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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access April 11, 2023

Study on CO2 absorption performance of ternary DES formed based on DEA as promoting factor

  • Shengyou Shi , Shuie Li EMAIL logo , Xiangwei Liu and Chengfang Liu
From the journal Open Chemistry

Abstract

In this study, we used tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC), diethanolamine (DEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) to prepare ternary DES and binary DES to absorb CO2. We found that their formation was due to the hydrogen bond interaction between hydrogen bond acceptor and hydrogen bond donor (HBD). Surprisingly, TEAC/MDEA/DEA can react with CO2, but TEAC/MDEA cannot react with CO2. Unexpectedly, after adding DEA to TEAC/MDEA, the ternary TEAC/MDEA/DEA DES can react with CO2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier infrared spectroscopy results showed that the accidental CO2 absorption behavior mainly depended on the HBD DEA, because the imine group in DEA reacted with CO2 to form carbamate, thereby absorbing CO2, while the hydroxyl group on MDEA and the hydroxyl group of DEA did not interact with CO2. Through thermal stability analysis, TEAC/MDEA/DEA system with the molar ratio of 1:3:4 is more stable. We further studied the influence of molar ratio, temperature, water content, and other factors on the absorption of CO2 by ternary DES. In addition, TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) was regenerated at 80°C, and the absorption capacity of DES was almost unchanged after five absorption–desorption cycles.

1 Introduction

Carbon dioxide (CO2), the most famous greenhouse gas and the main culprit of global warming, mainly comes from the emissions of human activities [1]. According to the most recent data reported by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, on December 8, 2021, atmospheric CO2 concentration increased dramatically, reaching 415.92 ppm, which is why contemporary research focuses on ways to slow or stop this trend [2]. Although many methods have been developed to inhibit carbon emissions to date, the absorption of CO2 based on an amine aqueous solution is the most used method in the industry, such as monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) [3,4]. Unfortunately, this approach has serious inherent flaws: for example, the high volatility of solvents, amine degradation, and intensive regenerative energy [5]. Abbott et al. [6] first reported this kind of solvent. They used choline chloride (ChCl) and urea as raw materials to successfully prepare liquid eutectic mixture at room temperature and defined it as deep eutectic solvents (DES). Such as low vapor pressure, wide liquid range, non-flammability, adjustable structure and simple synthesis process have attracted wide attention in many scientific fields. So far, the number of studies on DES has grown rapidly. Most DES reported in the literature is formed through the combination of hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and hydrogen bond donor (HBD), due to the formation of hydrogen bond (H bond) [7]. At present, due to its unique characteristics, DES has been used in various fields, such as electrochemistry, organic synthesis, gas absorption, functional material synthesis, and extraction separation [8,9,10,11,12].

Sakwattanapong et al. [13] studied the desorption energy consumption of mixed amine MEA + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), DEA + MDEA, and MEA + AMP in a laboratory scale-packed tower, and the results showed that the desorption energy consumption of the three composite absorbents was between the energy consumption of the two amines that constitute the composite absorbents. The energy consumption of desorption decreased with the increase in AMP concentration in MEA + AMP composite absorbent, but the energy consumption remained basically unchanged when the concentration reached 2.7 kmol/m3, which indicated that the addition of sterosteric amine could reduce the desorption reaction heat of the composite absorbent. However, the influence of latent heat of water evaporation and sensible heat of absorbent on desorption energy consumption cannot be ignored.

Piperazine (PZ) showed good performance as the activator in the compound absorbent. Kanawade et al. [14] studied the performance of the composite absorbent after adding MEA, DEA, and PZ to the tertiary amine N-ethyldiethanolamine, and the results showed that PZ had the best performance as the activator. In a similar manner, MEA is also used as an additive to MDEA aqueous solutions. MEA and MDEA have good characteristics. Compared with a single MEA or MDEA aqueous solution, the amount of CO2 absorbed in the mixture is reduced, and the oxidation decomposition rate is higher, but it is increased under the condition of low partial pressure of CO2 [15,16]. Choi et al. [17] introduced 1%, 3% and 5 wt% piperazine (PZ), MDEA and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) into 30 wt% 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) solution, respectively, and the absorption of CO2 increased. By adding polyamines (such as TEPA, TETA, DETA, or EDA) into MDEA aqueous solution, Hafizi et al. [18] improved the absorption capacity of CO2. The increased absorption capacity is due to the presence of basic nitrogen groups in polyamines. The ternary mixture of MDEA, PZ, and MEA has a higher absorption amount of CO2 than the binary mixture of MDEA and PZ [19]. Therefore, it is expected to mix MDEA with tertiary or secondary amines to improve the absorption amount of CO2.

