Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 23, 2020

Kinetic Modeling and Optimization of the Release Mechanism of Curcumin from Folate Conjugated Hybrid BSA Nanocarrier

Rhea Muthappa, Bindhya K. Purushothaman, K. M. Meera Sheriffa Begum ORCID logo and P. Uma Maheswari


Nanocarriers have been explored widely for targeted and sustainable delivery of drugs and other bioactive molecules. Kinetic modeling on the drug release and optimization of the process parameters offers a fundamental explanation for the release mechanism along with an insight on the properties of the carrier. In the present work, a hybrid Bovine serum albumin- Calcium ferrite (BSA-CFNP) nanocarrier in conjugation with folic acid has been developed for the controlled release of curcumin, as a model anticancer drug. Super paramagnetic calcium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. Curcumin was loaded onto the BSA and hybrid BSA-CFNP carriers by desolvation technique. Folic acid conjugation was performed, using EDC coupling reaction, to enable the receptor mediated endocytosis of the drug. The synthesized samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. Optimization of curcumin loading on the carrier was evaluated using Taguchi method, which provided a simpler yet effective route to study the influence of the process parameters under consideration. In-vitro stimuli responsive curcumin release studies were investigated. The amount of FA conjugated was also optimized. The drug release trends were studied at different simulated physiological environments. The drug release mechanism was evaluated by applying various kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer Peppas and Hixson Crowell. The controlling parameters and their effects on the release of curcumin from the devised system were elucidated from the best fit model.


[1] Dash S, Murthy PN, Nath L, Chowdhury P. Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems. Acta Poloniae Pharm Ñ Drug Res. 2010;67:217–23.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Rao RS, Kumar CG, Prakasham RS, Hobbs PJ. The Taguchi methodology as a statistical tool for biotechnological applications: a critical appraisal. Biotechnol J. 2008;3:510–23.10.1002/biot.200700201Search in Google Scholar

[3] Tuorkey MJ. Curcumin a potent cancer preventive agent: mechanisms of cancer cell killing. Int Med Appl Sci. 2014;6:139–46.10.1556/imas.6.2014.4.1Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ravindran J, Prasad S, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin and cancer cells: how many ways can curry kill tumor cells selectively? Aaps J. 2009;11:3.10.1208/s12248-009-9128-xSearch in Google Scholar

[5] Larsen MT, Kuhlmann M, Hvam ML, Howard KA. Albumin-based drug delivery: harnessing nature to cure disease. Mol Cell Ther. 2016;4:1–12.10.1186/s40591-016-0048-8Search in Google Scholar

[6] Nosrati H, Sefidi N, Sharafi A, Danafar H, Kheiri H. Bioorganic chemistry bovine serum albumin ( BSA) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as biocompatible carriers for curcumin-anticancer drug. Bioorg Chem. 2018;76:501–9.10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.12.033Search in Google Scholar

[7] Sulaiman NH, Ghazali MJ, Majlis BY, Yunas J, Razali M. Superparamagnetic calcium ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using a simple sol- gel method for targeted drug delivery. Biomed Mater Eng. 2015;26:103–10.10.3233/BME-151295Search in Google Scholar

[8] Spirou SV, Basini M, Lascialfari A, Sangregorio C, Innocenti C. Magnetic hyperthermia and radiation therapy: radiobiological principles and current practice. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018;8:1–22.10.3390/nano8060401Search in Google Scholar

[9] Zwicke GL, Mansoori GA, Jeffery CJ. Targeting of cancer nanotherapeutics. Nano Rev. 2012;1:1–11.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Huang Y, Mao K, Zhang B, Zhao Y. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with folic acid for dual target-speci fi c drug delivery and MRI in cancer theranostics. Mater Sci Eng C. 2017;70:763–71.10.1016/j.msec.2016.09.052Search in Google Scholar

[11] Khanna L, Verma NK. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials size-dependent magnetic properties of calcium ferrite nanoparticles. J Magn Magn Mater. 2013;336:1–7.10.1016/j.jmmm.2013.02.016Search in Google Scholar

[12] Salehiabar M, Nosrati H, Javani E, Aliakbarzadeh F, Manjili HK, Davaran S, et al. Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin as controlled release carrier for curcumin delivery. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;115:83–9.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.043Search in Google Scholar

[13] Chen D, Xue W, Xiang J, Zhang L, Wang X. The preparation and characterization of folate - conjugated human serum albumin magnetic cisplatin nanoparticles. J Biomed Res. 2010;24:26–32.10.1016/S1674-8301(10)60005-XSearch in Google Scholar

[14] Sulaiman NH, Ghazali MJ, Majlis BY, Yunas J, Razali M, Kebangsaan U. Influence of calcination temperatures on structure and magnetic properties of calcium ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method. Biomed Mater Eng. 2017;12:38–47.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Shaikh HK, Kshirsagar RV, Patil SG. Mathematical models for drug release characterization: a review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;4:324–38.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Nosrati H, Abbasi R, Charmi J, Rakhshbahar A, Aliakbarzadeh F, Danafar H. Bioorganic chemistry bovine serum albumin ( BSA) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as biocompatible carriers for curcumin-anticancer drug. Bioorg Chem. 2018;76:501–9.10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.12.033Search in Google Scholar

[17] Rajan SS, Pandian A, Palaniappan T. Curcumin loaded in bovine serum albumin – chitosan derived nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Bull Mater Sci. 2016;39:811–17.10.1007/s12034-016-1213-zSearch in Google Scholar

[18] Sriram K, Maheswari PU, Sheriffa Begum KM, Arthanareeswaran G. Curcumin drug delivery by vanillin-chitosan coated with calcium ferrite hybrid nanoparticles as carrier. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018;116:48–60.10.1016/j.ejps.2018.01.023Search in Google Scholar

[19] Purushothaman BK, Muni Harsha S, Maheswari PU, Meera Sheriffa Begum KM. Magnetic assisted curcumin drug delivery using folate receptor targeted hybrid casein-calcium ferrite nanocarrier. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2019;52:509–20.10.1016/j.jddst.2019.05.010Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-02-19
Revised: 2019-08-16
Accepted: 2019-10-01
Published Online: 2020-01-23

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston