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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 16, 2019

CFD Investigation of Al2O3 Nanoparticles Effect on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in a Helical Coil

Javad Aminian Dehkordi and Arezou Jafari


The present study applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the heat transfer of Newtonian (water) and non-Newtonian (0.3 %wt. aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) fluids in the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles. To analyze the heat transfer rate, investigations were performed in a vertical helical coil as essential heat transfer equipment, at different inlet Reynolds numbers. To verify the accuracy of the simulation model, experimental data reported in the literature were employed. Comparisons showed the validity of simulation results. From the results, compared to the aqueous solution of CMC, water had a higher Nusselt number. In addition, it was observed that adding nanoparticles to a base fluid presented different results in which water/Al2O3 nanofluid with nanoparticles’ volume fraction of 5 % was more effective than the same base fluid with a volume fraction of 10 %. In lower ranges of Reynolds number, adding nanoparticles was more effective. For CMC solution (10 %), increasing concentration of nanoparticles caused an increase in the apparent viscosity. Consequently, the Nusselt number was reduced. The findings reveal the important role of fluid type and nanoparticle concentration in the design and development of heat transfer equipment.



inner radius of the tube


molar heat capacity at constant pressure


effective conductivity


consistency index


experimental constant


measure of the deviation of the fluid from Newtonian (the power law index)




ideal gas constant


mean helical radius of the coil


Reynolds number




reference temperature




mass-averaged velocity


drift velocity for secondary phase k

Greek letters

volume fraction


coil curvature ratio


shear rate




mixture density


reference condition


phase k




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Received: 2018-10-14
Revised: 2019-02-20
Accepted: 2019-02-20
Published Online: 2019-03-16

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