In our previous work, the CO2 absorption capacity of MEA as HBD was greater than that of MDEA as HBD. Among them, the CO2 absorption capacity of TEAC/MDEA (1:4) at room temperature is 0.075 g CO2/g DES, respectively, indicating that its absorption capacity is not high. This is because MDEA aqueous solution does not undergo carbamate esterification with CO2, so the reactivity of MDEA with CO2 is lower than that of primary and secondary amines. It is hoped that some measures can be taken to further improve the CO2 absorption capacity of DES with MDEA as HBD.

In this study, an appropriate amount of DEA was added to TEAC/MDEA to further improve the CO2 absorption capacity of this DES, while maintaining its regenerative capacity. The absorption amount and TGA under several different molar ratios were explored, and the optimal molar ratio was selected. The influence of different temperature and water content on the absorption capacity of CO2 was explored for the mole ratio of DES, as well as its 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), 13C NMR, and infrared spectra before and after the absorption of CO2 gas, and its absorption mechanism of CO2 was investigated. The absorption–desorption experiment was conducted on the DES at the appropriate temperature. After five cycles of absorption-desorption of DES absorb carbon dioxide, to investigate whether DES can still maintain the initial absorption capacity, so as to further explain whether DES can be regenerated and recycled after adding DEA.

2 Experimental

2.1 Chemical names and properties

The chemical names used in this article and their characteristics are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Chemical names and properties

Chemical name CAS MW (g mol−1) Purity (%) Supplier
Tetraethyl ammonium chloride (TEAC) 56-34-8 165.7 98 Aladdin Pharma Co
N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) 111-43-5 61.08 99 Aladdin Pharma Co
DEA 105-59-9 119.16 99 Aladdin Pharma Co
CO2 124-38-9 44.01 99.99 Guizhou Sanhe Gas Co., Ltd., China
N2 7729-37-9 28.00 99.999 Guizhou Sanhe Gas Co., Ltd., China

2.2 Analysis of test instruments

TGA5500 thermogravimetric analyzer of TA instruments, USA was used to determine the thermogravimetric curves of three ternary DES with different molar ratios before and after CO2 absorption. Trace moisture tester, WS-2A, Shandong Zibo Three Pump Kesen Instrument Co., LTD.

2.3 Preparation of ternary deep eutectic solvents

TEAC, MDEA, and DEA were mixed in a closed condition according to the molar ratio of 1:2:4, 1:3:2, and 1:3:4 respectively. The water bath was heated at 70°C and fully stirred until the clarified liquid state was formed. The system was removed from the water bath, cooled, and stood at room temperature for a long time without precipitation and still maintained in the clarified liquid state. Ternary DES.

2.4 Performance characterization

2.4.1 Thermogravimetric characterization

The thermogravimetric curves of three ternary DES with different molar ratios after CO2 absorption were determined using TA instruments TGA5500 thermogravimetric analyzer.

2.4.2 NMR characterization

1H NMR and 13C NMR of dimethyl sulfoxide d 6 (DMSO-d 6) and deuterium oxide (D2O) were measured before and after the absorption of CO2 gas by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer.

2.4.3 Infrared characterization

Fourier infrared spectrometer was used to measure the infrared spectra of ternary DES before and after CO2 absorption, and the window material was selected potassium bromide tableting method is adopted.

2.5 Desorption of CO2

The desorption of CO2 is achieved under the conditions of heat and N2 purge. The saturated absorbent was added to the desorption bottle and placed in a constant temperature water bath at 80°C. The inlet of the desorption bottle was connected with N2. CO2 release could be monitored by weighing mass changes during desorption.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Formation mechanism of ternary DES

Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in the study of the formation mechanism of DES and is a typical method to judge the existence of groups. As we all know, electron effect, hydrogen bonding, and conjugation effect can make infrared absorption peak red shift or blue shift; so infrared spectral analysis is a good method to prove the formation mechanism of DES. At present, it is widely believed that the formation of DES is due to the hydrogen bonding between HBA and HBD; so in this article, FTIR was used to characterize and analyze the structure of several prepared DES, and the results are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 
                  Infrared spectra of ternary DES and its components.
Figure 1

Infrared spectra of ternary DES and its components.

As can be seen from Figure 1, it is found that the absorption band peak of DEA at 3309.14 cm−1 shifted blue to 3319.45 cm−1, the absorption band peak of MDEA at 3354.48 cm−1 shifted red to 3319.45 cm−1, and the hydroxyl peak of MDEA and DEA widened significantly. The above shows that O–H⋯O, O–H⋯Cl and other hydrogen bonding structures are formed between TEAC and DEA and MDEA. In addition, the strong peak CH2 and C–C bonds of DEA redshifted from 1458.09 and 1025.44 cm−1 to 1456.07 and 1021.38 cm−1, respectively. Similarly, the strong peak CH2 and C–C bonds of MDEA redshifted from 1456.97 and 880.39 cm−1 to 1456.07 and 875.37 cm−1, respectively, which also proved that hydrogen bonds were formed between DEA, MDEA, and TEAC.

1H NMR spectroscopy is often used to characterize hydrogen bond interactions between DES and ILs. It is well known that the strength of hydrogen bonds affects the chemical shifts of different peaks in a substance and can be used to study microstructure and interactions at the molecular level. Therefore, this article uses NMR to characterize and analyze the structure of several DES prepared, and the results are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 
                  
                     1H NMR spectra of ternary DES, MDEA, and DEA.
Figure 2

1H NMR spectra of ternary DES, MDEA, and DEA.

According to Figure 2, in DEA, 4.86 ppm is the peak of H on hydroxyl in DEA, 3.61 ppm is the peak of H near hydroxy–CH2, and 2.70 ppm is the peak of H on –CH2 near –NH. In MDEA, 5.03 ppm is the peak of H on hydroxyl in MDEA, 3.74 ppm is the peak of H near hydroxy–CH2, 2.69 ppm is the peak of H on –CH2 near nitrogen, and 2.45 ppm is the peak of H on –CH3 near nitrogen. After the formation of TEAC/MDEA/DEA terra-DES, it can be seen that compared with MDEA and DEA, the chemical shifts of TEAC/MDEA/DEA all shifted, such as the chemical shifts of 4.86, 3.61, and 2.70 ppm in DEA. After the formation of DES, all of them moved to the low fields of 4.83, 3.56, and 2.65 ppm, thus confirming the hydrogen bond interaction between them [20]. The infrared and NMR results show that the DES is formed by hydrogen bond interaction. Therefore, DES was successfully prepared.

3.2 Formation mechanism of ternary DES

It can be seen from Figure 3 that the absorption band peak of MDEA at 3354.48 cm−1 in DES is redshifted to 3331.95 cm−1 and the hydroxyl peak of MDEA is widened, which indicates that hydrogen bond structures such as O–H⋯O, O–H⋯Cl are formed between TEAC and MDEA; in addition, the strong peak CH2 bond of MDEA blue shifted from 1456.97 to 1457.83 cm−1, and the C–C bond redshifted from 880.39 to 878.15 cm−1, which also proved that the hydrogen bond was formed between MDEA and TEAC.

Figure 3 
                  Infrared spectra of TEAC/MDEA DES and its components.
Figure 3

Infrared spectra of TEAC/MDEA DES and its components.

It can be seen from Figure 4 that in MDEA, 5.04 ppm is the peak of H on the hydroxyl group, 3.74 ppm is the peak of H on the hydroxyl group –CH2, 2.69 ppm is the peak of H on –CH2 near nitrogen, and 2.45 ppm is the peak of H on –CH3 near nitrogen. After the formation of TEAC/MDEA, it can be seen that compared with MDEA, the chemical shifts of TEAC/MDEA have all moved, such as the chemical shifts of 5.04, 3.74, 2.69, and 2.45 ppm in MDEA, and after the formation of DES, they all moved to the low-field positions of 5.02, 3.56, 2.51, and 2.25 ppm, which can prove that the two chemical shifts are different.

