Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access October 28, 2022

Characterization of electroless Ni-coated Fe–Co composite using powder metallurgy

  • Ahmet Yonetken EMAIL logo
From the journal Open Chemistry

Abstract

This study covers composite production and characterization of powders obtained by applying the electroless Ni coating technique to Fe–Co powders by microwave sintering technique. The physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of electroless Ni-coated Fe and Co composites samples produced in different compositions by sintering magnetic materials in a microwave oven at 1,100°C were characterized. With the electroless coating technique, a uniform nickel deposit on the Fe–Co particles was coated before sintering with the precipitation procedure. A composite consisting of metallic phase, Fe–Co, and triple additions in a Ni matrix was prepared in an argon atmosphere and sintered by microwave technique. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and impedance phase analyzer were used to obtain structural data in the temperature range of 25–40°C and to determine magnetic and electrical properties such as dielectric and conductivity. The ferromagnetic resonance was varied between 10 Hz and 1 GHz, and measurements were made to characterize the properties of the samples. Numerical findings obtained for 25% Ni composition at 1,100°C (Fe–37.5% Co) suggest that the best conductivity and hardness are obtained by adding 25Ni at 1,100°C sintering temperature.

1 Introduction

Many surface technologies have been developed to increase the working life and performance of the materials in contact with the working environment and to achieve more resistant surface properties. The electroless Ni-coating method was used to form a coating layer with superior properties on the surface of the metallic material with its chemically reducing effect. Hydrazine is a very strong reducing agent in aqueous alkaline solutions.

(1.1) 2 Ni + N 2 H 4 + 4 OH Ni + 4 H 2 O + 4 e , E b = + 1.16 V,

(1.2) 2 Ni + 2 e 2 Ni ° , E º = 0.25 V .

Levy proposed the following reducing reaction for nickel ions:

(1.3) 2 Ni + 2 + N 2 H 4   + 4 OH 2 Ni o + N 2   + 4 H 2 O, E o = 0.91 V .

In this reaction, the ( OH ) ion is present in the alkali metal solution during the reaction in which ammonium hydroxide is added. In fact, for the H 2 O product the reaction is as follows:

(1.4) Ni + 2 + N 2 H 4   H 2 O  Ni o + N 2 + H 2 +   2 H + .

Prior to 1963, Levy published documentation of the nickel plating method with hydrazine. Next, Dini and Coronado report that several different nickel-hydrazine plating baths have been characterized [1].

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of uncoated and Ni-coated powders are shown in Figure 1. Less porosity was determined in Ni-coated powders than in uncoated powders. In addition, a homogeneous distribution was observed in the SEM image of the Ni-coated powders. The raw strength of Ni-coated powders was higher. The Ni coating thickness was measured at around 1 μm in the SEM image of Ni-coated powders.

Figure 1 
               SEM pictures before and after coating. (a) SEM of uncoated powders and (b) SEM of coated powders.
Figure 1

SEM pictures before and after coating. (a) SEM of uncoated powders and (b) SEM of coated powders.

Nickel is a strategically important element used as an additive element in many commercial applications and in the military and aviation industries. Furthermore, it is used to give a green color in the glass industry. Nickel is, above all, an alloying element. Therefore, it has many uses as an alloy. These alloys are alloys made with copper, chromium, and aluminum. The magnetic characteristics of the Co–Fe–Ni triple alloys have been explored since the early 1950s [2]. The properties of magnetic materials are known through research by Bozorth. Magnetic properties are recommended for many applications. An example is to save information to the head core in an electronic storage unit [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16]. It is obtained that iron–nickel–cobalt alloys with soft magnetic materials are those materials that are easily magnetised and demagnetised. However, different alloy compositions have been used compared to electro-laminated films [16]. The low saturation magnetic field of Permalloy revealed the idea of searching for a material with better magnetic features. According to Permalloy, Fe–Co–Ni alloys have higher saturation magnetization properties [17]. The application of these materials on an industrial scale is limited by an absence of good information about the effect of the deposition condition on the microstructure, composition, and magnetic features. In a ferrite, we can observe the transition from a ferromagnetic to a paramagnetic state as temperature increases. In these materials, the activation energy was found to be lower in the ferromagnetic region than in the magnetic field [18,19,20]. The electrical properties of the ferrites are susceptible to the method of preparation, sintering temperature, time, and heating and cooling rate [21,22]. Nickel–cobalt alloys are nickel alloys commonly used for electroforming due to their magnetic features and high tensile strength. It is used by integrating electrodeposition magnetic materials. For example, micro-electro-mechanical systems, microactivators, sensors, micromotors, and frictionless devices [22]. Electroless nickel coating has many advantages; the cost is low, it is easy to apply, and a continuous and homogeneous coating formation occurs in powder particles [22]. It has been stated that microwave sintering consumes less energy in a short time, together with the advantage of low-temperature sintering [23,24,25]. The mechanical and magnetic properties of the electro-shaped nanocrystalline Fe–Ni thin film have been investigated, and the Fe–Ni thin film has been commercially accepted with its grain size, thermal expansion coefficient, and permeability properties [26,27,28,29]. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of magnetic materials due to their potential applications in ferrofluids, advanced magnetic materials, catalysts, optical and mechanical devices, high-intensity magnetic imaging, and medical diagnostics [30,31,32,33,34,35,36]. There are many Ni-plating baths in the literature. The reason why the hydrazine bath is preferred is that it provides the precipitation of pure Ni into the composition. Ni precipitated on Fe and Co particles forms a thin film, facilitating the sintering process as well as allowing composite production at lower temperatures than melting temperatures. Energy saving is also provided by the microwave sintering technique method [37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50].

The aim of the study is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the Ni-precipitated Fe–Co powders after sintering in the microwave oven by providing a pure Ni coating of the selected Fe–Co powders in a hydrazine bath.

2 Experimental method

In this study, the powder properties of Fe, Co, and Ni used in this work are as follows. It has a purity of 99.9% for Fe powders and a particle size of less than 40 µm. For Co powders, it has a purity of up to 99.9% and a particle size of less than 140 µm. In the Ni deposition, Fe–Co powders were coated by using an electroless Ni-coating method.

The Ni coating was achieved by suspending the starting Fe–Co powders in a Ni-containing solution (NiCI2·6H2O) at 90–95°C and by adding hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O) drop by drop and 30 vol.% ammonia solution while keeping the pH at 8–10. For increasing temperatures, as ammonia evaporation increases, for this reason, an ammonia dripping apparatus was used to keep the pH of the coating bath in the range of 8–10. By the way, the bath chemical was continuously mixed and the pH was constantly observed by utilizing a Philips PW 9413 Ion-Meter. The reaction was allowed to continue until sufficient Ni was added for deposition coating all the Fe–Co powders, after which the Ni-coated Fe–Co powders were filtered out of the bath chemical by using a paper filter after being washed several times with pure water and alcohol and then oven dried at 105°C and then followed by sintering at 1,100°C for 30 m using a microwave furnace. The purity of 99.9% for Co powders with a particle dimension lower than 150 µm. The compositions were figured out according to the variables in the formula Fex + Coy + Ni100-(x + y) (x + y = 40, 50, 66.66, 75 in at%), that is, 50 at% Fe and 25 at% Co. Samples produced with powder metallurgy were prepared as 10 g rectangular prism. The sample mixtures were shaped by a uniaxial cold-hydraulic press using a high-strength steel mold. A compression of 400 bar was utilized to compress and shape the powder mixtures. A sintering time of 30 min at 1,100°C in a microwave oven was applied to the samples, which were pressed cold chelated by using an argon atmosphere. After sintering the specimens, the furnace was left to cool naturally. The hardness of the samples was compared with the METTEST-HT hardness tester and Shimadzu AG-IS 100KN universal tensile equipment. A standard metallurgical sample preparation method was used for the samples. This was done to determine the microstructure of the sample. The contents of the coating bath are given in Table 1.

Table 1

The nickel bath and ratios

(Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni (Fe–25% Co) 50% Ni (Fe–33% Co) 33% Ni (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni
Iron (Fe), g 8 10 14.06 15
Cobalt (Co), g 4 5 7.03 7.5
Nickel chloride (NiCI2·6H2O), g 72 60 39.6 30
Hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O), % 20 20 20 20
Distill water, % 80 80 80 80
Temperature, °C 90–95 90–95 90–95 90–95
pH value 8-10 8–10 8–10 8–10

Shimadzu XRD-6000 model that X-ray Diffraction Analyzer was run with CuK alpha radiation at 2° per minute as the scan value. An LEO 1430 VP model electron microscope with an Oxford EDX analyzer was utilized for sample microstructural properties and element composition analysis. In the impedance phase analyzer, a 1 Hz frequency was selected. A Nova Control alpha impedance phase analyzer (AEPA) was used in the temperature range of 0–500 C. A 1.5 kW impedance analyzer produced by Hundsangen in Germany was used to measure electrical properties.

Table 2

Conductivity and resistivity of metals

Material Resistivity p (Ωm) at 20°C Conductivity σ (S/m) at 20°C
Cobalt 6.25 × 10−8 1.60 × 107
Nickel 6.84 × 10−8 1.46 × 107
Iron 9.58 × 10−8 1.04 × 107

Resistivity is the opposite of electrical conductivity, evaluating how strongly a metal opposes the flow of electric current. Bulk casting resistance and conductivity values of the materials used are given in Table 1. Fe has the highest electrical resistance. The lowest conductivity value belongs to Co metal. Since the samples produced have a porous structure, it is normal for the conductivity values to be lower than for bulk casting (Table 2).

In Table 3, the physical and mechanical properties of some metal matrix composites are given. As the Ni ratio increased in the Fe–Ni composite, improvements were observed in the mechanical properties of the composite [48]. The shaped (Fe + Co + Ni) samples were calculated using the volumetric variation of the composite samples after sintering (d = (m) mass/(V) volume) (Figure 1). The capacity of composite specimens was compared with Archimedes’ principle. Unless otherwise indicated, the percentages and ratios used in the article are given as weight percent for the samples.

Table 3

Properties of several metal-matrix composites

Fiber Vickers microhardness (MPa) Yield stress (MPa) Ultimate tensile stress (g/cm3)
Fe–5Ni 1,410 ± 90 260 ± 42 342 ± 42
Fe–7Ni 1,700 ± 110 369 ± 30 427 ± 8
Fe–9Ni 1,970 ± 70 383 ± 50 444 ± 33
Fe–9Ni 2,500 ± 100 439 561

3 Results

3.1 Characterization of specimens

The density measurement method is based on the Archimedes principle and is widely used in the measurement of the densities of solid materials. The volume of the pores in the sample is calculated from the weight of the liquid required to fill them. Although most of the pores can be filled by the liquid used, some pores are closed, and these pores are not included in the calculated value because the liquid cannot fill them. Therefore, the calculated porosity and solid density values are called apparent porosity and apparent solid density. Density determination was measured by means of Archimedes’ principle, which states that an object immersed in a liquid loses an amount equal to the weight of the liquid it apparently replaces. In this article, powdered (pressed) samples were prepared using the powder metallurgy method and sintered in a microwave sintering furnace in an argon atmosphere at 1,100°C. The samples were prepared for density as physical properties, hardness, and compression strength values from mechanical properties were examined. Electrical properties were investigated by SEM and X-ray analyses in metallographic examinations. The density–composition change curve of the samples sliced in the microwave is given in Figure 2. Density values for different compositions were determined. The highest density of composition was compared with 4.5 g/cm3 in the (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni composition.

Figure 2 
                  Density–hardness–composition curve in specimens.
Figure 2

Density–hardness–composition curve in specimens.

The hardness–composition variation graph of samples sintered in the microwave sintering furnace is shown in Figure 3. As a result, the highest hardness value (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni of composite specimens fabricated by electroless Ni coating was measured to be 78.18 HB at (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni composition. When we look at the composition ratios, the composition with a high Fe–Co ratio (Fe–37.5% Co) was chosen as 25% Ni. Naturally, it is natural that the hardness value of the specified composition is higher than that of other compositions. The density ratios of the compositions support these data.

Figure 3 
                  Hardness–composition curve in specimens.
Figure 3

Hardness–composition curve in specimens.

