Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 20, 2020

A mixed integer nonlinear programming approach for integrated bio-refinery and petroleum refinery topology optimization

Ahmed Mahmoud and Jaka Sunarso

Abstract

The conversion of biomass into gasoline and diesel in bio-refinery process is an attractive process given its carbon neutral and sustainable nature. The economics of bio-refinery can be improved via integration with petroleum refinery, whereby bio-refinery intermediates can be processed into gasoline and diesel in the well-established petroleum refinery processing units, i. e., hydrocracking (HC) and fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units. However, the integration of the new bio-refinery into the existing petroleum refinery may not give the optimum solution given the capacities constraints of the existing petroleum refinery upgrading units such as FCC and HC units. Thus, this work proposed a superstructure comprising new bio-refinery and new petroleum refinery block diagrams. The superstructure was formulated into mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model. The model was coded into general algebraic modeling system (GAMS) platform and solved using global optimum solver, LINDOGLOBAL. The model application was demonstrated using representative case study. The model results showed that the optimum integrated bio-refinery and petroleum refinery topology favors the upgrading of bio-refinery intermediates using petroleum refinery HC unit under one-through operation mode with a marginal increase in the profit of about 0.39% compared to the second optimum case of upgrading bio-refinery intermediate using petroleum refinery FCC unit under gasoline operation mode. Thus, the decision in selecting the most suitable topology can be made based on the market demand for gasoline and diesel as the topology that uses FCC maximizes gasoline production and the topology that uses HC maximizes diesel production.


Corresponding author: Ahmed Mahmoud, Research Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, E-mail:

Funding source: Swinburne Sarawak Research Grant (SSRG)

Award Identifier / Grant number: SSRG No. 2-5540

Acknowledgments

This work was enabled by the financial support from Swinburne Sarawak Research Grant (No. 2-5540).

References

1. Ahmad, F, Zhang, Z, Doherty, W, O'Hara, I. The outlook of the production of advanced fuels and chemicals from integrated oil palm biomass biorefinery. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2019;109:386–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.04.009.Search in Google Scholar

2. Demirbas, A. Biorefineries: Current activities and future developments. Energ Conv Manage 2009;50(11):2782–2801.10.1016/j.enconman.2009.06.035Search in Google Scholar

3. Elliott, D. Biofuels research opportunities in thermochemical conversion of biomass. Massachusetts: First Annual TIMBR Conference on Cellulosic Biofuels; 2008.Search in Google Scholar

4. Bridgwater, A. Renewable fuels and chemicals by thermal processing of biomass. Chem Eng J 2003;91(2–3):87–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1385-8947(02)00142-0.Search in Google Scholar

5. Mercader, F, Groeneveld, M, Kersten, S, Way, N, Schaverien, N, Hogendoorn, J. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units. Appl Catal B 2010;96:57–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2010.01.033.Search in Google Scholar

6. Samolada, M, Baldauf, W, Vasalos, I. Production of a bio-gasoline by upgrading biomass flash pyrolysis liquids via hydrogen processing and catalytic cracking. Fuel 1998;77:1667–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-2361(98)00073-8.Search in Google Scholar

7. Fogassy, G, Thegarid, N, Toussaint, G, van Veen, A, Schuurman, Y, Mirodatos, C. Biomass derived feedstock co-processing with vacuum gas oil for second-generation fuel production in FCC units. Appl Catal B.2010;96(3–4):476–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2010.03.008.Search in Google Scholar

8. Jensen, C, Hoffmann, J, Rosendahl, L. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries. Part 2: A parametric hydrotreating study. Fuel 2016;165:536–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.08.047.Search in Google Scholar

9. Ali, A, Mustafa, M, Yassin, K. A techno-economic evaluation of bio-oil co-processing within a petroleum refinery. Biofuels 2018:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2018.1519758.Search in Google Scholar

10. Wu, L, Wang, Y, Zheng, L, Shi, M, Li, J. Design and optimization of bio-oil co-processing with vacuum gas oil in a refinery. Energ Conv Manage 2019;195:620–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.05.041.Search in Google Scholar

11. Jones, S, Valkenburt, C, Walton, C, Elliott, D, Holladay, J, Stevens, D, et al. Production of gasoline and diesel from biomass via fast pyrolysis, hydrotreating and hydrocracking: A design case. United States Department of Energy; 2009. PNNL-182841 Rev. DE-AC05.-76RL01830.10.2172/950728Search in Google Scholar

12. Mahmoud, A, Shuhaimi, M. Systematic methodology for optimal enterprise network design between bio-refinery and petroleum refinery for the production of transportation fuels. Energy 2013;59(15):224–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.06.026.Search in Google Scholar

13. Marker, T, Petri, J, Kalnes, T, McCall, M, Mackowiak, D, Jerosky, B, Opportunities for biorenewables in oil refineries. 2005. Report No DE-FG36e05GO15085, UOP.10.2172/861458Search in Google Scholar

14. Biegler, L, Grossmann, I, Westerberg, A. Systematic methods of chemical process design. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR; 1997.Search in Google Scholar

15. Maples, R. Petroleum refinery process economics. Oklahoma: Penn Well Corporation; 2000.Search in Google Scholar

16. Peters, M, Timmerhaus, K, Plant design and economics for chemical engineers. Singapore: McGraw-Hill; 1990.Search in Google Scholar

17. Nelson-Farrar Cost Indexes. Oil and Gas Journal. https://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-115/issue-12/processing/nelson-farrar-cost-indexes.html (Last visit 19/03/2020).Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-11-19
Accepted: 2020-04-01
Published Online: 2020-07-20

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston