With the continuous development of big data (BD) and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, research in the fields of network security and IoT is also deepening. Big data provides more data support for network security and the IoT, while also bringing more security risks. Therefore, how to ensure the security of big data, prevent network attacks, and improve the security and reliability of the IoT has become a major issue in the current field of network security and the IoT. This article aims to analyze the research results of network security and the IoT in the context of big data and explore how to ensure big data security and improve the security and reliability of the IoT from a multidimensional perspective. Therefore, this article proposes BD technology, that is, through information mining, to ensure network security from the perspective of controlling information flow. At the same time, this article also proposes an LED lightweight encryption algorithm in the IOT, which is used to achieve secure communication between ordinary nodes and gateway nodes, effectively solving the security issues of data distribution in the network, resisting virus attacks and man-in--in-the--the-middle attacks, and has higher security and efficiency. Both of these methods can effectively protect network security: one is to control data flow, and the other is to start with communication protocols. Finally, this article analyzed the adoption of network security protection measures by netizens and found that only 13% of netizens frequently take network security protection measures, while 35% of netizens never take network security protection measures. This is also one of the important reasons for the increasing number of current network security issues.
Network security technology refers to the information security technology adopted to ensure the security of network system, hardware, software, data, and services. With the emergence of the Internet, network security technology has also been put on the agenda, in which it is necessary to systematically analyze the unsafe factors in the computer network. In the current situation, computer network security problems include the authenticity, accuracy, integrity, and confidentiality of information. At this time, many people do not realize the importance of network security and lack professional knowledge in theory and practice. To some extent, network security technology is to strengthen and improve the characteristics of computers, to ensure the safe use efficiency of users in the network, which has played its role to a certain extent.
The advancement of Web innovation has advanced the course of human culture toward informatization. The advancement of Web innovation has advanced the course of human culture towards informatization. The application of the network has gone deep into human life, economy, culture, military, and other fields. However, with the development of the Internet, many malicious attackers use viruses, system vulnerabilities, and other methods to attack the Internet. In recent years, network attacks occur frequently, which seriously threaten the normal order of society and has caused large economic losses and consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen network security and defense. Network security has become the most concerning problem. With the increasing popularity of the network, the network environment has become increasingly complex. Many scholars are trying to find security solutions and strategies.
The innovation of this article is reflected in analyzing and explaining the network security based on big data and the Internet of Things (IoT), and exploring the IoT communication security protocol based on led lightweight encryption algorithm. Based on this, simulation experiments were conducted to study the current situation of network security.
2 Related work
Network security is a problem that people attach great importance to and the maintenance of network data security and integrity has become an essential task. Sengupta Sailik found that because of the static structure of network services and configuration, traditional network security protection technologies could not explain the behavior of attackers. He studied the latest development in network security technology and found that the virtualization of network functions was the main force to realize these dynamic defenses . Yan Li introduced the focus of network security. In the context of countries’ efforts to develop new digital control strategies, network security situational awareness has shown new characteristics in academic research and industrialization. He tried to provide some references for researchers and engineers to fully understand network security situational awareness and provide ideas for network security . Lyndon Fawcett said that although the modern Internet was a very developed technology, the network was still vulnerable to attacks. The decentralized nature of the wide-area connection network makes it expensive and difficult to build and deploy a secure network. With the introduction of network function virtualization, network threats could be effectively identified and protected. The IoT has provided a means of monitoring and defense for network security . The above scholars put forward that information technology has penetrated all aspects of society. The digital revolution has helped human society make significant progress and has also brought cyber security challenges to real life.
With the development of BD and Web of Things innovation, individuals’ lives are more advantageous and astute. IoT technology integrates various systems and applications. Charles Wheelus suggested that the impact of the Internet was not limited to computers and mobile phones, but also other smart devices. Although life was more convenient, network security risks had also increased significantly. He adopted a secure IoT solution as a means to resist network threats and attacks . Geetha R believed that network security based on BD analysis and IoT was an important research field, which had a significant impact on many applications opened securely. The devices involved in these technologies were exposed to vulnerabilities, while BD analysis and the IoT provided a platform for storing and processing data sent by the network . Fahad Nife found that BD and IoT were intended to provide new possibilities for network security management and coordination. This was essential in the future network, which could promote the deployment of new applications and services, and protect the network from external attacks and attacks by internal malicious users . The above researchers accepted that media computerized examination and the IoT could really take care of the issue of organization security. Be that as it may, in various ways, all could accomplish the objective of safeguarding network security.
