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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton August 2, 2018

The Syrian refugee crisis in Scandinavian newspapers

Jan Fredrik Hovden, Hilmar Mjelde and Jostein Gripsrud
From the journal Communications

Abstract

This article maps and analyzes quantitatively how the Scandinavian news press covered the 2015 Syrian refugee crisis. Our analysis shows that in the coverage of the migration events, Denmark and Sweden occupy polar positions in terms of their newspapers’ emphasis, with the former appearing more negative towards the refugees, and the latter more positive. The Norwegian case is found in between these. Danish print media more often mention the negative economic consequences of the arrivals, and Swedish the positive moral ones, while Norway appears to occupy a middle ground in the Scandinavian discourse. We also find that the Scandinavian press writes less often about the negative consequences of refugees coming than the European press in general. However, the humanitarian aspects of the crisis became less prominent in the Scandinavian press over time, as in the rest of Europe.

References

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Table Appendix

Table A1:

Who are the refugees? Newspaper and month. Percentages.

 

Aftenposten

Aftonbladet

Dagens

Nyheter

Dagens Næringsliv

Ekstra Bladet

Jyllands-

posten

Klasse-

kampen

VG

Politiken

 

Broadsheet (N)

Tabloid (S)

Broadsheet (S)

Financial (N)

Tabloid (D)

Broadsheet (D)

Leftist (N)

Tabloid (N)

Broadsheet (D)

Month/total

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

(N)

17

20

20

57

16

21

16

53

20

20

10

50

12

20

20

52

7

20

6

33

20

20

16

56

20

20

20

60

17

20

18

55

17

20

21

58

Reasons for coming

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Economic (e. g., workforce)

12

10

5

9

25

.

.

8

50

5

.

22

17

20

5

13

.

10

.

6

30

15

12

20

5

30

.

12

24

10

28

20

18

5

.

7

Geopolitical (e. g., terrorism)

29

30

15

25

75

62

31

57

60

40

10

42

33

55

30

40

14

40

.

27

50

55

31

46

50

40

30

40

65

60

39

55

35

35

33

34

Cultural (e. g., discrimination)

6

.

.

2

12

5

12

9

5

5

20

8

8

.

.

2

14

5

.

6

.

25

.

9

15

.

5

7

12

.

6

5

12

.

5

5

Moral (e. g., future for children)

18

.

.

5

.

.

.

.

15

.

10

8

.

15

.

6

14

.

.

3

.

.

.

.

25

20

.

15

.

15

.

5

.

.

.

.

Social/familial (e. g., reuniting)

.

.

5

2

.

.

.

.

20

5

20

14

.

10

.

4

.

10

.

6

.

25

.

9

5

5

.

3

.

5

6

4

6

20

10

12

Described as Human beings, people

53

25

25

33

75

48

19

47

70

40

30

50

42

50

75

58

71

45

.

42

55

45

75

57

35

60

35

43

71

60

28

53

59

70

24

50

Children

29

35

25

30

31

48

31

38

30

25

30

28

8

15

10

12

57

25

17

30

25

35

12

25

10

20

15

15

29

55

11

33

24

40

19

28

Families

6

20

15

14

.

29

19

17

10

10

30

14

17

10

10

12

.

35

.

21

10

40

12

21

10

20

10

13

18

55

11

29

24

35

33

31

Men

12

5

10

9

12

19

.

11

20

20

20

20

8

5

5

6

29

30

.

24

15

25

19

20

10

25

10

15

12

55

11

27

47

30

29

34

Women

12

10

10

11

12

19

.

11

15

10

10

12

.

5

.

2

14

25

.

18

15

30

12

20

5

20

10

12

18

50

6

25

24

25

14

21

Mentioned in text

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nationality

35

40

25

33

12

52

19

30

55

40

30

44

33

60

40

46

29

50

17

39

35

60

44

46

60

65

50

58

41

90

22

53

88

65

43

64

Emotions or related expr.

18

25

10

18

19

33

.

19

65

40

20

46

.

5

10

6

57

55

.

45

20

50

12

29

10

60

20

30

35

70

22

44

41

35

19

31

Age of immigrants

18

25

15

19

19

43

6

25

35

40

20

34

.

15

5

8

14

5

17

9

15

30

.

16

10

20

20

17

29

60

17

36

29

24

14

22

Names

6

20

.

9

12

43

6

23

20

35

20

26

.

5

5

4

14

20

.

15

5

30

6

14

15

20

20

18

12

45

11

24

29

30

33

31

Family relations

6

15

10

11

.

29

.

11

15

25

20

20

.

5

5

4

.

35

.

21

5

35

6

16

5

15

10

10

18

55

11

29

12

35

19

22

Professions of immigr.

.

.

.

.

6

19

.

9

5

35

20

20

.

.

.

.

.

5

.

3

5

20

19

14

.

20

.

7

6

15

.

7

6

10

5

7

Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Refugees*

42

69

44

52

75

71

42

64

79

71

29

66

33

54

29

39

86

75

17

67

64

83

86

77

47

50

18

38

75

80

40

66

89

83

53

72

Politicians**

18

.

25

14

6

24

31

21

5

10

50

16

25

10

25

19

29

5

50

18

15

10

6

11

25

15

25

32

6

5

33

15

22

8

20

17

* If a picture of an individual or group is present. ** National politicians or EU government.

Table A2:

Consequences and measures. Newspaper and month. Percentages.

 

Aftenposten

Aftonbladet

Dagens

Nyheter

Dagens Næringsliv

Ekstra Bladet

Jyllands-

posten

Klasse-

kampen

VG

Politiken

 

Broadsheet (N)

Tabloid (S)

Broadsheet (S)

Financial (N)

Tabloid (D)

Broadsheet (D)

Leftist (N)

Tabloid (N)

Broadsheet (D)

Month/total

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

(N)

17

20

20

57

16

21

16

53

20

20

10

50

12

20

20

52

7

20

6

33

20

20

16

56

20

20

20

60

17

20

18

55

17

20

21

58

Negative consequences

18

10

60

30

25

.

44

21

15

50

60

38

33

35

75

50

29

20

67

30

55

35

88

57

25

50

70

48

18

40

33

31

24

25

57

36

Economic

12

10

20

14

25

.

31

17

.

15

30

12

33

10

45

29

29

.

17

9

50

20

56

41

20

25

30

25

.

.

22

7

24

15

19

19

Geopolitical (e. g., terrorism)

6

5

25

12

.

.

12

4

15

10

.

10

.

20

40

23

.

.

33

6

20

15

31

21

.

35

35

23

6

30

17

18

6

5

33

16

Cultural (e. g., population strain)

6

5

30

14

6

.

6

4

.

15

20

10

17

15

10

13

.

20

33

18

15

5

6

9

10

20

20

17

.

10

6

5

.

5

10

5

Moral (e. g., being taken advantage of, false refugees)

18

.

5

7

.

.

.

.

.

10

10

6

8

.

35

15

.

.

.

.

15

5

19

12

.

.

5

2

18

5

22

15

.

.

.

.

Positive consequences

35

10

30

25

38

29

56

40

40

65

50

52

17

55

25

35

14

.

.

3

50

40

44

45

15

70

10

32

53

50

28

44

41

80

38

53

Moral (e. g., humanitarian tradition)

35

10

30

25

38

29

56

40

40

65

50

52

17

45

15

27

.

.

.

.

45

25

25

32

15

70

.

28

53

50

22

42

35

80

33

50

Economic (e. g., needed workers)

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

2

.

5

.

2

8

20

10

13

14

.

.

3

5

15

12

11

.

10

5

5

6

5

11

7

12

.

.

4

Measures to help refugees

71

60

55

61

69

62

56

62

70

90

50

74

75

80

65

73

71

20

33

33

70

40

81

62

75

90

40

68

47

80

56

62

76

70

5

48

Offering asylum*

35

20

10

21

12

19

6

13

50

50

40

48

25

55

20

35

43

5

.

12

35

10

31

25

15

30

5

17

12

25

33

24

29

30

5

21

Providing shelter*

18

35

20

25

6

24

25

19

15

40

10

24

25

30

25

27

.

5

33

9

15

15

38

21

30

20

10

20

.

10

6

5

6

10

5

7

Food and clothing*

12

25

15

18

6

24

6

13

25

10

.

14

.

20

15

13

29

15

.

15

25

15

12

18

15

45

20

27

6

40

44

31

.

20

.

7

Lobbying for political solution*

18

15

15

16

25

14

.

13

5

10

.

6

.

35

15

19

43

5

.