Electrical conductivity has already been referred to in discussing the bonding of atoms. It is largely determined by a lot of electrons in the conduction territory, and by the number of holes in the valance band. The average distance traveled by electrons freely in metals will affect the value of electrical conductivity and its temperature coefficient. Resistance and conductivity were applied to determine the electrical properties of the materials produced. The properties of resistance and conductivity are inversely opposite to each other in materials. The resistance of a material describes how much difficulty it has passed to the passage of electrical current. Conductivity is generally represented by the Greek character sigma (σ) and compared with S/m. Resistance (ρ) is related to resistance (R), cross-section (S), and length (L) in the following formula: ρ = RS/L. Individual resistance values of components, Fe, Co, and Ni in 60% Ni-coated Fe–Co composite are given as 8.85 × 10−8 Ωm, 6.24 × 10−8 Ωm, and 6.84 × 10−8 Ωm at 20°C, respectively. The total resistance of composite consisting of Fe, Co, and Ni can be theoretically calculated with respect to their atomic fraction in the mixture as (0.27 × 8.85 + 0.13 × 6.24 + 0.6 × 6.84) × 10−8 Ωm, which is equal to 7.29 × 10−8 Ωm. Results showed that conductivity decreases with increasing frequency of the current, and it becomes completely nonconductive at the frequency of 1 MHz. Within the 1–10 kHz range, the change in resistance varies slightly, and at 100 kHz, the dependency of frequency on the temperature change becomes ineffective (Figure 4).

Figure 4 
                  Comprehension strength–composition temperature curve in specimens.
Figure 4

Comprehension strength–composition temperature curve in specimens.

Electrical conductivity has already been referred to in discussing the bonding of atoms. It is largely determined by a lot of electrons in the conduction territory and by the number of holes in the valance band. The average path followed by electrons freely in metals will affect the value of electrical conductivity and its temperature coefficient. Resistance and conductivity were applied to determine the electrical properties of the materials produced. The properties of resistance and conductivity are inversely opposite to each other in materials. The resistance of a material describes how much difficulty it has passed to the passage of electrical current. Conductivity is generally represented by the Greek character sigma (σ) and compared with S/m. Resistance (ρ) is related to resistance (R), cross-section (S), and length (L) in the following formula: ρ = RS/L. Individual resistance values of components, Fe, Co, and Ni in 60% Ni-coated Fe–Co Composite are given as 8.85 × 10−8, 6.24 × 10−8, and 6.84 × 10−8 Ωm at 20°C, respectively. The total resistance of composite consisting of Fe, Co, and Ni can be theoretically calculated with respect to their atomic fraction in the mixture as (0.27 × 8.85 + 0.13 × 6.24 + 0.6 × 6.84) × 10−8 Ωm, which is equal to 7.29 × 10−8 Ωm. Results showed that conductivity decreases with increasing frequency of the current and it becomes completely nonconductive at the frequency of 1 MHz. Within the 1–10 kHz range, the change in resistance varies slightly and at 100 kHz, the dependency of frequency on the temperature change becomes ineffective (Figure 5).

Figure 5 
                  AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 60% Ni Coated Fe–20% Co composite.
Figure 5

AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 60% Ni Coated Fe–20% Co composite.

The theoretical total resistance of 50% Ni-coated Fe–Co composite was calculated as (0.33 × 8.85 + 0.17 × 6.24 + 0.5 × 6.84) × 10−8 Ωm = 6.86 × 10−8 Ωm with the same method as given above. The change in composition eventually changed the total resistance from 2.6 S/cm in 60% Ni-coated Fe–Co to 2.8 S/cm in 50% Ni-coated Fe–Co composite compared with 1 kHz. In the range of 1–10 kHz, the conductivity decreases with increasing operating temperature. At 100 kHz, the effect of temperature on the conductivity appears to be very small (Figure 6).

Figure 6 
                  AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 50% Ni-coated Fe–25% Co composite.
Figure 6

AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 50% Ni-coated Fe–25% Co composite.

The theoretical resistivity of 33% Ni-coated Fe–Co–Ni composites is given as (0.44 × 8.85 + 0.23 × 6.24 + 0.33 × 6.84 × 10−8 Ωm = 7.57 × 10−8 Ωm and the resistance was experimentally measured to be 2.1 S/cm at 1 kHz. Within 130–160°C the conductivity fluctuates dramatically to increase but above 160°C the conductivity decreases. As expected from other experiments, the conductivity becomes very low at 1 MHz. The conductivity decreases with increasing temperature within 1–10 kHz, however, at 100 kHz the effect is not considerable (Figure 7).

Figure 7 
                  AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 33% Ni-coated Fe–33% Co composite.
Figure 7

AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 33% Ni-coated Fe–33% Co composite.

The effect of lower Ni addition on the total resistance was also studied with 25% Ni. The total theoretical resistance was calculated as (0.5 × 8.85 + 0.25 × 6.24 + 0.25 × 6.84 × 10−8 Ωm = 7.69 × 10−8 Ωm but experimentally found to be 2.2 S/cm at 1 kHz. At frequencies of 1 and 10 kHz and within the range of 40–500°C, a distinctive fluctuation in the conductivity values was observed. At 100 kHz, the temperature effect was not important and it became nonconductive at 1 MHz (Figure 8).