Figure 4 
                  
                     1H NMR spectra of TEAC/MDEA and MDEA.
Figure 4

1H NMR spectra of TEAC/MDEA and MDEA.

3.3 Influence of ternary DES mole ratio on CO2 absorption capacity

The results are shown in Figure 5. It can be seen from the absorption curve that the absorption of CO2 is the fastest in the first 10 min and then becomes slower and slower. When the ratio of DEA in the system is the largest, that is, when the mole ratio is 1:2:4, the absorption capacity is the largest, the CO2 absorption capacity of the first 10 min is 0.101 g CO2/g DES, and the absorption capacity of the system after 80 min is 0.197 g CO2/g DES. When the mole ratio of ternary DES is 1:3:2 and 1:3:4, the absorption in the first 10 min is very close, which is 0.089 and 0.085 g CO2/g DES, respectively. The absorption capacity after 80 min is 0.197 g CO2/g DES. Compared with TEAC/MDEA system, it shows that the addition of DEA can improve the absorption capacity of CO2.

Figure 5 
                  CO2 absorption of ternary DES with different molar ratios.
Figure 5

CO2 absorption of ternary DES with different molar ratios.

3.4 Thermal stability analysis of ternary DES before and after CO2 absorption

To select the ternary DES system with the optimal molar ratio, the TGA5500 thermogravimetric analyzer was used in this section to conduct thermogravimetric analysis of the system before and after CO2 absorption. The three systems set the same heating procedure: the heating rate is 10°C/min and the temperature range is 30–500°C. For DES with a mole of 1:2:4, as shown in Figure 6a, it can be seen from the thermogravimetric curve that the system begins to lose weight at about 50°C, indicating that the system is prone to thermal degradation. By comparing the curves before and after absorption, it can be seen that the system after absorbing CO2 is more stable, indicating that the system has poor thermal stability at this molar ratio and cannot be recycled. For the system with a molar ratio of 1:3:2, as shown in Figure 6b, comparing the weight loss curves before and after absorption, it can be seen that the system before CO2 absorption is more stable before 121°C. At 70°C, the difference in the percentage of weight loss before and after absorption is about 4.8%, and at 100°C, the difference is about 5.8%, indicating that CO2 can be desorbed by heating after the absorption of CO2 gas by the system, so as to recycle the system. For the system with a molar ratio of 1:3:4, as shown in Figure 6c, the system after absorbing CO2 is more stable before 104°C. At 70°C, the weight loss percentage difference before and after absorption is about 6%, and at 100°C, the weight loss percentage difference before and after absorption is about 7.5%, indicating that the system can also be recycled.

Figure 6 
                  (a–c) The TG of ternary DES with different molar ratios before and after CO2 absorption.
Figure 6

(a–c) The TG of ternary DES with different molar ratios before and after CO2 absorption.

According to the CO2 absorption capacity and thermogravimetric analysis of ternary DES with three molar ratios, it can be concluded that the optimal molar ratio of TEAC/MDEA/DEA system is 1:3:4. At this molar ratio, DES not only has a good absorption capacity but also can be recycled. Therefore, the TEAC/MDEA/DEA system under 1:3:4 molar ratio is mainly analyzed in the following.

3.5 NMR characterization of ternary DES before and after CO2 absorption

To explore the mechanism of CO2 absorption in TEAC/MDEA/DEA ternary DES system with the molar ratio of 1:3:4, 1H NMR and 13C NMR were determined before and after absorption using DMSO as deuterium reagent. 1H NMR, as shown in Figures 7 and 8, after absorbing CO2, shifts from 4.91 to 5.29 ppm, and a new peak appears at 3.46 ppm, which represents the chemical reaction between imino (–NH–) on DEA and CO2 to generate carbamate.

Figure 7 
                  
                     1H NMR spectra of DES before and after CO2 absorption.
Figure 7

1H NMR spectra of DES before and after CO2 absorption.

Figure 8 
                  
                     13C NMR spectra of DES before and after CO2 absorption.
Figure 8

13C NMR spectra of DES before and after CO2 absorption.

