitory, cardioprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects [202,204,205].

Lamium maculatum and some other Lamium species such as L. album L., and L. purpureum L. were used for rheumatism pain, constipation, arthritic ailments, and as roborant in Türkiye [5,206]. In traditional Chinese medicine, it was used for treating various diseases such as injury, fracture, palsy, and high blood pressure [207]. Kastamonu locals make infusions from flowers and leaves and drink it as tea. This tea was used for treating hemorrhoids and mumps. Lamalbide, Lamiide, 5-OH-8-epi-Loganin, Penstemoside, Shanzhiside methyl ester, Sesamoside, Lamiol, Liriodendrin, and Verbascoside are found in L. maculatum [208]. According to pharmacological studies, Lamium species have many biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive activity, cytotoxicity, and cytoprotective activity [209]. Thus, treating of hemorrhoid and mump, which are viral and bacterial diseases, with ethnomedicines have been validated by modern pharmacological analyzes.

Species belonging to the genus Rubus (R. canescens, R. hirtus, R. idaeus L., and R. sanctus Schreb.) were generally used as a folk medicine for diuretic, diabetes, hypertension, stomach disorders, cough, hemorrhoids, constipation, dyspnea, roborant, tonsillitis, gingival bleeding, colds, aphthae, burn, cancer, anemia, and liver diseases [50,65,68,162,210]. Some other Rubus species around the world have similar uses [211]. It was recorded that the Rubus taxa included in the study were used to treat abscess anemia, anti-aging, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, aphthae, asthenopia, burn, cancer, cardiac diseases, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, diuretic, dyspnea, eczema, eye and mouth sore, gingival bleeding, gonorrhea, hair care, hemostatic, hemorrhoids, hypertension, infertility, kidney sand, nephritis, prostate, rheumatism, stomachic, stomach disorder, tonic, tonsillitis, and wound healing in Türkiye [34,35,38,45,50,65, 68,83,85,102,151,175]. While Rubus hirtus is used for rheumatism, stomach disorder, anemia, eye diseases, kidney sand, urinary tract infection purposes, R. canescens is used for the treatment of hemostatic and kidney sand in the study area. Some of these diseases are caused by inflammation such as rheumatism, cancer, cardiac diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and wounds. It has been reported that the use of R. hirtus, which has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, may be appropriate in the treatment of these inflammatory diseases [212,213]. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antibacterial studies have been carried out for other Rubus species in the study area and pharmacologically confirmed [214,215].

The resin, shoot, bark, cone, and needles of five Pinus species (P. brutia Ten., P. sylvestris var. hamata Steven, P. nigra, P. halepensis Mill., and P. pinea L.) grown in the flora of Türkiye [216] were used for treating mostly asthma, bronchitis, cold, cough, and wounds [160]. In Kastamonu, the locals declared that they used the resin and raw cones of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana for treating stomach disorder, bronchitis, common cold, kidney disorder, sprains, lung disease, and asthma. P. sylvestris var. hamata is preferred in the treatment of diseases such as common cold, influenza, asthma, inflammation, and wound healing in Kastamonu province. As can be seen, these two pine species that grow naturally in the study area are generally used in respiratory diseases, followed by inflammatory diseases. Essential oil compositions of the needles of P. nigra and P. sylvestris var. hamata were investigated separately [217,218]. While α-pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D were found as the main components in the essential oil of Black pine, α-pinene, camphene, and β-pinene were detected in scot pine. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and analgesic activities of these pines have already been studied [219,220,221,222]. On the other hand, bark extracts of these two pines were also studied and phenolic compounds such as catechin, ferulic acid and taxifolin were determined. The presence of these compounds has been reported to indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities [222,223].

Common cold, influenza, cough, urinary tract infection, heart health, wound healing, stomach ache, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, kidney sand, and rheumatism were the most frequently mentioned ailments in Kastamonu. Although there are regional differences, the plants mentioned in folk medicine studies in Türkiye are generally used for treating these diseases [3,192]. However, it was recorded for the first time that Pilosella leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama (Nägeli & Peter) Gottschl., Galium palustre L., and Astragalus nitens Boiss. & Heldr. were used as folk medicine. The aerial parts of P. leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama (Nägeli & Peter) Gottschl. were used for wound treatment, while the roots of A. nitens were used to relieve earache. While there are antifungal and antibacterial studies for A. nitens in the literature, no study has been found for P. leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama. In previous studies conducted in Türkiye and the world, Galium species were used for appetizer, diuretic, rheumatic pain, burn healing, cancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and calmative purposes [5,50,224,225]. In Kastamonu, it was recorded that the leaf infusion of Galium palustre was used for anemia and intestinal diseases. The extract of the G. palustre was tested with three different methods (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) and the presence of antitumor properties was determined, and beside this, the inhibitory activity (antibacterial) was not observed [185]. Thus, it is understood that more pharmacological studies are needed for the new medicinal plants identified within the scope of the study, and the traditional use of these plants should be proven.

No previous studies have been found in the research area that includes FIC values. The FIC value ranged from 0 to 0.83. If the FIC value is close to 1, medicinal plants used to treat some diseases are considered more effective. The FIC values in this study differed from other results in Türkiye. Male genital disorder had the highest FIC value (0.83) in this study. Acorus calamus L., Epilobium angustifolium L., and Urtica dioica were reported to be among the plants treat pointed for this purpose. Respiratory diseases had the second-highest FIC value (0.73), and heart health disorders had the third rank (0.53). According to Emre et al. [82] for analgesics in Mersin, Gürbüz et al. [54] for dermatological in İzmir, Karaköse et al. [85] for cold and flu in Torul (Gümüşhane), Kaval et al. [226] for respiratory tract problems in Geçitli (Hakkari), Kılıç et al. [227] for gynecological diseases in Artuklu, Polat [64] for healing cut and wounds in Bingöl found the highest FIC values (Table 3).

5 Conclusion

Kastamonu is one of the significant lands of Euro-Siberian flora area. It has a geography where the transition from a temperate maritime climate to a continental climate, and forest vegetation to steppe vegetation has been observed. Therefore, it has a rich plant diversity. Biodiversity is a significant source for folk medicine studies. This study enabled us to collect information about the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Kastamonu. Because of face-to-face interviews with 52 locals living in the region, information about the uses of 92 plants in folk medicine was compiled.

The use of Pilosella leucopsilon subsp. pilisquama, Galium palustre, and Astragalus nitens in traditional therapy was reported for the first time in this study. In this study, it was recorded that Bellis perennis, Trachystemon orientalis, Cornus mas, Lamium maculatum, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Rubus canescens, and R. hirtus were also used for treating different diseases. This is significant because the newly recorded species and different uses of plants will contribute to fields such as phototherapy, chemist’s shop, and chemistry.


tel: +90-4623772841

Acknowledgement

The authors thank the Kastamonu locals and informants for their contributions to the study.

  1. Funding information: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  2. Author contributions: Conceptualization: S.A., M.K.; methodology: S.A.; literature search: M.K. and G.Ş.; resources: G.Ş.; writing – original draft preparation: S.A., M.K., and G.Ş.; writing – review and editing: S.A., M.K.; supervision: S.A., M.K., and G.Ş. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

  3. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no competing interest.

  4. Ethical approval: The participants provided their written prior informed consent to participate in this study and researchers adhered to the ethical guidelines of the International Society of Ethnobiology [23].