12

40

5

31

25

5

40

10

18

29

5

11

15

.

10

.

3

Intensifying search and resc.*

12

.

.

4

50

5

.

17

40

5

.

18

25

.

.

6

29

.

.

6

40

.

.

14

20

.

.

7

29

10

.

13

35

5

.

12

Donating money*

6

10

.

5

6

10

6

8

.

10

.

4

17

20

10

15

29

.

.

6

25

.

6

11

10

5

.

5

.

10

17

9

6

.

.

2

Organising transport*

18

.

.

5

.

.

.

.

15

25

.

16

50

.

5

13

14

.

.

3

5

5

6

5

25

.

5

10

6

.

6

4

12

20

.

10

Asylum in affected regions*

24

5

.

9

.

.

6

2

5

.

.

2

8

15

10

12

.

.

.

.

15

.

6

7

10

5

.

5

6

5

6

5

12

5

5

7

Keep borders open*

24

5

5

11

.

.

6

2

15

10

.

10

8

15

.

8

43

10

.

15

5

10

6

7

5

10

.

5

.

5

6

4

.

10

.

3

Measures to protect Europe

12

15

50

26

31

5

50

26

15

40

70

36

42

15

65

40

14

45

33

36

70

65

44

61

15

45

50

37

.

20

33

18

18

45

52

40

Heightened security measures*

.

10

25

12

6

.

50

17

10

.

50

14

.

10

30

15

.

10

17

9

10

25

38

23

.

25

25

17

.

20

22

15

.

.

10

3

Sending refugees back*

6

.

10

5

12

5

25

13

10

10

50

18

.

.

15

6

14

10

.

9

15

10

19

14

5

5

10

7

.

.

17

5

.

10

5

5

Keep borders closed*

.

.

10

4

.

.

25

8

.

15

30

12

25

5

40

23

14

15

17

15

5

.

.

2

5

.

10

5

.

.

.

.

6

40

19

22

Upping police, army, border guards*

.

5

10

5

6

.

.

2

.

5

.

2

.

.

15

6

.

15

.

9

15

5

38

18

.

15

5

7

.

.

.

.

6

5

19

10

Send all migrants back*

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

2

.

10

.

6

15

.

.

5

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Offer only temporary refuge*

.

.

10

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

30

6

.

.

.

.

.

5

.

3

10

10

12

11

.

5

10

5

.

.

11

4

.

.

.

.

Build fences/border*

6

.

.

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

2

14

.

.

3

.

5

6

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

.

3

Send military*

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

.

3

10

.

6

5

5

.

.

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

2

* If a measure to help refugees/protect Europe is mentioned.

Table A3:

Who is visible – and speaks? Newspaper and month. Percentages.

 

Aftenposten

Aftonbladet

Dagens Nyheter

Dagens Næringsliv

Ekstra Bladet

Jyllandsposten

Klassekampen

VG

Politiken

 

Broadsheet (N)

Tabloid (S)

Broadsheet (S)

Financial (N)

Tabloid (D)

Broadsheet (D)

Leftist (N)

Tabloid (N)

Broadsheet (D)

Month/total

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

4

9

11

T

(N)

17

20

20

57

16

21

16

53

20

20

10

50

12

20

20

52

7

20

6

33

20

20

16

56

20

20

20

60

17

20

18

55

17

20

21

58

Quoted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Government (national or other non-conflict country)

65

30

45

46

25

24

62

36

25

35

70

38

33

30

30

31

14

40

50

36

65

30

62

52

55

45

40

47

35

10

44

29

53

55

57

55

Refugees

18

20

10

16

19

43

6

25

20

40

20

28

8

.

.

2

14

40

.

27

5

40

6

18

10

25

10

15

12

50

11

25

24

30

19

24

EU government

29

15

20

21

56

10

6

23

30

35

20

30

.

40

.

15

29

10

17

15

15

40

12

23

.

10

15

8

6

15

.

7

24

40

10

24

NGOs

18

25

.

14

6

10

6

8

20

5

10

12

8

15

20

15

29

5

.

9

30

20

25

25

10

15

5

10

35

25

6

22

12

15

.

9

Military/police/border guards

6

5

15

9

6

24

.

11

10

5

10

8

.

.

10

4

.

25

33

21

5

20

6

11

10

10

20

13

12

10

17

13

12

20

5

12

Citizens (national or other)

.