13C NMR Figure 8 shows that after CO2 absorption, a new peak appears at 161 ppm, corresponding to the carbon absorption peak on carbamate, while the other peaks are not shifted. Based on the analysis of 1H NMR and 13C NMR, the CO2 absorption mode of TEAC/MDEA/DEA system is mainly the reaction of –NH– group on DEA with CO2 to produce carbamate.

3.6 Infrared characterization of ternary DES before and after CO2 absorption

To further investigate the mechanism of CO2 absorption of ternary DES with molar ratio of 1:3:4, infrared spectra of ternary DES before and after CO2 absorption were measured. As shown in Figure 9, it can be seen that the spectrum of TEAC/MDEA/DEA system before absorption is very similar. Two new absorption peaks appeared at 812.32 and 1545.51 cm−1, respectively, corresponding to the asymmetric stretching and bending vibration of carbamate’s –COO; at 2162.64 cm−1, corresponding to C–O, indicating that CO2 entered the system, and the –NH– peak at 2854.34 cm−1 became weaker. It is shown that it reacts with CO2 to form carbamate (–NHCOO), which peaks at 2854.34–3271.16 cm−1, corresponding to hydroxyl and imino. In conclusion, between TEAC/MDEA/DEA and CO2, –NH– on DEA reacts with CO2 to form –NHCOO, thus chemically absorbing CO2.

Figure 9 
                  Infrared spectra of TEAC/MDEA/DEA before and after CO2 absorption.
Figure 9

Infrared spectra of TEAC/MDEA/DEA before and after CO2 absorption.

3.7 Influence of temperature on CO2 absorption capacity of ternary DES

TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) system was introduced into the water bath at 30, 40, 50, and 60°C respectively, and the influence of different temperatures on the CO2 absorption capacity of ternary DES was investigated. The results are shown in Figure 10a. According to the CO2 absorption curve of ternary DES, the absorption capacity of ternary DES decreases with the increase of temperature, and the temperature is 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. The absorption capacity of CO2 gas after 90 min is 0.191, 0.169, 0.157, and 0.142 g CO2/g DES, which may be because the absorption of CO2 is an exothermic process. With the increase of temperature, at the same time, the viscosity of ternary DES decreases and the mass transfer resistance decreases, making it easier for CO2 molecules to escape from ternary DES. Therefore, the temperature increase is not conducive to the absorption of CO2 by ternary DES.

Figure 10 
                  Effects of (a) TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) and (b) TEAC/MDEA (1:3) on CO2 absorption capacity at different temperatures.
Figure 10

Effects of (a) TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) and (b) TEAC/MDEA (1:3) on CO2 absorption capacity at different temperatures.

Figure 10b shows the influence of TEAC/MDEA (1:3) on the CO2 absorption capacity. It can be seen from the figure that, at 30°C, its maximum absorption capacity is 0.075 g CO2/g DES, indicating that its absorption capacity is very low. When the promoting factor DEA was added, the absorption capacity was significantly increased.

3.8 Influence of ternary DES water content on CO2 absorption capacity

Water with a mass percentage of 10 and 20 wt% was added to TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) system to prepare water-containing Ternary DES and let them absorb CO2 at 30°C. The absorption capacity was compared to investigate the influence of water content on the absorption capacity of Ternary DES, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11 
                  Effects of different TEAC/MDEA/DEA water contents on CO2 absorption capacity.
Figure 11

Effects of different TEAC/MDEA/DEA water contents on CO2 absorption capacity.

According to the absorption curve, the higher the water content of the Ternary DES, the more obvious the reduction of the CO2 absorption effect of DES. This is because the addition of water to TEAC/MDEA/DEA reduces the viscosity of TEAC/MDEA/DEA, thus destroying the hydrogen bond network and leading to the reduction of the absorption capacity of DES. In addition, water will compete with CO2 as the active site of DEA; so the presence of water can greatly inhibit the absorption of CO2 by DES containing secondary amine, which is similar to the study of Shukla and Mikkola. In addition, the reaction product of DES and CO2 in this study is carbamate, and excessive water in the system will react with carbamate to form carbonic acid, which will decompose into water and CO2 [21], resulting in the decline in the CO2 absorption ability of DES.