  5. Informed consent: Prior Informed Consent (PIC) was provided orally before each interview

  6. Data availability statement: Data supporting the findings of this study contain personal information of subjects and are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Since the data include the places where people live, they are stored in a controlled access repository.

Appendix

  1. Age and gender of the informant.

  2. Marital status of the informant.

  3. Educational level of the informant.

  4. Place of residence of the informant.

  5. What are the medical plants you know?

  6. For what purposes do you use medical plants?

  7. Which parts of plants are you using?

  8. How do you prepare the preparation?

  9. What is the vernacular name of the plant used?

  10. What are the poisonous plants you know? How do you use them?

  11. What are the food plants you know? How do you use them?

  12. Do you use auxiliary substances when preparing the preparation? (Honey, oil, butter, etc.)

References

[1] Schaal B. Plants and people: Our shared history and future. Plants People Planet. 2019;1(1):14–9. 10.1002/ppp3.12.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Cotton CM. Ethnobotany: Principles and applications. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 1996. p. 424.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Ertuğ F. Etnobotanik. In: Güner A, editor. Resimli Türkiye Florası. İstanbul: Ali Nihat Gökyiğit Vakfı, Flora Araştırmaları Derneği ve Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayını; 2014. p. 319–81.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Adwan G, Salameh Y, Adwan K. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(6):456–60. 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60100-7.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Baytop T. Türkiye’de Bitkilerle Tedavi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitapevleri; 1999. p. 480.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Akbulut S, Özkan ZC. Herbalist-customer profile in medicinal and aromatic herbs trade: A case study of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Kastamonu Univ J For Fac. 2016;16(1):246–52. 10.17475/kujff.88816.Search in Google Scholar

[7] WHO. World health organization traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Karaköse M, Karaköse GÇ. Medicinal and aromatic plants of Esenli (Giresun) forest planning unit. Int J Second Metab. 2017;4(3, Special Issue 1):285–305. 10.21448/ijsm.372229.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Schippmann U, Leaman D, Cunningham A. A comparison of cultivation and wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants under sustainability aspects. In: Bogers RJ, Craker LE, Lange D, editors. Medicinal and aromatic plants: Agricultural, commercial, ecological, legal, pharmacological and social aspects. Dordrecht: Springer; 2006. p. 75–95.10.1007/1-4020-5449-1_6Search in Google Scholar

[10] Diniz do Nascimento L, Moraes AABd, Costa KSd, Pereira Galúcio JM, Taube PS, Costa CML, et al. Bioactive natural compounds and antioxidant activity of essential oils from spice plants: New findings and potential applications. Biomolecules. 2020;10(7):988.10.3390/biom10070988Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[11] Ferreira OO, Cruz JN, de Moraes ÂAB, de Jesus Pereira Franco C, Lima RR, Anjos TO, et al. Essential oil of the plants growing in the Brazilian Amazon: Chemical composition, antioxidants, and biological applications. Molecules. 2022;27(14):4373. 10.3390/molecules27144373.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[12] Bezerra FWF, de Oliveira MS, Bezerra PN, Cunha VMB, Silva MP, da Costa WA, et al. Chapter 8 – Extraction of bioactive compounds. In: Inamuddin, Asiri AM, Isloor AM, editors. Green sustainable process for chemical and environmental engineering and science. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2020. p. 149–67.10.1016/B978-0-12-817388-6.00008-8Search in Google Scholar

[13] Cascaes MM, Carneiro OdS, Nascimento LDd, de Moraes ÂAB, de Oliveira MS, Cruz JN, et al. Essential oils from Annonaceae species from Brazil: A systematic review of their phytochemistry, and biological activities. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(22):12140. 10.3390/ijms222212140.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[14] Ramos da Silva LR, Ferreira OO, Cruz JN, de Jesus Pereira Franco C, Oliveira dos Anjos T, Cascaes MM, et al. Lamiaceae essential oils, phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and biological activities. J Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2021;2021:6748052. 10.1155/2021/6748052.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[15] Güner A, Aslan S, Ekim T, Vural M, Babaç MT. Turkey plant list (Vascular plants). İstanbul: ANG Foundation; 2012. p. 1290.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Metin H, Lamba M. Administrative structure in the Anatolian civilizations from the Hittites to the Roman Empire. Int J Manag Econ Bus. 2016;12(27):155–74. 10.17130/10.17130/ijmeb.2016.12.27.600.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Şen G, Güngör E. Analysis of land use/land cover changes following population movements and agricultural activities: a case study in northern Turkey. Appl Ecol Env Res. 2018;16(2):2073–88. 10.15666/aeer/1602_20732088.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Baydil E, İbret BÜ. The history of urban development in Kastamonu and an evaluation of 1924/1925 city plan. Kastamonu Eğit Derg. 1999;7(1):3–18.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Davis P. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1965−1985.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Şen G, Genç A. The definition of the problems in the forest management certification application process from forester’s perspectives in Turkey. J Sustain For. 2017;36(4):388–419. 10.1080/10549811.2017.1311270.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Şen G, Güngör E, Şevik H. Defining the effects of urban expansion on land use/cover change: a case study in Kastamonu, Turkey. Env Monit Assess. 2018;190(8):454. 10.1007/s10661-018-6831-z.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Karaköse M, Terzioğlu S. Flora and botanic tourism potential of Yaralıgöz (Kastamonu) education and observation forest. Kastamonu Univ J For Fac. 2019;19(1):116–36. 10.17475/kastorman.543547.Search in Google Scholar

[23] ISE. International society of ethnobiology code of ethics (with 2008 additions); 2006 [cited 2020 04.22]. http://ethnobiology.net/code-of-ethics/.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Davis P, Tan K, Mill RR. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands and Supplement I. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1988. p. 590.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Güner A, Özhatay N, Ekim T, Başer KHC. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands and supplement II. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2000. p. 656.Search in Google Scholar

[26] WFO. World flora online. Published on the Internet; 2022. http://www.worldfloraonline.org.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Trotter RT, Logan MH. Informant census: A new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Etkin LN, editor. Plants in indigenous medicine and diet. Bedford Hill, NY: Routledge; 1986. p. 91–112.10.4324/9781315060385-6Search in Google Scholar

[28] Vitalini S, Iriti M, Puricelli C, Ciuchi D, Segale A, Fico G. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy) – An alpine ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145(2):517–29. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.024.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Soc Sci Med. 1998;47(11):1859–71. 10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. 4th edn. India: Mahendra Pal Sing Publishers; 1987.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Bussmann R, Paniagua Zambrana NY, Sikharulidze S, Kikvidze Z, Kikodze D, Tchelidze D, et al. A comparative ethnobotany of Khevsureti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Tusheti, Svaneti, and Racha-Lechkhumi, Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelo), Caucasus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016;12(1):43. 10.1186/s13002-016-0110-2.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[32] Yazıcıoğlu A, Tuzlacı E. Folk medicinal plants of Trabzon (Turkey). Marmara Pharm J. 1995;11(1–2):333–42.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Akbulut S, Özkan ZC. Traditional usage of some wild plants in Trabzon region (Turkey). Kastamonu Univ J For Fac. 2014;14(1):135–45.10.17475/kuofd.48636Search in Google Scholar