Figure 8 
                  AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 25% Ni-coated Fe–Co composite.
Figure 8

AEPA graphs of the composition-dependent change in conductivity-received 25% Ni-coated Fe–Co composite.

3.2 Metallographic analysis

Fe–Co powders are sintered by a uniaxial press after sintering. In the SEM image, grain growth was observed. It is seen that the boundaries between the particles become apparent. At intercalary, there are pores in the grain boundaries that are homogeneously distributed in places (Figure 9).

Figure 9 
                  SEM micrographs of 25% Ni-coated Fe–37.5% 5Co, Mag. 2k×.
Figure 9

SEM micrographs of 25% Ni-coated Fe–37.5% 5Co, Mag. 2k×.

SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed in order to reveal the effect of electroless nickel coating on the particles and to identify the sample formed. Figure 10 shows the microwave sintering at 1,100°C for different compositions produced. In the samples, the non-flowing Ni coating formed the Ni layer with a low pore density. It has shown a higher green product mechanical property prior to the sintering process (Figure 10).

Figure 10 
                  SEM micrographs of 25% Ni-coated Fe–37.5% Co, Mag. 3k×.
Figure 10

SEM micrographs of 25% Ni-coated Fe–37.5% Co, Mag. 3k×.

It is given by linear EDX analysis on the sample of its (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni composition. As a result of the analysis, the peaks of Ni, Co, and Fe elements were found. In addition to these elements, the oxygen peak was also found. The lack of high purity of argon gas during sintering is effective in seeing oxygen. As a result of the analysis, the elements show a homogeneous distribution on the linear line (Figure 11).

Figure 11 
                  EDX-Analysis of the (Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.
Figure 11

EDX-Analysis of the (Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.

In Figure 12, Ni, CoFe, FeNi3, and FeNi phases climaxes can be observed in the XRD analysis of (Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni composite specimens sintered in a microwave oven at 1,100°C. The further addition of Ni particles into the matrix appears to have increased the amount of FeNi3 phase as seen in Figures 12 and 13. The intensity of peaks of FeNi in 25% Ni added specimens has more intermetallic phase compared to 60% Ni added specimens. This caused a decrease in the number of intermetallic phases, forming mostly FeNi3 which has more Ni atoms since Ni is more available for the formation of higher Ni compounds. The increase of Ni also caused the appearance of pure Ni peaks. The Fe and Co, Fe phases were also affected by the addition of Ni.

Figure 12 
                  X-ray diffraction of the (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.
Figure 12

X-ray diffraction of the (Fe–37.5% Co) 25% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.

Figure 13 
                  X-ray diffraction of the (Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.
Figure 13

X-ray diffraction of the (Fe–20% Co) 60% Ni specimen at 1,100°C.

4 Conclusion

The electroless nickel-coating process is a method that has many advantages in improving the mechanical properties of materials. Since the Fe and Co ratios of the samples produced from the (Fe–Co) 25% Ni composition are higher than the other compositions, an increase in hardness and density was obtained. In the sintering of the samples, energy saving was achieved by providing sintering in a short time of 30 min with the microwave sintering technique. In the conventional system, a minimum of 4 h is required for the furnace to reach the required temperature and for the sintering process. The use of a Ni coating and an argon atmosphere increased the oxidation resistance. It provides the advantage of sintering as well as easy shaping of powder materials. There is a direct relationship between theoretical and experimental resistance that has been obtained from an impedance phase analyzer. A resistance measurement could be made up to 100 kHz, and above this value the resistance was unreadable. Up to 500°C, the conductivity decreased linearly in 60% and 50% Ni additions, but in 33% and 25% Ni additions, there appear to be fluxions in the resistance values due probably to decreased conductivity with a lower percentage of connecting Ni-coated particles.

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by Afyon Kocatepe University. We would like to thank TUAM for their support.

  1. Funding information: This research was funded by A. Yönetken.

  2. Author contributions: Conceptualization, A.Y.; methodology, A.Y.; software, A.Y.; validation, A.Y; formal analysis, A.Y.; investigation, A.Y.; resources, A.Y.; data curation, A.Y; writing – original draft preparation, A.Y.; writing – review and editing, A.Y.; visualization, A.Y.; funding acquisition, A.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

  3. Conflict of interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.

  4. Declaration: Raw data were generated at Afyon Kocatepe University Technology Research and Application Center (TUAM). Derived data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author Ahmet Yonetken on request.