3.9 Comparison of CO2 absorption by DES

To evaluate the CO2 absorption performance of the DES studied in this study, the absorption capacity of the DES studied was compared with that of other DES reported in the literature, and the results are listed in Table 2.

Table 2

Comparison between CO2 absorption capacity of ternary DES and that of DES in literature

Absorbents T (°C) P (kPa) CO2 capacity (gCO2/g DES) Refs
TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:2:4) 30 100 0.197 This work
TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:2) 30 100 0.169 This work
TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) 30 100 0.191 This work
[MEA][Cl]-EDA(1:3) 30 100 0.337 [22]
[TEPA]Cl-thymol(1:3) 40 100 0.088 [23]
[P2222][Triz]-EG(1:2) 25 100 0.106 [24]
[HDBU][Triz]-EG(7:3) 40 100 0.106 [25]
[Bmim]Cl-MEA(1:3) 25 100 0.214 [26]
DecA-[N8881]Cl 25 90 0.0024 [27]

As shown in Table 2, the absorption capacity of CO2 in this experiment is compared with the data in literature. The research shows that the prepared Ternary DES has a good absorption capacity of CO2. The absorption capacity of the prepared and synthesized Ternary DES in this study is within the range of 0.169–0.197 g CO2/g DES. The absorption capacity of CO2 in Ternary DES is higher than that of most common DES, e.g., [TETA]Cl-thymol(1:3), [P2222][Triz]-EG(1:2), and [HDBU][Triz]-EG(7:3)]. However, it is lower than [MEA][Cl]-EDA(1:3) DES, because EDA contains two NH2, while DEA contains only one imine group. The more hydrogen on the amine, the more favorable it is to absorb CO2 by forming hydrogen bond. Compared with DES reported in the literature, the synthesized ternary DES has greater advantages in the synthesis process and raw material cost, which is worthy of further study.

3.10 Regeneration of ternary DES

The reusable performance of the absorbent has an important impact on the operating cost of the absorption process and can reduce the generation of pollution. Based on this, the recycling performance of TEAC/MDEA/DEA (1:3:4) system was studied in this work, and the results are shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12 
                  Absorption effect of TEAC/MDEA/DEA five cycles.
Figure 12

Absorption effect of TEAC/MDEA/DEA five cycles.

As can be seen from the figure, after DES has carried out five cycles of absorption–desorption, the lowest CO2 absorption capacity of DES can still reach 0.175 g CO2/g DES, which has no significant change compared with the CO2 absorption capacity of the primary absorption process (0.191 g CO2/g DES), indicating that the absorbent has a good cycle. After the recycling of DES, the captured CO2 was not completely released, and its CO2 absorption decreased slightly. This is because the carbamate generated by the chemical reaction between DES and CO2 was relatively stable, which was not easy to be completely decomposed into CO2 and DES during the regeneration; so a small amount of CO2 remained in DES, leading to the reduction of CO2 absorption.

4 Conclusion

In this work, we report the effective CO2 absorption of ternary DES based on DEA as a promoter. The CO2 absorption capacity of DES can be obtained by weighing method, and DEA has great influence on CO2 absorption behavior. By adjusting the ratio of MDEA and DEA, different absorption capacities can be achieved. The absorption amount of ternary DES CO2 of TEAC/MDEA/DEA with the molar ratio of 1:3:4 is 0.191 g CO2/g DES. CO2 can chemically react with imines on DEA to produce carbamate. And the absorbed CO2 can be resolved even at 80°C. We believe that this work reveals a promising DES design strategy for carbon capture efficiency.

  1. Funding information: This work was financially supported by Science and Technology Department of Guizhou Province in China (project number: QKHZC [2019] 2164).

  2. Author contributions: Conceptualization – Shuie Li; methodology – Shengyou Shi; formal analysis – Xiangwei Liu and Chengfang Liu; experiment – Shengyou Shi and Xiangwei Liu; writing and original draft preparation – Shengyou Shi and Shuie Li. All the authors approved the final article version submitted.

  3. Conflict of interest: There are no conflicts to declare.

  4. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animal use.

  5. Data availability statement: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Received: 2022-12-30
Revised: 2023-02-24
Accepted: 2023-03-23
Published Online: 2023-04-11

© 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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