[34] Saraç DU, Özkan ZC, Akbulut S. Ethnobotanic features of Rize/Turkey province. BioDiCon. 2013;6(3):57–66.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Akbulut S, Karaköse M, Şen G. Medicinal plants used in folk medicine of Akçaabat district (Turkey). Fresenius Env Bull. 2022;31(7):7160–76.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Sağıroğlu M, Arslantürk A, Akdemir ZK, Turna M. An ethnobotanical survey from Hayrat Trabzon and Kalkandere Rize/Turkey. BioDiCon. 2012;5(1):31–42.Search in Google Scholar

[37] Fujita T, Sezik E, Tabata M, Yeşilada E, Honda G, Takeda Y, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey VII. Folk medicine in middle and west Black Sea regions. Econ Bot. 1995;49(4):406–22. 10.1007/BF02863092.Search in Google Scholar

[38] Honda G, Yeşilada E, Tabata M, Sezik E, Fujita T, Takeda Y, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey VI. Folk medicine in West Anatolia: Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, Muğla, Aydin provinces. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;53(2):75–87. 10.1016/S0378-8741(96)01426-2.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Tuzlacı E, Tolon E. Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: Şile (Istanbul). Fitoterapia. 2000;71(6):673–85. 10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00234-3.Search in Google Scholar

[40] Bussmann R, Paniagua Z, Narel Y, Sikharulidze S, Kikvidze Z, Kikodze D, et al. Plants in the spa–the medicinal plant market of Borjomi, Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia), Caucasus. Indian J Tradit Knowl.; 2017;16(1):25–34.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Gül V, Dinler BS. Kumru (Ordu) yöresinde doğal olarak yetişen bazı tıbbi ve aromatik bitkiler. Ziraat Fak Derg. 2016;11(1):146–56.Search in Google Scholar

[42] Karcı E, Gürbüz İ, Akaydın G, Günbatan T. Folk medicines of Bafra (Samsun-Turkey). Turkish J Biochem. 2017;42(4):381–99. 10.1515/tjb-2017-0172.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Koçyi̇ği̇t M, Özhatay N. Wild plants used as medicinal purpose in Yalova (Northwest Turkey). Turkish J Pharm Sci. 2006;3(2):91–103.Search in Google Scholar

[44] Yeşilada E, Honda G, Sezik E, Tabata M, Fujita T, Tanaka T, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey. V. Folk medicine in the inner Taurus Mountains. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46(3):133–52. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01241-5.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Yeşilada E, Sezik E, Honda G, Takaishi Y, Takeda Y, Tanaka T. Traditional medicine in Turkey IX: Folk medicine in north-west Anatolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(3):195–210. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00133-0.Search in Google Scholar

[46] Genç GE, Özhatay N. An ethnobotanical study in Çatalca (European part of Istanbul) II. Turkish J Pharm Sci. 2006;3(2):73–89.Search in Google Scholar

[47] Kültür Ş. Medicinal plants used in Kırklareli Province (Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(2):341–64. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.11.035.Search in Google Scholar

[48] Sezik E, Tabata M, Yeşilada E, Honda G, Goto K, Ikeshiro Y. Traditional medicine in Turkey I. Folk medicine in Northeast Anatolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;35(2):191–6. 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90072-L.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Vokou D, Katradi K, Kokkini S. Ethnobotanical survey of Zagori (Epirus, Greece), a renowned centre of folk medicine in the past. J Ethnopharmacol. 1993;39(3):187–96. 10.1016/0378-8741(93)90035-4.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Altundağ E, Öztürk M. Ethnomedicinal studies on the plant resources of east Anatolia, Turkey. Proc Soc. 2011;19:756–77. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.05.195.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Güzel Y, Güzelşemme M, Miski M. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Antakya: a multicultural district in Hatay Province of Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;174:118–52. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.042.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[52] Sargın SA, Büyükcengiz M. Plants used in ethnomedicinal practices in Gulnar district of Mersin, Turkey. J Herb Med. 2019;15:100224. 10.1016/j.hermed.2018.06.003.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Yeşilyurt EB, Şimşek I, Akaydin G, Yeşilada E. An ethnobotanical survey in selected districts of the Black Sea region (Turkey). Turk J Bot. 2017;41(1):47–62. 10.3906/bot-1606-12.Search in Google Scholar

[54] Gürbüz İ, Özkan AMG, Akaydin G, Salihoğlu E, Günbatan T, Demirci F, et al. Folk medicine in Düzce province (Turkey). Turk J Bot. 2019;43(6):769–84. 10.3906/bot-1905-13.Search in Google Scholar

[55] Brussell DE. Medicinal plants of Mt. Pelion, Greece. Econ Bot. 2004;58(1):174–202. 10.1663/0013-0001(2004)58[S174:MPOMPG]2.0.CO;2.Search in Google Scholar

[56] Koleva V, Dragoeva A, Nanova Z, Koynova T, Dashev G. An ethnobotanical study on current status of some medicinal plants used in Bulgaria. Int J Curr Microbiol. 2015;4(4):297–305.Search in Google Scholar

[57] Sargın SA, Akçicek E, Selvi S. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150(3):860–74. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040.Search in Google Scholar

[58] Ezer N, Arısan ÖM. Folk medicines in Merzifon (Amasya, Turkey). Turk J Bot. 2006;30(3):223–30.Search in Google Scholar

[59] Ezer N, Avcı K. Çerkeş (Çankırı) yöresinde kullanılan halk ilaçları. Hacet Univ J Fac Pharm. 2004;24(2):67–80.Search in Google Scholar

[60] Korkmaz M, Karakurt E. An ethnobotanical ınvestigation to determine plants used as folk medicine in Kelkit Gümüşhane/Turkey district. BioDiCon. 2015;8(3):290–303.Search in Google Scholar

[61] Sezik E, Yeşilada E, Honda G, Takaishi Y, Takeda Y, Tanaka T. Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in Central Anatolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2):95–115. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00399-8.Search in Google Scholar

[62] Sezik E, Yeşilada E, Tabata M, Honda G, Takaishi Y, Fujita T, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey VIII. Folk medicine in East Anatolia; Erzurum, Erzincan, Ağrı, Kars, Iğdır provinces. Econ Bot. 1997;51(3):195–211. 10.1007/BF02862090.Search in Google Scholar

[63] Hayta Ş, Polat R, Selvi S. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Elazığ (Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;154(3):613–23. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.04.026.Search in Google Scholar

[64] Polat R. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Bingöl (city center) (Turkey). J Herb Med. 2019;16:100211. 10.1016/j.hermed.2018.01.007.Search in Google Scholar

[65] Polat R, Çakılcıoğlu U, Kaltalıoğlu K, Ulusan MD, Türkmen Z. An ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Espiye and its surrounding (Giresun-Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;163:1–11. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.01.008.Search in Google Scholar

[66] Polat R, Çakılcıoğlu U, Satıl F. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Solhan (Bingöl – Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(3):951–63. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.050.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[67] Yeşil Y, İnal İ. Ethnomedicinal plants of Hasankeyf (Batman-Turkey). Front Pharmacol. 2021;11(624710):1–19. 10.3389/fphar.2020.624710.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[68] Karaköse M. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Güce district, north-eastern Turkey. Plant Divers [Preprint]. 2022 [cited 26 Apr 2022]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468265922000385.10.1016/j.pld.2022.03.005Search in Google Scholar

[69] Jana S, Shekhawat GS. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):179–84. 10.4103/0973-7847.70915.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[70] Sarker SD, Eynon E, Fok K, Kumarasamy Y, Murphy EM, Nahar L, et al. Screening the extracts of the seeds of Achillea millefolium, Angelica sylvestris and Phleum pratense for antibacterial, antioxidant activities and general toxicity. Orient Pharm Exp Med. 2003;3(3):157–62. 10.3742/OPEM.2003.3.3.157.Search in Google Scholar

[71] Stanković N, Mihajilov-Krstev T, Zlatković B, Stankov-Jovanović V, Mitić V, Jović J, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of traditional medicinal plants from the Balkan Peninsula. NJAS-Wagen J Life Sc. 2016;78:21–8. 10.1016/j.njas.2015.12.006.Search in Google Scholar

[72] Türkuçar SA, Karaçelik AA, Karaköse M. Phenolic compounds, essential oil composition, and antioxidant activity of Angelica pur-purascens (Avé-Lall.) Gill. Turk J Chem. 2021;45(3):956–66. 10.3906/che-2101-28.Search in Google Scholar

[73] Mehrnia M, Akaberi M, Amiri MS, Nadaf M, Emami SA. Ethnopharmacological studies of medicinal plants in central Zagros, Lorestan Province, Iran. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;280:114080. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114080.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[74] Akaydın G, Şimşek I, Arıtuluk ZC, Yeşilada E. An ethnobotanical survey in selected towns of the Mediterranean subregion (Turkey). Turk J Biol. 2013;37(2):230–47. 10.3906/biy-1010-139.Search in Google Scholar

[75] Gürbüz İ, Özatkan G, Akaydın G, Günbatan T. Ethnopharmacobotanical findings of medicinal plants in the Kızılcahamam district of Ankara, Turkey. Turkish J Pharm Sci. 2021;18(6):667–82. 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2021.12574.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[76] Korkmaz M, Karakuş S. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Üzümlü district, Erzincan, Turkey. Pak J Bot. 2015;47(1):125–34.Search in Google Scholar

[77] Aydın A, Yeşil Y. İkizce Ordu-Türkiye ilçesinde etnobotanik bir ön çalışma. Bağbahçe Bil Der. 2018;5(3):25–43. 10.30796/ANGV.2018.11.Search in Google Scholar

[78] Gürdal B, Öztürk F. Ethnobotanical research in Sürmene district (Trabzon-Turkey, Black Sea Region). Adv Tradit Med. 2022;22(2):293–304. 10.1007/s13596-021-00550-1.Search in Google Scholar

[79] Bozyel ME, Merdamert-Bozyel E, Benek A, Turu D, Yakan MA, Canlı K. Ethnomedicinal uses of Araceae taxa in Turkish traditional medicine. Int J Acad Appl Res. 2020;4(5):78–87.Search in Google Scholar

[80] Javidmehr A, Abbaszadeh S, Kian M, Hamedeyazdan S, Soraya H. Hydroalcoholic extract of Arum orientale ameliorates myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats. J Res Pharm. 2021;25(1):80–8. 10.35333/jrp.2021.287.Search in Google Scholar

[81] Eminağaoğlu Ö, Göktürk T, Beğen AH. Traditional uses of medicinal plants and animals of Hatila Valley National Park. Artvin BioDiCon. 2017;10(3):33–42.Search in Google Scholar

[82] Emre G, Doğan A, Haznedaroğlu MZ, Şenkardes I, Ulger M, Satiroglu A, et al. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mersin (Turkey). Front Pharmacol. 2021;12(1565):664500. 10.3389/fphar.2021.664500.Search in Google Scholar

[83] Yeşilada E, Gisho H, Ekrem S, Mamoru T, Katsumi G, Yasumasa I. Traditional medicine in Turkey IV. Folk medicine in the Mediterranean subdivision. J Ethnopharmacol. 1993;39(1):31–8. 10.1016/0378-8741(93)90048-A.Search in Google Scholar

[84] Korkmaz M, Karakuş S, Özçelik H, Selvi S. An ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Erzincan, Turkey. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2016;15(2):192–202.Search in Google Scholar

[85] Karaköse M, Akbulut S, Özkan ZC. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Torul district, Turkey. Bangladesh J Plant Taxon. 2019;26(1):29–37. 10.3329/bjpt.v26i1.41914.Search in Google Scholar

[86] Bak FE, Çifçi K. Artvin’in merkez köylerinde bazı tıbbi bitkilerin yöresel kullanımları. Artvin Çoruh Univ Orman Fak Derg. 2020;21(2):318–29. 10.17474/artvinofd.782235.Search in Google Scholar

[87] Goud BJ, Dwarakanath V, Swamy B. A review on history, controversy, traditional use, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Artemisia absinthium Linn. Int J Adv Eng. 2015;4(5):77–107.Search in Google Scholar

[88] Batiha GE-S, Olatunde A, El-Mleeh A, Hetta HF, Al-Rejaie S, Alghamdi S, et al. Bioactive Compounds, Pharmacological Actions, and Pharmacokinetics of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Antibiotics. 2020;9(6):353. 10.3390/antibiotics9060353.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[89] Palabaş Uzun S, Koca C. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets of Kahramanmaraş. Plant Divers. 2020;42(6):443–54. 10.1016/j.pld.2020.12.003.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[90] Dalar A, Mukemre M, Unal M, Ozgokce F. Traditional medicinal plants of Ağrı Province, Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;226:56–72. 10.1016/j.jep.2018.08.004.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[91] Pieroni A, Dibra B, Grishaj G, Grishaj I, Gjon Maçai S. Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Northern Albanian Alps. Fitoterapia. 2005;76(3):379–99. 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.03.015.Search in Google Scholar

[92] Tuzlacı E, Erol MK. Turkish folk medicinal plants. Part II: Eğirdir (Isparta). Fitoterapia. 1999;70(6):593–610. 10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00074-X.Search in Google Scholar

[93] Tetik F, Civelek Ş, Çakılcıoğlu U. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146(1):331–46. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.054.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[94] Arora D, Rani A, Sharma A. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula. Pharmacogn Rev. 2013;7(14):179–87. 10.4103/0973-7847.120520.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[95] Street RA, Sidana J, Prinsloo G. Cichorium intybus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. J Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2013;2013:579319. 10.1155/2013/579319.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[96] Zaman R, Basar SN. A review article of Beekhe Kasni (Cichorium intybus) its traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Res Pharm Sci. 2013;2(8):1–4.Search in Google Scholar

[97] Sevindik E, Aydin S, Paksoy MY, Sokmen BB. Anti-urease, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of some Inula l. (Asteraceae) taxa in Turkey. Genetika. 2020;52(3):825–34. 10.2298/GENSR2003825S.Search in Google Scholar

[98] Singh O, Khanam Z, Misra N, Srivastava MK. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011;5(9):82–95. 10.4103/0973-7847.79103.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[99] Miraj S, Alesaeidi S. A systematic review study of therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomile (chamomile). Electron Phys. 2016;8(9):3024–31. 10.19082/3024.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[100] Kaur AK, Wahi A, Brijesh K, Bhandari A, Prasad N. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum): A review. Int J Pharm Res. 2011;3(2):1–10.10.9734/JPRI/2017/37693Search in Google Scholar

[101] Yusufoglu H, Soliman GA, Abdel-Rahman RF, Alqasoumi SI, Anul SA, Akaydin G, et al. Evaluating the antifertility potential of the ethanol extracts of Heliotropium europaeum and Taraxacum serotinum in male rats. Fabad J Pharm Sci. 2013;38(1):11–23.Search in Google Scholar

[102] Türkan Ş, Malyer H, Özaydın S, Tümen G. Ordu ili ve çevresinde yetişen bazı bitkilerin etnobotanik özellikleri. SDÜ Fen Bil Enst Der. 2006;10(2):162–6.Search in Google Scholar

[103] Di Novella R, Di Novella N, De Martino L, Mancini E, De Feo V. Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145(1):328–42. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.065.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[104] Bussmann R, Paniagua Zambrana N, Sikharulidze S, Kikvidze Z, Kikodze D, Tchelidze D, et al. Medicinal and food plants of Svaneti and Lechkhumi, Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia), Caucasus. Med Aromat Plants. 2016;5(5):1–18.10.4172/2167-0412.1000266Search in Google Scholar

[105] Şimşek I, Aytekin F, Yeşilada E, Yıldırımlı Ş. An Ethnobotanical survey of the Beypazarı, Ayaş, and Güdül district towns of Ankara Province (Turkey). Econ Bot. 2004;58(4):705–20. 10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0705:AESOTB]2.0.CO;2.Search in Google Scholar

[106] Karakaya S, Polat A, Aksakal Ö, Sümbüllü YZ, İncekara Ü. An ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in South of Erzurum (Turkey). Ethnobot Res Appl. 2019;18(13):1–18. 10.32859/era.18.13.1-18.Search in Google Scholar

[107] Kucera M, Kálal J, Polesná Z. Effects of Symphytum ointment on muscular symptoms and functional locomotor disturbances. Adv Ther. 2000;17(4):204–11. 10.1007/BF02850297.Search in Google Scholar

[108] Akbulut S, Bayramoğlu MM. Reflections of socio-economic and demographic structure of urban and rural on the use of medicinal and aromatic plants: The sample of Trabzon province. Stud Ethno-Med. 2014;8(1):89–100. 10.1080/09735070.2014.11886477.Search in Google Scholar

[109] Koca AD, Yıldırımlı Ş. Ethnobotanical properties of Akçakoca District in Düzce Turkey. Hacet J Biol Chem. 2010;38(1):63–9.Search in Google Scholar

[110] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Capsella bursa-pastoris-A review. J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;5(2):76–81.Search in Google Scholar

[111] Akgül G, Yılmaz N, Celep A, Celep F, Çakılcıoğlu U. Ethnobotanical purposes of plants sold by herbalists and folk bazaars in the center of Cappadocica (Nevşehir, Turkey). Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2016;15(1):103–8.Search in Google Scholar

[112] Astray G, Gullón P, Gullón B, Munekata PES, Lorenzo JM. Humulus lupulus L. as a natural source of functional biomolecules. Appl Sci. 2020;10(15):5074. 10.3390/app10155074.Search in Google Scholar

[113] Zanoli P, Zavatti M. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116(3):383–96. 10.1016/j.jep.2008.01.011.Search in Google Scholar

[114] Chandra S, Rawat DS. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties. Integr Med Res. 2015;4(3):123–31. 10.1016/j.imr.2015.06.004.Search in Google Scholar

[115] Oladeji OS, Oyebamiji AK. Stellaria media (L.) Vill.- A plant with immense therapeutic potentials: phytochemistry and pharmacology. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04150. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04150.Search in Google Scholar

[116] Bulut G. Folk medicinal plants of Silivri (İstanbul, Turkey). Marmara Pharm J. 2011;15(1):25–9.10.12991/201115441Search in Google Scholar

[117] Bulut G, Tuzlacı E. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Turgutlu (Manisa – Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149(3):633–47. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.016.Search in Google Scholar

[118] Boeing T, Tafarelo Moreno KG, Gasparotto Junior A, Mota da Silva L, de Souza P. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Equisetum (Equisetaceae): A narrative review of the species with therapeutic potential for kidney diseases. J Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2021 Accessed; 2021;e6658434. 10.1155/2021/6658434.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[119] Benarba B, Belabid L, Righi K, Bekkar AA, Elouissi M, Khaldi A, , et al. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;175:626–37. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[120] Kırbağ S, Erecevit P, Zengin F, Güvenç AN. Antimicrobial activities of some Euphorbia species. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(5):305–9.10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.13Search in Google Scholar

[121] Kang SS, Woo WS. Melilotigenin, a New Sapogenin from Melilotus officinalis. J Nat Prod. 1988;51(2):335–8. 10.1021/np50056a027.Search in Google Scholar

[122] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Melilotus Officinalis-A review. IOSR J Pharm. 2020;10(1):26–36.10.22159/ijcpr.2019v11i6.36338Search in Google Scholar

[123] Naim M, Begum W, Shakoor F. Quercus infectoria (Mazu): a review. World J Pharm Res. 2017;6:176–85.10.20959/wjpr20179-9211Search in Google Scholar

[124] Elham A, Arken M, Kalimanjan G, Arkin A, Iminjan M. A review of the phytochemical, pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological evaluation of Quercus infectoria galls. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;273:113592. 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113592.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[125] Cornara L, La Rocca A, Marsili S, Mariotti MG. Traditional uses of plants in the Eastern Riviera (Liguria, Italy). J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125(1):16–30. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.06.021.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[126] Tita I, Mogosanu GD, Tita MG. Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants from the South-West of Romania. Farmacia. 2009;57(2):141–56.Search in Google Scholar

[127] Günbatan T, Gürbüz İ, Özkan AMG. The current status of ethnopharmacobotanical knowledge in Çamlıdere (Ankara, Turkey). Turk J Bot. 2016;40(3):241–9. 10.3906/bot-1501-37.Search in Google Scholar

[128] Tabata M, Sezik E, Honda G, Yeşilada E, Fukui H, Goto K, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey III. Folk medicine in East Anatolia, Van and Bitlis provinces. Int J Pharm. 1994;32(1):3–12. 10.3109/13880209409082966.Search in Google Scholar

[129] Polat R, Satıl F. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Edremit Gulf (Balıkesir – Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;139(2):626–41. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.12.004.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[130] Gürdal B, Kültür Ş. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Marmaris (Muğla, Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146(1):113–26. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.012.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[131] Alipieva KI, Taskova RM, Jensen SR, Handjieva NV. Iridoid glucosides from Lamium album and Lamium maculatum (Lamiaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol. 2006;34(1):88–91. 10.1016/j.bse.2005.04.002.Search in Google Scholar

[132] Kulabas SS, Ipek H, Tufekci AR, Arslan S, Demirtas I, Ekren R, et al. Ameliorative potential of Lavandula stoechas in metabolic syndrome via multitarget interactions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;223:88–98. 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.043.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[133] Dar SA, Bhushan A, Gupta P. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Marrubium vulgare L., an important medicinal herb. In: Singh B, editor. Botanical leads for drug discovery. Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2020. p. 255–75.10.1007/978-981-15-5917-4_12Search in Google Scholar

[134] Aćimović M, Jeremić K, Salaj N, Gavarić N, Kiprovski B, Sikora V, et al. Marrubium vulgare L.: A phytochemical and pharmacological overview. Molecules. 2020;25(12):2898. 10.3390/molecules25122898.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[135] Juárez-Vázquez MdC, Carranza-Álvarez C, Alonso-Castro AJ, González-Alcaraz VF, Bravo-Acevedo E, Chamarro-Tinajero FJ, et al. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(2):521–7. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.048.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[136] Bussmann RW, Batsatsashvili K, Kikvidze Z, Paniagua-Zambrana NY, Khutsishvili M, Maisaia I, et al. Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae. In: Batsatsashvili K, Kikvidze Z, Bussmann RW, editors. Ethnobotany of the mountain regions of far Eastern Europe: Ural, Northern Caucasus, Turkey, and Iran. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2020. p. 1–4.10.1007/978-3-319-77088-8_89-2Search in Google Scholar

[137] Basar SN, Zaman R. An overview of badranjboya (Melissa officinalis). Int Res J Biol Sci. 2013;2(12):107–9.Search in Google Scholar

[138] Khajuria AK, Manhas RK, Kumar H, Bisht NS. Ethnobotanical study of traditionally used medicinal plants of Pauri district of Uttarakhand, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;276:114204. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114204.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[139] Bussmann R, Paniagua Zambrana NY, Sikharulidze S, Kikvidze Z, Kikodze D, Tchelidze D, et al. Unequal brothers-Plant and fungal use in Guria and Racha, Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia), Caucasus. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2018;17(1):7–33.10.1186/s13002-021-00490-9Search in Google Scholar

[140] Baykal H, Atamov V. Ethnobotanical documentation of plants of Bașhemșin valley, Kaçkar Mountains National Park, Rize, Turkey. Bangladesh J Bot. 2017;46(2):767–73.Search in Google Scholar

[141] Everest A, Öztürk E. Focusing on the ethnobotanical uses of plants in Mersin and Adana provinces (Turkey). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2005;1(1):1–6. 10.1186/1746-4269-1-6.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[142] Purushothaman B, PrasannaSrinivasan R, Suganthi P, Ranganathan B, Gimbun J, Shanmugam K. A comprehensive review on Ocimum basilicum. J Nat Remedies. 2018;18(3):71–85. 10.18311/jnr/2018/21324.Search in Google Scholar

[143] Bulut G, Tuzlacı E. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Bayramiç (Çanakkale-Turkey). Marmara Pharm J. 2015;19(1):269–82.10.12991/mpj.201519392830Search in Google Scholar

[144] Fakir H, Korkmaz M, Icel B. Medicinal plants traditionally used for pain alleviation in Antalya province, Turkey. Stud Ethno-Med. 2016;10(3):314–24. 10.1080/09735070.2016.11905503.Search in Google Scholar

[145] Eyüp B, Ayşe Y, Şükrü H, Uğur Ç. Composition of the essential oil of Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. J Med Plant Res. 2010;4(23):2588–90. 10.5897/JMPR10.823.Search in Google Scholar

[146] Grujic Jovanovic S, Marin PD, Dzamic A, Ristic M. Essential oil composition of Thymus longicaulis from Serbia. Chem Nat Compd. 2009;45(2):265–6. 10.1007/s10600-009-9282-5.Search in Google Scholar

[147] Uysal İ, Gücel S, Tütenocaklı T, Öztürk M. Studies on the medicinal plants of Ayvacik-Çanakkale in Turkey. Pak J Bot. 2012;44(Supp. 1):239–44.Search in Google Scholar

[148] Axiotis E, Halabalaki M, Skaltsounis LA. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Greek Islands of North Aegean Region. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:409. 10.3389/fphar.2018.00409.Search in Google Scholar

[149] Özdemir E, Alpınar K. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Niğde – Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;166:53–65. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.052.Search in Google Scholar

[150] Ağalar HG, Kürkçüoğlu M, Başer KHC, Turgut K. Volatile constituents of three Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subspecies from different sites in Turkey. Turk J Chem. 2021;45(6):1959–67. 10.3906/kim-2103-6.Search in Google Scholar

[151] Tuzlacı E, Aymaz PE. Turkish folk medicinal plants, Part IV: Gönen (Balıkesir). Fitoterapia. 2001;72(4):323–43. 10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00277-X.Search in Google Scholar

[152] Koyuncu O, Öztürk D, Erkara IP, Yaylaci ÖK, Ardiç M. Production and usage of different types of ash-cakes from Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) in Anatolia, Turkey. Bangladesh J Bot. 2009;38(2):211–3. 10.3329/bjb.v38i2.5152.Search in Google Scholar

[153] Ghorbani A. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran: (Part 1): General results. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102(1):58–68. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.035.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[154] El-Mokasabi FM, Al-Sanousi MF, El-Mabrouk RM. Taxonomy and ethnobotany of medicinal plants in eastern region of Libya. J Env Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2018;12:14–23. 10.9790/2402-1208011423.Search in Google Scholar

[155] Çelik Onar H, Yıldız T. Researches on the Epilobium angustifolium L. ethanol extract, Turkey. Rom Biotechnol Lett. 2021;26(5):2964–70. 10.25083/rbl/26.5/2964-2970.Search in Google Scholar

[156] Karakaya S, Süntar I, Yakinci OF, Sytar O, Ceribasi S, Dursunoglu B, et al. In vivo bioactivity assessment on Epilobium species: A particular focus on Epilobium angustifolium and its components on enzymes connected with the healing process. J Ethnopharmacol. 2020;262:113207. 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113207.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[157] Bussmann R. Ethnobotany of the caucasus. New York: Springer; 2017.10.1007/978-3-319-49412-8Search in Google Scholar

[158] Bıyık B, Köroğlu A. Investigations of Şahtere (Fumaria officinalis L.) sold in the Turkey markets. BioDiCon. 2020;3(3):200–8. 10.46309/biodicon.2020.747067.Search in Google Scholar

[159] Çoban İ, Toplan GG, Özbek B, Gürer ÇU, Sarıyar G. Variation of alkaloid contents and antimicrobial activities of Papaver rhoeas L. growing in Turkey and northern Cyprus. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):1894–8. 10.1080/13880209.2017.1340964.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[160] Kızılarslan Ç, Sevgi E. Ethnobotanical uses of genus Pinus L. (Pinaceae) in Turkey. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2013;12(2):209–20.Search in Google Scholar

[161] Uysal İ, Onar S, Karabacak E, Çelik S. Ethnobotanical aspects of Kapıdağ peninsula (Turkey). BioDiCon. 2010;3(3):15–22.Search in Google Scholar

[162] Küpeli E, Orhan İ, Yeşilada E. Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Pharm Biol. 2007;45(7):547–55. 10.1080/13880200701498895.Search in Google Scholar

[163] Singh R, De S, Belkheir A. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: An overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(2):126–44. 10.1080/10408398.2010.526725.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[164] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Agropyron repens–A review. Res J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;1(2):37–41.Search in Google Scholar

[165] Jafarirad S, Rasoulpour I. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Mahabad (West Azerbaijan) biosphere reserve: ethno-pharmaceutical formulations, nutraceutical uses and quantitative aspects. Braz J Pharm Sci. 2019;55:1–13. 10.1590/s2175-97902019000118133.Search in Google Scholar