15

5

7

6

10

19

11

10

10

.

8

.

5

20

10

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

5

5

10

15

10

18

5

22

15

.

15

14

10

Volunteers

12

10

.

7

.

24

6

11

10

20

10

14

8

.

.

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

15

5

8

6

10

.

5

.

20

5

9

Media

.

5

.

2

6

10

6

8

10

5

.

6

.

15

.

6

.

10

.

6

5

20

6

11

5

.

.

2

18

5

6

9

6

5

5

5

International governing bodies (e. g., NATO)

6

10

.

5

.

.

.

.

15

5

20

12

.

5

.

2

14

.

.

3

10

15

.

9

10

20

10

13

.

10

.

4

6

-

5

3

Activists

24

5

5

11

.

10

6

6

.

10

.

4

8

.

.

2

.

.

.

.

.

15

.

5

.

15

5

7

.

.

6

2

.

10

.

3

Terrorists / resistance

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

.

2

.

.

5

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

3

Govermental (incl. military)

76

45

65

61

69

62

62

64

60

70

90

70

58

65

45

56

57

60

83

64

75

85

62

75

70

60

75

68

47

30

56

44

71

70

71

71

Citizens, volunteers, activists

29

25

5

19

6

33

31

25

20

40

10

26

17

5

20

13

.

.

.

.

.

15

19

11

10

35

25

23

24

15

28

22

.

25

14

14

Mentioned

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Refugees

94

90

80

88

88

90

62

81

90

80

100

88

75

85

90

85

100

100

100

100

90

95

100

95

95

95

85

92

88

100

83

91

100

90

76

88

National government (non-conflict country)

82

60

95

79

56

62

81

66

55

80

80

70

92

90

90

90

100

80

83

85

75

80

88

80

70

90

80

80

65

45

89

65

65

75

71

71

EU government

65

50

20

44

81

33

19

43

50

30

30

38

58

80

35

58

86

15

17

30

30

70

31

45

40

65

25

43

41

40

11

31

59

45

10

36

International governing bodies (e. g., NATO)

35

45

20

33

6

10

.

6

50

10

30

30

17

50

20

31

.

5

17

6

25

60

25

38

35

65

.

33

29

55

11

33

35

.

10

14

Citizens (national or other)

18

35

5

19

12

38

25

26

10

10

10

10

8

15

45

25

.

10

17

9

15

15

44

23

20

10

30

20

24

35

39

33

12

20

29

21

NGOs

24

30

15

23

6

19

6

11

25

10

10

16

42

15

25

25

29

10

17

15

40

25

31

32

15

25

15

18

29

35

11

25

18

15

5

12

Terrorists / resistance

29

25

10

21

6

10

12

9

15

5

.

8

8

5

25

13

14

20

83

30

5

40

38

27

15

20

30

22

6

15

11

11

12

.

52

22

Volunteers

12

25

5

14

6

38

6

19

15

20

20

18

25

5

20

15

.

5

.

3

.

5

12

5

15

25

10

17

18

30

6

18

.

15

5

7

Government in countries of conflict

41

20

.

19

6

5

.

4

30

5

10

16

8

20

30

21

43

30

.

27

10

5

25

12

20

5

10

12

.

10

6

5

24

.

20

14

Military/police/border guards

53

35

30

39

31

29

.

21

35

15

10

22

8

15

25

17

43

55

67

55

40

40

31

38

40

45

25

37

29

60

17

36

47

20

14

26

Activists

29

20

5

18

6

19

6

11

.

20

.

8

17

.

10

8

.

5

17

6

5

10

6

7

15

15

10

13

.

5

11

5

12

10

.

7

Media

12

35

15

21

6

14

6

9

10

10

.

8

17

10

20

15

.

55

33

39

5

20

12

12

5

30

10

15

35

45

28

36

18

10

10

12

Govermental (incl. military)

100

90

100

96

88

76

81

81

100

85

100

94

100

100

95

98

100

95

100

97

85

100

94

93

95

100

90

95

82

85

100

89

82

80

95

86

Citizens, volunteers, activists

41

45

10

32

12

52

38

36

25

45

20

32

33

20

55

37

.

15

33

15

20

25

50

30

30

40

40

37

35

50

44

44

18

25

29

24

Published Online: 2018-08-02
Published in Print: 2018-08-28

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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