  5. Institutional review board statement: Not applicable.

  6. Informed consent statement: Not applicable.

  7. Data availability statement: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.

References

[1] Sidorenko YA, Kukin PI. Phosphorus-free electroless nickel deposits on powders. Powder Metall Met Ceram. 1977;16(2):104–5.10.1007/BF00793783Search in Google Scholar

[2] Singh S, Gangwar S, Yadav S. A review on mechanical and tribological properties of micro/nano filled metal alloy composites. Mater Today Proc. 2017;4(4):5583–92.10.1016/j.matpr.2017.06.015Search in Google Scholar

[3] Özkan V, Sarpün İH, Erol A, Yönetken A. Influence of mean grain size with ultrasonic velocity on micro-hardness of B4C–Fe–Ni composite. J Alloy Compd. 2013;574:512–9.10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.05.097Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ünal R, Sarpün IH, Yalım HA, Erol A, Özdemir T, Tuncel S. The mean grain size determination of boron carbide (B4C)–aluminium (Al) and boron carbide (B4C)–nickel (Ni) composites by ultrasonic velocity technique. Mater Charact. 2006;56(3):241–4.10.1016/j.matchar.2005.11.006Search in Google Scholar

[5] Malidarreh RB, Akkurt İ, Günoğlu K, Akyıldırım H. Fast neutrons shielding properties for Fe2O3 added composite. Int J Comput Exp Sci Eng. 2021;7(3):143–5. 10.22399/ijcesen.1012039.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Malidarreh RB, Akkurt I, Malidarreh Boodaghi P, Arslankaya S. Investigation and ANN-based prediction of the radiation shielding, structural and mechanical properties of the Hydroxyapatite (HAP) bio-composite as artificial bone. Radiat Phys Chem. 2022;197:1–11.10.1016/j.radphyschem.2022.110208Search in Google Scholar

[7] Ozhan Doğan S, Özden T. Optimization of welding application parameters of thin sheet blocks used in the new-generation ship hull. Emerg Mater Res. 2022;11(1):67–75. 10.1680/jemmr.20.00330.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Gunoglu K, Özkavaka Varol H, Akkurt İ. Evaluation of gamma ray attenuation properties of boron carbide (B4C) doped AISI 316 stainless steel: Experimental, XCOM and Phy-X/PSD database software. Mater Today Commun. 2021;29. 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2021.102793.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Akkurt I, Malidarre RB. Physical, structural, and mechanical properties of the concrete by Fluka code and phy-X/PSD software. Radiat Phys Chem. 2022;193:1–10. 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2021.109958.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Arslankaya Çelik SMT. Green supplier selection in steel door industry using fuzzy AHP and fuzzy Moora methods. Emerg Mater Res. 2021;10(4):357–69.10.1680/jemmr.21.00011Search in Google Scholar

[11] Rajan TP, Pillai RM, Pai BC. Reinforcement coatings and interfaces in aluminium metal matrix composites. J Mater Sci. 1998;33(14):3491–503.10.1023/A:1004674822751Search in Google Scholar

[12] Peng GY, Fang YS, Zhe ZJ, Chen WZ, Yu ZM. Preparation of active carbon with high specific surface area from rice husks. Chem Res Chin Univ. 2000;21:335–8.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Frage N, Froumin N, Dariel MP. Wetting of TiC by non-reactive liquid metals. Acta Mater. 2002;50(2):237–45.10.1016/S1359-6454(01)00349-4Search in Google Scholar

[14] Yönetken A. Investigation of electrical characteristics of composites produced by electroless Ni plating of Si3N4. Gazi Univ J Sci. 2015;28(3):419–24.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Özkan BV, Sarpün İH, Erol A, Yönetken A. Mean grain size and pore effects on ultrasonic properties of WC–Fe–Ni and SiC–Fe–Ni composites. Acta Phys Pol A. 2013;123(4):688–94.10.12693/APhysPolA.123.688Search in Google Scholar

[16] Akkurt I, Akyıldırım H, Karipçin F, Mavi B. Chemical corrosion on gamma-ray attenuation properties of barite concrete. J Saudi Chem Soc. 2012;16(2):199–202.10.1016/j.jscs.2011.01.003Search in Google Scholar

[17] Kayiran HF. Numerical analysis of composite discs with carbon/epoxy and aramid/epoxy materials. Emerg Mater Res. 2022;11(1):155–9.10.1680/jemmr.21.00052Search in Google Scholar

[18] Liakopoulos TM, Xu M, Ahn CH. Proceedings of the Technical Digest Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop. Vol. 19. SC, USA: Hilton Head Island; 1998.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Malidarrea RB, Kulali F, Inal A, Oz A. Monte Carlo simulation of the waste soda-lime-silica glass system contained Sb2O3. Emerg Mater Res. 2020;9(4):1334–40.10.1680/jemmr.20.00202Search in Google Scholar

[20] Akkurt I, Tekin HO. Radiological parameters for bismuth oxide glasses using phy-X/PSD software. Emerg Mater Res. 2020;9(3):1020–7.10.1680/jemmr.20.00209Search in Google Scholar

[21] Kulali F. Simulation studies on radiological parameters for marble concrete. Emerg Mater Res. 2020;9(4):1341–7.10.1680/jemmr.20.00307Search in Google Scholar

[22] Yönetken A. Fabrication of electroless Ni plated Fe–Al2O3 ceramic–metal matrix composites. Trans Indian Inst Met. 2015;68(5):675–81.10.1007/s12666-014-0497-1Search in Google Scholar

[23] Yönetken A, Erol A. Sintering and characterization of SiC reinforced Ni powders in microwave furnace. Int J Eng Res Dev. 2020;12(1):83–9.10.29137/umagd.474003Search in Google Scholar

[24] Ban ZG, Shaw LL. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured WC–Co materials. J Mater Sci. 2002;37(16):3397–403.10.1023/A:1016553426227Search in Google Scholar

[25] Upadhyaya GS, Bhaumik SK. Sintering of submicron WC-10wt.%. Mater Sci Eng A. 1988;249:105–6.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Nagayama T, Yamamoto T, Nakamura T. Thermal expansions and mechanical properties of electro-deposited Fe–Ni alloys in the invar composition range. Electrochim Acta. 2016;205:178–87.10.1016/j.electacta.2016.04.089Search in Google Scholar

[27] Yichun L, Lei L, Zhong W, Jiake L, Shen B, Hu W. Grain growth and grain size effects on the thermal expansion properties of an electro-deposited Fe–Ni invar alloy. Scr Mater. 2010;63(4):359–62.10.1016/j.scriptamat.2010.04.006Search in Google Scholar

[28] Peng Y, Zhu Z, Chen J, Ren J, Han T. Research on pulse electro-deposition of Fe–Ni alloy. AIP Adv. 2014;4(3):31301–5.10.1063/1.4861125Search in Google Scholar

[29] Matsui I, Mori H, Kawakatsu T, Takigawa Y, Uesugi T, Higashi K. Mechanical behavior of electrodeposited bulk nanocrystalline Fe–Ni alloys. Mater Res. 2015;18(suppl 1):95–100.10.1590/1516-1439.329014Search in Google Scholar

[30] Pande S, Saha A, Jana S, Sarkar S, Basu M, Pradhan M, et al. Resin-immobilized CuO and Cu nanocomposites for alcohol oxidation. Org Lett. 2008 Nov;10(22):5179–81.10.1021/ol802040xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Xu C, Sun S. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles as targeted probes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Dalton Trans. 2009 Aug;5583(29):5583–91.10.1039/b900272nSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[32] Miguel OB, Morales MP, Tartaj P, Cabello JR, Bonville P, Santos M, et al. Modeling of the laser pyrolysis process by means of the aerosol theory: case of iron nanoparticles. J Appl Phys. 2010;107(1):014906.10.1063/1.3273483Search in Google Scholar

[33] Jafari T, Simchi A, Khakpash N. Synthesis and cytotoxicity assessment of superparamagnetic iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles coated with polyglycerol. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2010 May;345(1):64–71.10.1016/j.jcis.2010.01.038Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Kenneth SS, Mingming F, Taeghwan H. Sonochemical synthesis of iron colloids. J Am Chem Soc. 1996;118(47):11960–1.10.1021/ja961807nSearch in Google Scholar