[166] Nanagulyan S, Zakaryan N, Kartashyan N, Piwowarczyk R, Łuczaj Ł. Wild plants and fungi sold in the markets of Yerevan (Armenia). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020;16(1):26. 10.1186/s13002-020-00375-3.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[167] Özbek H, Açıkara ÖB, Keskin İ, Kırmızı Nİ, Özbilgin S, Öz BE, et al. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activity of Alchemilla mollis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;86:172–6. 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.005.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[168] Karakaya S, Polat A, Aksakal Ö, Sümbüllü YZ, Incekara Ü. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Aziziye district (Erzurum, Turkey). Turkish J Pharm Sci. 2020;17(2):211–20. 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.24392.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[169] Akaydin G, Şimşek I, Arituluk ZC, Yeşilada E. An ethnobotanical survey in selected towns of the Mediterranean subregion (Turkey). Turk J Biol. 2013;37(2):230–47. 10.3906/biy-1010-139.Search in Google Scholar

[170] Jarić S, Popović Z, Mačukanović-Jocić M, Djurdjević L, Mijatović M, Karadžić B, et al. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(1):160–75. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.11.007.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[171] Rexhepi B, Mustafa B, Hajdari A, Rushidi-Rexhepi J, Quave CL, Pieroni A. Cross-cultural ethnobotany of the Sharr Mountains (Northwestern Macedonia). In: Pieroni A, Quave CL, editors. Ethnobotany and biocultural diversities in the Balkans: Perspectives on sustainable rural development and reconciliation. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2014. p. 67–86.10.1007/978-1-4939-1492-0_5Search in Google Scholar

[172] Doğan A, Bulut G, Şenkardes I, Tuzlacı E, editors. An ethnopharmacological analysis of Rosaceae taxa in Turkey. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings Boston USA; 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[173] Pieroni A, Nedelcheva A, Dogan Y. Local knowledge of medicinal plants and wild food plants among Tatars and Romanians in Dobruja (South-East Romania). Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2015;62(4):605–20. 10.1007/s10722-014-0185-3.Search in Google Scholar

[174] Pieroni A, Nedelcheva A, Hajdari A, Mustafa B, Scaltriti B, Cianfaglione K, et al. Local knowledge on plants and domestic remedies in the mountain villages of Peshkopia (Eastern Albania). J Mt Sci. 2014;11(1):180–93. 10.1007/s11629-013-2651-3.Search in Google Scholar

[175] Akbulut S, Karaköse M, Özkan ZC. Traditional uses of some wild plants in Kale and Acıpayam provinces in Denizli. Kastamonu Univ J For Fac. 2019;19(1):72–81. 10.17475/kastorman.5435290.Search in Google Scholar

[176] Özhatay N, Akalın E, Genç GE, Kültür Ş, editors. Ethnomedicinal uses of the wild vascular plants from European Turkey (Turkish Thrace). IV Balkan Botanical Congress. Sofia; 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[177] Redžić S. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Coll Antropol. 2007;31(3):869–90.Search in Google Scholar

[178] Sher H, Ur Rahman I, Jan HA, Abbasi MA, Bussmann RW, Paniagua-Zambrana NY. Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae. In: Kunwar RM, Sher H, Bussmann RW, editors. Ethnobotany of the himalayas. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2020. p. 1–12.10.1007/978-3-030-45597-2_11-1Search in Google Scholar

[179] Kumar G, Karthik L, Rao KB. A review on pharmacological and phytochemical properties of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). J Pharm Res. 2011;4(9):2963–6.Search in Google Scholar

[180] Nadiroğlu M, Behçet L, Çakılcıoğlu U. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Karlıova (Bingöl-Turkey). Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2019;18(1):76–87.Search in Google Scholar

[181] Akbulut S. Medicinal plants preferences for the treatment of COVID-19 symptoms in central and eastern Anatolia. Kastamonu Univ J For Fac. 2021;21(3):196–207. 10.17475/kastorman.1048372.Search in Google Scholar

[182] Belhouala K, Benarba B. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Algeria: A multiregional ethnobotanical study. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:760492. 10.3389/fphar.2021.760492.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[183] Erbay MŞ, Anıl S, Melikoğlu G. Plants used as painkiller in traditional treatment in Turkey-II Headache. Marmara Pharm J. 2018;22(1):29–36. 10.12991/mpj.2018.37.Search in Google Scholar

[184] Kavalcıoğlu N, Açık L, Demirci F, Demirci B, Demir H, Başer KHC. Biological activities of Bellis perennis volatiles and extracts. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(1):147–50.10.1177/1934578X1000500134Search in Google Scholar

[185] Karakaş FP, Yıldırım A, Türker A. Biological screening of various medicinal plant extracts for antibacterial and antitumor activities. Turk J Biol. 2012;36(6):641–52. 10.3906/biy-1203-16.Search in Google Scholar

[186] Karakaş FP, Karakaş A, Coşkun H, Turker AU. Effects of common daisy (Bellis perennis L.) aqueous extracts on anxiety-like behaviour and spatial memory performance in Wistar albino rats. Afr J Pharm Pharm. 2011;5:1378–88.10.5897/AJPP11.262Search in Google Scholar

[187] Ceylan Ö, Uğur A, Saraç N. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, antibiofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of Bellis perennis L. J BioSci Biotechnol. 2014;3(SE/ONLINE):35–42.Search in Google Scholar

[188] Karakaş FP, Türker AU. An efficient in vitro regeneration system for Bellis perennis L. and comparison of phenolic contents of field-grown and in vitro-grown leaves by LC-MS/MS. Ind Crop Prod. 2013;48:162–70. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.04.008.Search in Google Scholar

[189] Avato P, Vitali C, Mongelli P, Tava A. Antimicrobial activity of polyacetylenes from Bellis perennis and their synthetic derivatives. Planta Med. 1997;63(6):503–7.10.1055/s-2006-957751Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[190] Morikawa T, Muraoka O, Yoshikawa M. Pharmaceutical food science: Search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis. J Pharm Soc Jpn. 2010;130(5):673–8.10.1248/yakushi.130.673Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[191] Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, Singer SR, Grisaru S, Shashar D, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study – preliminary results. Complement Ther Med. 2005;13(2):87–90.10.1016/j.ctim.2005.03.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[192] Terzioğlu S, Coşkunçelebi K. Medicinal plants of northeast Anatolia. In: Öztürk M, Altay V, Efe R, editors. Biodiversity, conservation and sustainability in Asia: Volume 1: Prospects and challenges in West Asia and Caucasus. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2021. p. 275–337.10.1007/978-3-030-59928-7_11Search in Google Scholar

[193] Saçan Ö. Antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid contents of Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Eur J Biol. 2018;77(2):70–5. 10.26650/EurJBiol.2018.18017.Search in Google Scholar

[194] Ayhan BS, Yalçın E, Çavuşoğlu K, Acar A. Antidiabetic potential and multi-biological activities of Trachystemon orientalis extracts. J Food Meas Charact. 2019;13(4):2887–93. 10.1007/s11694-019-00209-1.Search in Google Scholar

[195] Ayvaz MÇ. Antioxidant activity of Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don (Borage) grown and eaten as food in Ordu, Turkey. Herba Pol. 2015;61(4):40–51. 10.1515/hepo-2015-0030.Search in Google Scholar

[196] Özen T. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Grasas Aceites. 2010;61(1):86–94. 10.3989/gya.075509.Search in Google Scholar