With the rise of the Internet, people’s daily life has also changed. The network plays an important role in realizing resource sharing, improving work efficiency, promoting social informatization, and many other fields. Therefore, it is essential to ensure network security [7,8]. The efficient and stable operation of the network cannot be separated from a large number of network devices. With the rapid development of network technology, the expansion of network scale, and the continuous development of network technology, network attackers often use multiple related vulnerabilities in the network to gradually enhance the network permissions, to achieve control of the host. Conventional techniques can as of now not meet the rising number of organization assaults. These issues present exceptional difficulties to arrange security. Right now, the rise of the IoT can successfully take care of organization security issues . In order to address the above issues, this article will analyze the research achievements in the field of network security and the IoT in the context of big data from various aspects such as multidimensional data security assurance, intelligent threat detection, IoT device authentication and management, personalization, and intelligent security strategies.
3 Network security based on BD and IoT
Network technology has penetrated into people’s daily lives. However, the threat of the network to daily work and life is also large. Computer viruses can spread to any terminal in the network through the network. The server in the network is attacked, and the data in the network are also invaded, resulting in data theft and damage. External threats are malicious software, trojans, viruses, etc. With the increasing losses caused by viruses, increasingly companies are beginning to recognize network security and management problems [10,11]. However, at present, the market of anti-virus software on the market is very chaotic, and there are not many authoritative anti-virus software manufacturers in China. Therefore, there are great restrictions on preventing and enhancing network security. Common network security protection methods are shown in Figure 1.
As shown in Figure 1, the common network security protection methods at present mainly include firewall, anti-virus software, network isolation, network confidentiality, etc. These technologies are characterized by relatively simple structure and configuration, simple operation, no manual intervention, and good protection, detection, and control capabilities for common network viruses [12,13]. These methods have a disadvantage; that is, once the encrypted data fail, anti-virus software cannot be able to resist new attacks. Network isolation and network confidentiality affect the normal operation of the network. The performance of a single network security product is limited. In order to achieve active network protection, various products must be combined to form a unified protection technology [14,15].
3.1 Role of BD technology based on BD in network security
When conducting network security analysis, a large amount of data is generally involved, and the most effective way to deal with such large data is to use BD for systematic processing. BD refers to the amount of data involved that is too large to be captured, managed, processed, and collated in a reasonable time through mainstream software tools. The BD technology is used to centralize the data, and then the collection technology is used to process the data efficiently, which greatly improves the analysis speed, analysis speed, and security. In addition, during security analysis, network vulnerabilities can also be effectively repaired and predicted through data correlation, and active preventive measures can be taken to improve risk perception and intelligence analysis capabilities. Security protection based on BD technology is shown in Figure 2.
As shown in Figure 2, BD technology can comprehensively detect and protect a large number of users. Therefore, in the current network environment, BD technology has been widely applied to network anomaly detection, making the system’s anomaly detection more automatic, thus improving the efficiency and quality of work. Network assault is a typical assault conduct, which produces a lot of wasteful information through provisos in network conventions. The organization space around the west after have been hindered, making it unfit to speak to the rest of the world ordinarily, in order to go after the objective. At the point when gone, an enormous number of solicitations show up in the organization association record. If the attacked host is accessed at this time, a large amount of similar data can be found.
3.1.1 Dynamic time warping algorithm
According to the principle of closest distance, dynamic time warping builds the corresponding relationship between two sequence elements with different lengths and evaluates the similarity of the two sequences. In order to better describe the data matching of the dynamic time warping method, formula (1) is used for the detailed description in this article:
Here, represents the average value of attributes. By normalizing each attribute, it can effectively prevent distance calculation caused by attribute allocation differences due to inconsistent data. Template normalization is referenced, such as formula (2):
After each attribute is normalized, the distance between them is calculated. Without generating candidate patterns, mining frequent collections using growing frequent patterns greatly reduces the consumption of software, so it has great advantages in processing massive data. To better describe the whole process, the definition is as formula (3):
Here, represents the number of data records. With the constant change in the network environment, the generated data are also constantly changing. When network activities are carried out, there are always some new behaviors ignored. Clustering analysis is carried out on the data that does not match the template, thus effectively solving the problem.
Euclidean distance generally refers to Euclidean measure. In mathematics, Euclidean distance or Euclidean measure is the “ordinary” (that is, straight line) distance between two points in Euclidean space. Traditional clustering methods use Euclidean distance to calculate the similarity. Euclidean distance is generally used to measure the absolute distance of data points and , which is directly related to the location of data points:
Then, its cosine similarity is calculated:
In the network data, the value of each attribute changes within a certain range, but its true meaning is consistent. If Euclidean distance is used for similarity calculation, the similarity of data is greatly changed, which is inconsistent with the actual data records. Therefore, it is appropriate to measure the similarity of network data with cosine similarity, because its attribute value changes, but the overall trend does not change.
3.1.2 Decision tree classification algorithm
Because the traditional algorithms are serial, it is difficult to get good scalability. In order to process large amounts of data efficiently, parallel algorithms must be used. This article proposes another grouping calculation in view of the regulated choice tree.
Because the characteristics of the decision tree are very consistent with the analysis and processing properties of BD, its performance is often much better than other algorithms. The decision graph can be combined with the possible results to form a decision tree. Euclidean distance generally refers to Euclidean measure. In mathematics, Euclidean distance or Euclidean measure is the “ordinary” (i.e., straight line) distance between two points in Euclidean space.
The construction of the decision tree involves two key issues, namely, entropy value and gain value. The decision tree algorithm uses these two indicators to evaluate the relevance of classification and attributes. The entropy value rule is a method to determine the weight according to the reliability of information reflected by indicators. The entropy value is shown in formula (7):
Among them, represents the Class B value at position t, and represents the total number of Class B value records. Next, the gain of the attribute is found. If there are N possible values for an attribute A as a whole, these values are expressed by formula (8):
Among them, is the number of records containing in the data set. The gain of attribute A is shown in formula (9):
For each group of training data, feature attributes are randomly extracted from the original data set. On this premise, the eigenvalues are utilized to find the ideal model, and afterward, the branches and leaf hubs of every choice tree are got.
3.2 IoT communication security protocol based on LED lightweight encryption algorithm
With the advancement of IoT innovation, an ever-increasing number of various kinds of gear access the Web, which makes the business and utilization of the IoT greater. However, it also brings many problems, such as how to ensure the security and reliability of data, and what communication protocols are used between different devices. The key is how to protect users’ personal privacy in some special industries. The elements of the communication security protocol are shown in Figure 3.
As shown in Figure 3, the security of the network environment can be improved, and the communication security protocol can effectively improve the overall reliability of the computer communication process. Confidentiality refers to restrictions on access and distribution of information, and private privacy should be protected. Integrity refers to preventing information from being maliciously tampered with and damaged. Availability refers to ensuring the safe and timely use and access of information.
Because many IoT devices do not need to be monitored manually, hackers can easily carry out network attacks on these devices. In addition, increasingly devices are using wireless communication now. If there are no corresponding protection measures, it would become very vulnerable. The information on the wireless network is broadcast, which is easy to be intercepted. In the case of limited hardware resources, this limitation makes it difficult to use advanced and complex security schemes to ensure the security of systems and information. The encryption algorithm is shown in Figure 4.