[35] Kim CW, Cha HG, Kim YH, Jadhav AP, Ji ES, Kang DI, et al. Surface investigation and magnetic behavior of Co nanoparticles prepared via a surfactant-mediated polyol process. J Phys Chem C. 2009;113(13):5081–6.10.1021/jp809113hSearch in Google Scholar

[36] Alagiri M, Muthamizhchelvan C, Ponnusamy S. Structural and magnetic properties of iron, cobalt and nickel nanoparticles. Synth Met. 2011;161(15–16):1776–80.10.1016/j.synthmet.2011.05.030Search in Google Scholar

[37] Yönetken A. Fabrication Of electroless Ni plated Fe-Al2O3 ceramic metal matrix composites. Trans Indian Inst Met. 2015;68(5):675–81.10.1007/s12666-014-0497-1Search in Google Scholar

[38] Peşmen G, Erol A, Yönetken A. Production of Ni Cr Ti natural fibres composite and investigation of mechanical properties. Am Inst Phys Proc. 2015:1653;020087.10.1063/1.4914278Search in Google Scholar

[39] Yönetken A, Erol A. The effect of microwave sintering on the properties of electroless Ni plated WC Fe Ni composites. Sci Eng Compos Mater. 2010;17(3):191–8.10.1515/SECM.2010.17.3.191Search in Google Scholar

[40] Yönetken A, Erol A. Fabrication of electroless Ni plated Fe TiC metal matrix composites. Sci Eng Compos Mater. 2011;18(3):145–9.10.1515/secm.2011.024Search in Google Scholar

[41] Erol A, Bilici Özkan V, Yönetken A. Characterization of the elastic modulus of ceramic-metal composites with physical and mechanical properties by ultrasonic technique. Open Chem. 2022;20(1):593–601.10.1515/chem-2022-0180Search in Google Scholar

[42] Yönetken A, Erol A, Peşmen G. Characterization of egg shell powder doped ceramic-metal composites. Open Chem. 2022;20(1):716–24. 10.1515/chem-2022-0175.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Nour-Eldin M, Elkady O, Yehia HM. Timeless powder hot compaction of nickel-reinforced Al/(Al2O3-Graphene, Nanosheet) composite for light applications using hydrazine reduction method. J Mater Eng Perform. 2022;31(8):6545–60.10.1007/s11665-022-06749-wSearch in Google Scholar

[44] Elkady OA, Yehia HM, Ibrahim A, Elhabak AM, Elsayed EM, Mahdy A. Direct observation of induced graphene and SiC strengthening in Al–Ni alloy via the hot pressing technique. Cryst (Basel). 2021;11(9):1142.10.3390/cryst11091142Search in Google Scholar

[45] Yehia HM, El-Kady O, Abu-Oqail A. Effect of diamond additions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of WC- TiC- Co/Ni Nano-composite. Int J Refract Hard Met. 2017;71:198–205.10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.11.018Search in Google Scholar

[46] Abolkassem SA, Elkady OA, Elsaye AH, Walaa AH, Yehya HM. Effect of consolidation techniques on the properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with nano Ni-coated SiC. Results Phys. 2018;9:1102–11.10.1016/j.rinp.2018.02.063Search in Google Scholar

[47] Daoush WM, Abdel MF, El-Sayed MH, El-Nikhaily AE. Microstructure, hardness, wear, and magnetic properties of (Tantalum, Niobium) carbide- nickel-sintered composites fabricated from blended and coated particles. Mater Perform Charact. 2020;9(4):2019012.Search in Google Scholar

[48] Yehia HM, Elkady O, Elmahdy M. Tungsten carbide matrix nanocomposite. Int J Eng Adv Technol. 2022;11(5):82–5.10.35940/ijeat.E3526.0611522Search in Google Scholar

[49] Ahles AA, Emery JD, Dunand DC. Mechanical properties of meteoritic Fe–Ni alloys for in-situ extraterrestrial structures. Acta Astronaut. 2021;189:465–75.10.1016/j.actaastro.2021.09.001Search in Google Scholar

[50] Yönetken A, Erol A. Sintering and characterization of SiC reinforced Ni powders in microwave furnace. Uluslar Mühendislik Araştırma ve Geliştirme Derg. 2020;12(1):83–9.10.29137/umagd.474003Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2022-07-21
Revised: 2022-09-05
Accepted: 2022-09-28
Published Online: 2022-10-28

© 2022 Ahmet Yonetken, published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Downloaded on 6.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/chem-2022-0220/html
Scroll Up Arrow