[197] Onaran A, Yılar M. Antifungal activity of Trachystemon orientalis L. aqueous extracts against plant pathogens. J Food Agric Env. 2012;10(3–4):287–91.Search in Google Scholar

[198] Kurtuluş G, Toksöz O, Sesal C. Potential application of Trachystemon orientalis L. extracts in the cosmetic industries: Skincare, photoprotective and antiaging ingredients. Int J Adv Eng Pure Sci. 2022;34(1):147–56. 10.7240/jeps.1056274.Search in Google Scholar

[199] Özer MÖ, Aksoy M. Mineral composition and nutritional properties of Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don populations in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey. Acta Sci Pol Hortorum Cultus. 2019;8(4):157–67. 10.24326/asphc.2019.4.15.Search in Google Scholar

[200] Şekeroglu N, Özkutlu F, Deveci M, Dede Ö, Yılmaz N. Evaluation of some wild plants aspect of their nutritional values used as vegetable in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. Asian J Plant Sci. 2006;5(2):185–9.10.3923/ajps.2006.185.189Search in Google Scholar

[201] Yılmaz KU, Ercisli S, Zengin Y, Sengül M, Kafkas EY. Preliminary characterisation of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes for their physico-chemical properties. Food Chem. 2009;114(2):408–12. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.055.Search in Google Scholar

[202] Hosseinpour-Jaghdani F, Shomali T, Gholipour-Shahraki S, Rahimi-Madiseh M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Cornus mas: a review on traditional uses and pharmacological properties. J Complement Integr Med. 2017;14(3):20160137. 10.1515/jcim-2016-0137.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[203] Seeram NP, Schutzki R, Chandra A, Nair MG. Characterization, quantification, and bioactivities of anthocyanins in Cornus species. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(9):2519–23. 10.1021/jf0115903.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[204] Sozański T, Kucharska AZ, Rapak A, Szumny D, Trocha M, Merwid-Ląd A, et al. Iridoid–loganic acid versus anthocyanins from the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry): Common and different effects on diet-induced atherosclerosis, PPARs expression and inflammation. Atherosclerosis. 2016;254:151–60. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.10.001.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[205] Dinda B, Kyriakopoulos AM, Dinda S, Zoumpourlis V, Thomaidis NS, Velegraki A, et al. Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry), an important European and Asian traditional food and medicine: Ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology for its commercial utilization in drug industry. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;193:670–90. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.09.042.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[206] Özaydın S, Dirmenci T, Tümen G, Başer KHC, editors. Plants used as analgesic in the folk medicine of Turkey. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB 2005). İstanbul: Ege University Publications; 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[207] Shuya C, Xingguo C, Zhide H. Identification and determination of ecdysone and phenylpropanoid glucoside and flavonoids in Lamium maculatum by capillary zone electrophoresis. Biomed Chromatogr. 2003;17(7):477–82. 10.1002/bmc.279.Search in Google Scholar

[208] Yalçın FN, Duygu K. Ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). Fabad J Pharm Sci. 2006;1(31):43–52.Search in Google Scholar

[209] Salehi B, Armstrong L, Rescigno A, Yeskaliyeva B, Seitimova G, Beyatli A, et al. Lamium Plants – A comprehensive review on health benefits and biological activities. Molecules. 2019;24(10):1913. 10.3390/molecules24101913.Search in Google Scholar

[210] Hürkul MM, Köroğlu A. A ethnobotanical review: the subfamily Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae). Fabad J Pharm Sci. 2019;44(1):35–46.Search in Google Scholar

[211] Rocabado GO, Bedoya LM, Abad MJ, Bermejo P. Rubus – A review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Nat Prod Commun. 2008;3(3):423–36. 10.1177/1934578X0800300319.Search in Google Scholar

[212] Yeşilada E, Üstün O, Sezik E, Takaishi Y, Ono Y, Honda G. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;58(1):59–73. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00076-7.Search in Google Scholar

[213] Erdemoğlu N, Küpeli E, Yeşilada E. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(1):123–9. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00282-4.Search in Google Scholar

[214] Assafiri O, Abdallah H, El-Dakdouki M. Antibacterial effect and phytochemical analysis of the shoot system of Rubus canescens DC. growing in Lebanon. BAU J Sci Tech. 2020;2(1):1–12.Search in Google Scholar

[215] Tatlı II, Sahpaz S, Akkol EK, Martin-Nizard F, Gressier B, Ezer N, et al. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of Turkish medicinal plants. Pharm Biol. 2009;47(9):916–21. 10.1080/13880200902962731.Search in Google Scholar

[216] Coode M, Cullen J. Pinus L. In: Davis P, editor. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1965. p. 72–5.Search in Google Scholar

[217] Sezik E, Üstün O, Demirci B, Başer KHC. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey. Turk J Chem. 2010;34(2):313–25. 10.3906/kim-0903-39.Search in Google Scholar

[218] Üstün O, Sezik E, Kürkçüoğlu M, Başer KHC. Study of the essential oil composition of Pinus sylvestris from Turkey. Chem Nat Compd. 2006;42(1):26–31. 10.1007/s10600-006-0029-2.Search in Google Scholar

[219] Gülçin İ, Büyükokuroǧlu ME, Oktay M, Küfrevioǧlu, Öİ. Antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;86(1):51–8. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00036-9.Search in Google Scholar

[220] Dığrak M, İlçim A, Hakkı Alma M. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra. Phytother Res. 1999;13(7):584–7. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199911)13:7<584:AID-PTR508>3.0.CO;2-S.Search in Google Scholar

[221] Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, Perez-Fernandez R. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus sylvestris and Plantago lanceolata extracts: effect on inducible NOS, COX-1, COX-2 and their products in J774A.1 murine macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;57(3):383–91. 10.1211/0022357055605.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[222] Karaçelik AA, Şeker ME, Karaköse M. Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Different Extracts From Bark of Pinus spp. grown in Giresun (Turkey) Province–Phenolic analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD. KSU Doğa Bilim Derg. 2022;25(1):10–8. 10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.875313.Search in Google Scholar

[223] Nisca A, Ștefănescu R, Stegăruș DI, Mare AD, Farczadi L, Tanase C. Comparative study regarding the chemical composition and biological activity of pine (Pinus nigra and P. sylvestris) bark extracts. Antioxidants. 2021;10(2):327. 10.3390/antiox10020327.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[224] Erbay MŞ, Anıl S, Melikoğlu G. Plants used as painkiller in folk medicine in Turkey–III: Rheumatic pain. Marmara Pharm J. 2018;22(2):133–41. 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2018.412321.Search in Google Scholar

[225] Friščić M, Baglama MS, Milovic M, Pilepic KH, Males Z. Content of bioactive constituents and antioxidant potential of Galium L. species. Croat Chem Acta. 2018;91(3):411–7. 10.5562/cca3379.Search in Google Scholar

[226] Kaval İ, Behçet L, Çakılcıoğlu U. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Geçitli and its surrounding (Hakkari-Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155(1):171–84. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.014.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[227] Kılıç M, Yıldız K, Kılıç FM. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Artuklu, Turkey. Hum Ecol. 2020;48(5):619–32. 10.1007/s10745-020-00180-2.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2022-06-17
Revised: 2022-07-24
Accepted: 2022-08-21
Published Online: 2022-09-12

© 2022 Gökhan Şen et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Downloaded on 2.3.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/chem-2022-0204/html
Scroll to top button