As shown in Figure 4, encryption algorithm is an important means to ensure information security. In order to ensure the security of communication, it is the most basic to set up an appropriate encryption and decryption mechanism, because the improper setting leads to the disclosure of sensitive information. Data encryption technology is the most basic network security technology, known as the core of information security, which is originally used to ensure the confidentiality of data during storage and transmission. In addition, it is difficult to ensure that a solution can be used in all cases, so it must be considered in the application. Especially in some applications of the IoT, sensors are widely used. The hardware performance of these sensors is not high, and it is difficult to achieve advanced encryption and decryption. Therefore, in this case, the security communication protocol used must be flexible to meet various applications.
LED lightweight encryption algorithm has become one of the important research directions of IoT encryption algorithm because of its relatively short key length, simple cryptographic algorithm structure, low resource consumption, and other characteristics. To guarantee the security of the convention, encryption technology must be used to protect data. The LED lightweight encryption algorithm is a lightweight encryption algorithm with good adaptability. Pseudocode of LED lightweight encryption algorithm is shown in formula (10):
Each round of MD5 contains 16 steps, and the step function of each round is the same. The step function is used to realize the main conversion. After several iterations, the data package of encrypted information can be obtained. The operation of key is shown in formula (11):
When calculating , the status information is an important parameter that cannot be copied. The calculation of the received data on a server side is shown in formula (12):
The message digest is passed to the client as the server serial number. is the message authentication mechanism in cryptography, and is the private key of the server.
After receiving the login information and request information sent by the user, the sensor node conducts two-way authentication and key agreement.
The sensor node first verifies timestamp . After verification, the sensor node generates according to the received login information and then sends the corresponding result to the user, who then initiates the request again. After receiving the user’s acknowledgment packet, the sensor node obtains data from the packet:
Here, b is a random number. The network node checks from the information received by the sensor node. After confirmation, whether it is a malicious attack is determined. If there is no malicious attack, the calculation result is as shown in formula (14):
Information packet is sent to the sensor node, where is the updated timestamp:
When a sensor node receives data from a network node, it must first determine whether is secure to determine whether there is a malicious attack on in the gateway. If the possibility of a malicious attack is ruled out, it can be judged:
The sensor node executes formula (17) to determine session key and then provide the user with timestamp and other data :
Through the verification of malicious attacks on network joints, the validity of the information is determined, and the security of both data parties in the network is guaranteed. If the information obtained is included in the simulation in the ideal mode, the security of the protocol can be guaranteed.
4 Network security status and countermeasures
4.1 Current situation of network development
With the rapid development of information technology and the Internet, people’s work, study, and lifestyle have undergone tremendous changes. From the most basic information retrieval, and network communication to the most popular online entertainment and online shopping, the application field of the network is expanding, and the scale of Internet users is also expanding. Worldwide, exceptionally digitized data assets are truly significant for everybody, and data innovation has turned into a significant power to advance monetary and social advancement. The development trend of Internet users from 2017 to 2021 is shown in Figure 5.
As shown in Figure 5, the number of Internet users in 2017 is 772 million, 829 million in 2018, 904 million in 2019, 989 million in 2020, and 1051 million in 2021. It is not only those Internet users who are anxious for information, but also those malicious hackers who expect the development of the network. The number and means of network crimes have reached an appalling level. Stealing scientific, military, and commercial information through the Internet is the most common type of cybercrime.
4.2 Poor network security infrastructure
The main driver of the organization's data security issue lies in the unfortunate PC framework foundation. The PC network framework is an enormous and complex framework made out of different equipment, programming, conventions, interfaces, and so forth. Because of the flawed innovation and plans, the organization framework is helpless. The weaknesses influence a large number of gadgets, including the working framework itself and its supporting programming, server programming, network switches, and security firewalls. This article investigates 360 Internet users who have experienced network security problems, as shown in Table 1.
|Facility conditions||Number of people||Percentage|
As shown in Table 1, 107 people think that the network security infrastructure conditions are very poor, accounting for 29.7%; 122 people think that the network security infrastructure conditions are relatively poor, accounting for 33.9%; 79 people think that the network security infrastructure conditions are generally poor, accounting for 22.0%. About 31 people think that the network security infrastructure conditions are good, accounting for 8.6%, and 21 people think that the network security infrastructure conditions are very good, accounting for 5.8%.
As China is a country with a relatively low level of computer technology development, its network security problems are more prominent. There are still many problems in preventing and responding to attacks, which are caused by the weakness of infrastructure. In addition, the aging of computer equipment and other reasons also affect the security of computers to a certain extent.
The rise of hostile infection programming is the inescapable aftereffect of PC network security within the board. Particularly lately, with the constant development of different new advances, the security board of PC networks has brought new open doors. The utilization of data innovation in PC networks with infection programming can enormously further develop the network security within the board.
4.3 Poor security protection measures and security awareness of network users
Factors affecting network security include internal threats and external threats. Internal threats include imperfect equipment, system vulnerabilities, and insufficient technicians. External threats include the emergence of hackers, inadequate security protection measures, and weak awareness of network security. The investigation of computer network security protection measures and security awareness is shown in Figure 6.
As shown in Figure 6(a), only 13% of Internet users often take network security measures, 15% of Internet users occasionally take network security protection measures, 37% rarely take network security protection measures, and 35% of netizens never take network security precautions. It can be seen that the security measures taken by netizens are not in place.
Figure 6(b) shows that 16% of people think it is essential to carry out network security protection. The proportion of people who think it is necessary to carry out network security protection is 18%. The proportion of people who think that there is no need for network security protection is 32%. The proportion of people who think that it is very unnecessary to carry out network security protection is 34%. It can be seen that the Internet users’ awareness of network security is also very weak.
It can be concluded that Internet users have an insufficient understanding of the current network security issues, the technology used is far behind, and no other means of protection are used. Due to the lack of security awareness, the invasion of external viruses can cross the firewall and anti-virus software into the computer. Therefore, network security protection measures and improving their own security awareness must be done well.
4.4 Insufficient laws, regulations, and supervision
Contrasted and different nations, China’s data framework development began late, yet its advancement speed is quick. The rapid expansion of network service scale and the sharp increase of user scale provide favorable conditions for its development. The relevant laws and regulations are still in the primary stage and have not yet effectively restricted and punished hackers with bad behavior. The current laws and regulations are too general and lack operability, which cannot meet the needs of Internet development. In addition, there is a great lag and insufficient supervision.
The investigation of laws and regulations lagging behind and supervision strength is shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7(a) shows that 40% of the people think that the laws and regulations on network security are lagging behind. The proportion of people who believe that laws and regulations are lagging is 36%. The proportion of people who think laws and regulations are advanced is 14%. The proportion of people who think the laws and regulations are very advanced is 10%.
Figure 7(b) shows that the proportion of people who think that network security supervision is very strong is 15%. The proportion of people who think that the supervision is relatively strong is 14%. The proportion of people who think the supervision is weak is 32%. The proportion of people who think the supervision is very weak is 39%.
With the development and change of social life, new things emerge one after another. Compared with the current fight against network crimes and network violence and other network malignant activities, network legislation is relatively backward. At present, China’s Internet regulatory work is constantly strengthening and the technical level is constantly improving. However, there are still many problems, such as inconsistent laws and regulations, unclear division of labor among departments, etc. Therefore, how to effectively protect the information rights of Internet users while strengthening network supervision has become a practical problem that China’s Internet regulators need to solve.
4.5 Solutions to network security problems
4.5.1 Improving infrastructure
Full-time technical maintenance personnel shall be assigned to monitor and manage the network security, and alternative plans shall be taken to monitor the network operation and deal with network security incidents. In order to ensure the security of the network transmission connection, some security measures are taken in the network link, which can effectively prevent eavesdropping and tampering in the network.
The security of the network link is mainly based on link encryption. In order to ensure the internal security of the network system, the security access mechanism based on the hardware firewall can be used. At the same time, the reserved address is used in the LAN to avoid the problem of data loss. In addition, in the LAN, the internal information can be kept confidential through the firewall. Finally, the network equipment should be inspected regularly, mainly responsible for the security inspection of the firewall, server, host, operating system, etc. The network should be scanned and analyzed using professional network security detection tools, to timely find the weak links and defects of the system and improve the network security.
4.5.2 Enhancing user security awareness
In addition to relying on basic software and hardware facilities, the most fundamental preventive measure is to let users develop good network habits. At present, most Internet users are in a passive state. In fact, active defense is more urgent than passive defense. It is essential to enhance security awareness. In the face of network security problems, as the direct users of the network, if they do not understand their own security awareness, they are helpless when facing network security problems, bringing large economic losses to themselves. At the same time, users do not know enough about their own technology and management level, so they need to improve their security awareness. Especially, there are increasingly network security problems, which are increasingly difficult to prevent.
4.5.3 Strengthening public information network security supervision
With the increasingly serious network security problems, such as viruses and trojans, the public security departments should further improve and strengthen the real-time online and real-time response functions, and increase the investment and maintenance of alarm sites. When users find clues to network crime or need to provide security assistance, they can log on to the National Public Security Organ network to give an alarm or report or check online vulnerabilities and viruses through the National Network Emergency Center and update them at any time. The organization observing the arrangement of the Service of Public Security ought to likewise answer and manage clients’ reports and demands for help rapidly.
With the improvement of Web innovation, there are something else and more sorts of organization administration, and the substance of administration is increasingly rich. While people enjoy these new technologies, they inevitably face the risk of theft and illegal dissemination. However, with the increase of Internet supervision, the freedom of Internet users is less and less. How to protect the freedom of Internet users on the basis of network supervision has become an urgent problem for Internet supervision departments. To ensure information security, it is essential to strengthen the institutional construction of regulatory agencies and improve the supervision mechanism to prevent regulatory agencies from overstepping their authority. It is also necessary to strengthen cooperation with network security-related associations and establish industry self-discipline mechanisms, to actively play its regulatory role.
Network security is an important issue related to national security and sovereignty, social stability, and the inheritance and development of national culture. Its importance is becoming increasingly important with the acceleration of global informatization. The use of PC networks not just has given a ton of data support for human existence, yet additionally assumed a significant part in the improvement of society. Lately, the use of PC network innovation has become increasingly broad. In any case, the development of PC network infections has prompted the passing of countless information, which has likewise undermined the security of the organization somewhat. Therefore, new specifications and requirements have been made for its security issues. However, the emergence of computer network viruses has led to the loss of a large number of data, which has also threatened the security of the network to a certain extent. Therefore, new specifications and requirements have been made for its security issues. In the method, a network security analysis based on BD and IoT was proposed. BD and the IoT were used to mine the Internet BD by using computer technology to discover the laws it contains and analyze the evolution and development trend of the network security environment, to prevent the emergence of network security problems. In the experiment, the current situation and existing problems of network security were investigated in detail, and the corresponding countermeasures were proposed. Internet users’ awareness of network security should be strengthened to enhance their capability of active defense, to actively create a harmonious cyberspace and contribute to the construction of a harmonious society. In the future, with the continuous development of big data and IoT technology, research achievements in the fields of network security and IoT will also continue to emerge. The following are several aspects of prospects:
5.1 Multidimensional data security guarantee
In the context of big data, data security will become a top priority in the fields of network security and the IoT. In the future, researchers will provide multidimensional guarantees for data security, including data encryption, data privacy protection, data backup and recovery, and other aspects. At the same time, it will also strengthen the security guarantee of data during transmission, processing, and storage.
5.2 Intelligent threat detection
With the continuous changes and upgrades of network attack methods, traditional threat detection methods can no longer fully meet the needs. In the future, researchers will explore intelligent threat detection methods, including the application of machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other technologies, to improve the efficiency and accuracy of threat detection.
5.3 IoT device certification and management
In the field of the IoT, device authentication and management will also become a future research hotspot. In the future, researchers will explore more secure and reliable device authentication methods, while strengthening the management and monitoring of devices to avoid attacks and misuse, thereby improving the security and reliability of the IoT.
Conflict of interest: There is no potential conflict of interest in our article, and all authors have seen the manuscript and approved it to submit to your journal. We confirm that the content of the manuscript has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere.
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