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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 18, 2015

Design of Controller in Double Feedback Control Loop – An Analysis with Heuristic Algorithms

  • K. Suresh Manic EMAIL logo , V. Rajinikanth , Sarath Ananthasivam and Uma Suresh


In this paper, heuristic algorithm based optimization approach is proposed to design the PID controller in Double Feedback Control Loop (DFCL) for a class of stable and unstable Single Input Single Output (SISO) process models. In this work, a three dimensional search is attempted and the heuristic algorithm is employed to find the best possible values for inner loop proportional gain (Kp1), outer loop integral gain (Ki), and derivative gain (Kd). A weighted sum of Objective Function (OF) is considered to guide the optimization search in order to attain the global best values. A comparative analysis is presented between heuristic algorithms, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) and Firefly Algorithm (FA). From this experimental study, it is confirmed that, FA based DFCL offers better performance in reference tracking and disturbance rejection operations with reduced error values for most of the considered process models compared with the alternatives. The statistical significance of the FA is also verified using Wilcoxon’s rank test.



Proportional gain


Integral gain


Derivative gain


Process model


Inner loop (P) controller


Outer loop (PID) controller

w1,... wn

Weighting parameter




Settling time

R1,R2, rand

Random number [0, 1]

C1, C2

Cognitive and global parameters


Dimension of search


Population of agents


Objective function to be minimized


Initial position


Updated position

Greek Symbols


randomization operator


Light absorption coefficient


Attractiveness coefficient


Attractiveness at r = 0


Randomization parameter



Proportional + Integral + Derivative


Single Input Single Output


Degree Of Freedom


Ant Colony Optimization


Genetic Algorithm


Particle Swarm Optimization


Bacterial Foraging Optimization


Firefly Algorithm


Integral Time Absolute Error


Integral Time Square Error


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Published Online: 2015-11-18
Published in Print: 2015-12-1

©2015 by De Gruyter

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