Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access March 16, 2022

Assessment of ship structure under fatigue loading: FE benchmarking and extended performance analysis

  • Aprianur Fajri , Aditya Rio Prabowo EMAIL logo and Nurul Muhayat


This paper presents a numerical procedure based on the finite element (FE) method using ANSYS Workbench software to analyse fatigue phenomena in ship structures. Fatigue failure prediction is used as a stress–life approach, when the stress is still in a linear area. This condition is frequently referred as high-cycle fatigue. Five geometric shapes taken from midship points on the structure of a ship are sampled. There are four types of materials: HSLA SAE 950X, medium-carbon steel, SAE 316L, and SAE 304L. The types of loading imposed on each sample include three conditions: zero-based, zero mean, and ratio. Mesh convergence analysis is conducted to determine the most effective mesh shape and size for analysing the structure. The results showed that the configuration of the geometric shapes, materials used, loading schemes, and mean stress theory affect the fatigue characteristics of the structure.


[1] Li Z, Ringsberg JW, Storhaug G. Time-domain fatigue assessment of ship side-shell structures. Int J Fatigue. 2013;55:276–90.10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2013.07.007Search in Google Scholar

[2] Xiu R, Spiryagin M, Wu Q, Yang S, Liu Y. Fatigue life assessment methods for railway vehicle bogie frames. Eng Fail Anal. 2020;116:104725.10.1016/j.engfailanal.2020.104725Search in Google Scholar

[3] Fajri A, Prabowo AR, Muhayat N, Smaradhana DF, Bahatmaka A. Fatigue analysis of engineering structures: State of development and achievement. Procedia Struct Integr. 2021;33:19–26.10.1016/j.prostr.2021.10.004Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ringsberg JW, Li Z, Tesanovic A, Knifsund C. Linear and nonlinear FE analyses of a container vessel in harsh sea state. Ships Offshore Struct. 2014;10(1):20–30.10.1080/17445302.2013.870773Search in Google Scholar

[5] Tasdemir A, Nohut S. Fatigue analysis of ship structures with hinged deck design by finite element method. A case study: fatigue analysis of the primary supporting members of 4900 PCTC. Mar Structures. 2012;25(1):1–12.10.1016/j.marstruc.2011.09.001Search in Google Scholar

[6] Prabowo AR, Bae DM, Sohn JM, Zakki AF, Cao B, Cho JH. Effects of the rebounding of a striking ship on structural crashworthiness during ship-ship collision. Thin-Walled Struct. 2017;115:225–39.10.1016/j.tws.2017.02.022Search in Google Scholar

[7] Prabowo AR, Putranto T, Sohn JM. Simulation of the behavior of a ship hull under grounding: effect of applied element size on structural crashworthiness. J Mar Sci Eng. 2019;7(8):270.10.3390/jmse7080270Search in Google Scholar

[8] Vukelić G, Vizentin G. Common Case Studies of Marine Structural Failures. Failure Analysis and Prevention. InTech; 2017. pp. 135–51.10.5772/intechopen.72789Search in Google Scholar

[9] France EJ. The Alexander L. Kielland Disaster Revisited: A Review by an Experienced Welding Engineer of the Catastrophic North Sea Platform Collapse. J Fail Anal Prev. 2019;19(4):875–81.10.1007/s11668-019-00680-4Search in Google Scholar

[10] Sedmak A. Computational fracture mechanics: an overview from early efforts to recent achievements. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct. 2018;41(12):2438–74.10.1111/ffe.12912Search in Google Scholar

[11] Schütz W. A history of fatigue. Eng Fract Mech. 1996;54(2):263–300.10.1016/0013-7944(95)00178-6Search in Google Scholar

[12] Osawa N, Hashimoto K, Sawamura J, Nakai T, Suzuki S. Study on shell-solid coupling FE analysis for fatigue assessment of ship structure. Mar Structures. 2007;20(3):143–63.10.1016/j.marstruc.2007.04.002Search in Google Scholar

[13] Li Z, Ringsberg JW, Storhaug G. Time-domain fatigue assessment of ship side-shell structures. Int J Fatigue. 2013;55:276–90.10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2013.07.007Search in Google Scholar

[14] Alshoaibi AM, Fageehi YA. 2D finite element simulation of mixed mode fatigue crack propagation for CTS specimen. Integr Med Res. 2020;9(4):7850–61.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Božić Ž, Schmauder S, Wolf H. The effect of residual stresses on fatigue crack propagation in welded stiffened panels. Eng Fail Anal. 2018;84:346–57.10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.09.001Search in Google Scholar

[16] Zhang Y, Huang X, Wang F. Fatigue crack propagation prediction for marine structures based on a spectral method. Ocean Eng. 2018;163:706–17.10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.06.032Search in Google Scholar

[17] Bishara M, Horst P, Madhusoodanan H, Brod M, Daum B, Rolfes R. A structural design concept for a multi-shell blended wing body with laminar flow control. Energies. 2018;11(2):1–21.10.3390/en11020383Search in Google Scholar

[18] Hansen PF, Winterstein SR. Fatigue damage in the side shells of ships. Mar Structures. 1995;8(6):631–55.10.1016/0951-8339(94)00023-LSearch in Google Scholar

[19] Boardman B. Fatigue resistance of steels. In: ASM Handbook Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys. ASM International; 1987. p. 77–81.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Gaidai O, Storhaug G, Naess A, Ye R, Cheng Y, Xu X. Eflcient fatigue assessment of ship structural details. Ships Offshore Struct. 2020;15(5):503–10.10.1080/17445302.2019.1661623Search in Google Scholar

[21] Ślęzak T. Fatigue examination of HSLA steel with yield strength of 960 MPa and its welded joints under strain mode. Metals (Basel). 2020;10(2):1–14.10.3390/met10020228Search in Google Scholar

[22] Vaara J, Kunnari A, Frondelius T. Literature review of fatigue assessment methods in residual stressed state. Eng Fail Anal. 2020;110:104379.10.1016/j.engfailanal.2020.104379Search in Google Scholar

[23] Venkatasudhahar M, Dilipraja N, Mathiyalagan P, Subba SV, Sathyaseelan P, Logesh K. Finite element analysis of fatigue life of spot welded joint and the influence of sheet thickness and spot diameter. Int J Mech Mechatron Eng. 2014;14(06):76–82.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Pastorcic D, Vukelic G, Bozic Z. Coil spring failure and fatigue analysis. Eng Fail Anal. 2019;99:310–8.10.1016/j.engfailanal.2019.02.017Search in Google Scholar

[25] Raymond L. Browell PE, Hancq A. Predicting fatigue life with ANSYS workbench: How to design products that meet their intended design life requirements. 2006 International ANSYS Conference. 2006 May 2-4.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Lotsberg I, Sigurdsson G. Hot spot stress S-N curve for fatigue analysis of plated structures. J Offshore Mech Arctic Eng. 2006;128(4):330–6.10.1115/1.2355512Search in Google Scholar

[27] Glen IF, Dinovitzer A, Paterson RB, Luznik L, Bayley C. Fatigue Resistant Detail Design Guide For Ship Structures (No. SR-1386). Ship Structure Committee; 1999.Search in Google Scholar

[28] He W, Liu J, Xie D. Numerical study on fatigue crack growth at a web-stiffener of ship structural details by an objected-oriented approach in conjunction with ABAQUS. Mar Struct. 2014;35:45–69.10.1016/j.marstruc.2013.12.001Search in Google Scholar

[29] Okawa T, Sumi Y, Mohri M. Simulation-based fatigue crack management of ship structural details applied to longitudinal and transverse connections. Mar Struct. 2007;19(4):217–40.10.1016/j.marstruc.2007.01.002Search in Google Scholar

[30] Dindinger P. HSLA 345X (SAE950X) Fatigue Test Report. F.D.E Committee. Ontario, Canada; 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Li C, Dai W, Duan F, Zhang Y, He D. Fatigue life estimation of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness. Appl Sci (Basel). 2017;7(4):1–11.10.3390/app7040338Search in Google Scholar

[32] Jacquelin B. FHAP. SAE 316L Fatigue Test Report. Ontario, Canada; 1983.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Nachtigall AJ. SAE 304L Fatigue Test Report. Ontario, Canada: F.D.E. Committee. Ontario, Canada; 2012.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Köksal NS, Kayapunar A, Çevik M. Fatigue analysis of a notched cantilever beam using ANSYS workbench. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mathematical and Computational Applications. 2013 Jun 11-13; Manisa, Turkey. 2013. p. 111–8.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Fajri A, Prabowo AR, Surojo E, Imaduddin F, Sohn JM, Adiputra R. Validation and Verification of Fatigue Assessment using FE Analysis: A Study Case on the Notched Cantilever Beam. Procedia Struct Integr. 2021;33:11–8.10.1016/j.prostr.2021.10.003Search in Google Scholar

[36] Prabowo AR, Ridwan R, Muhayat N, Putranto T, Sohn JM. Tensile analysis and assessment of carbon and alloy steels using fe approach as an idealization of material fractures under collision and grounding. Curved Layer Struct. 2020;7(1):188–98.10.1515/cls-2020-0016Search in Google Scholar

[37] Prabowo AR, Sohn JM. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of outer shell and upper deck structures subjected to impact loading in maritime environment. Curved Layer Struct. 2019;6(1):146–60.10.1515/cls-2019-0012Search in Google Scholar

[38] Prabowo AR, Laksono FB, Sohn JM. Investigation of structural performance subjected to impact loading using finite element approach: case of ship-container collision. Curved Layer Struct. 2020;7(1):17–28.10.1515/cls-2020-0002Search in Google Scholar

[39] Prabowo AR, Sohn JM, Putranto T. Crashworthiness performance of stiffened bottom tank structure subjected to impact loading conditions: ship-rock interaction. Curved Layer Struct. 2019;6(1):245–58.10.1515/cls-2019-0016Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-11-16
Accepted: 2022-02-11
Published Online: 2022-03-16

© 2022 Aprianur Fajri et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Downloaded on 5.2.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow