Hydrotropes have been largely explored as reactive extraction agent for lignin separation. In this paper, a mathematical model of hydrotropic-reactive extraction of sugarcane bagasse lignin was proposed and validated by experimental data from literature. The mathematical model was developed by assuming the particle is in slab shape, and by considering simultaneous processes of hydrotrope intra particle diffusion, second order reaction of lignin-hydrotrope, and intra-particle soluble delignification product diffusion. The proposed model results in a set of partial differential equations which were then solved by explicit finite difference approximation method. The mathematical model parameters were determined by fitting the model to the hydrotropic reactive extraction experimental data reported by Ansari and Gaikar (2014). Simulations show that the mathematical model of the hydrotropic-reactive extraction were well fitted to the experimental data with the obtained hydrotrope effective diffusivity (DeA) of 5.0 × 10−11 m2/s, effective diffusivity of soluble lignin product (DeC) of 9.0 × 10−12 m2/s and reaction rate constant (kr) of 1.78 × 10−10 m3/(g.s). It was also observed that the reaction was first order to the hydrotrope (n = 1), and one half order to the lignin (m = 0.5). Meanwhile the pseudo-stoichiometric mass ratio of hydrotrope to lignin was 6.4 g hydrotrope/g lignin.
Funding source: PDUPT
Award Identifier / Grant number: 2572/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2019
The research team would like to thanks for The Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia which support this work through PDUPT research grant of 2019, with contract number of 2572/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2019.
Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.
hydrotrope compound (sodium xylene sulfonate)
soluble lignin product
concentration of hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate) in the liquid in the pore of the solid (g/m3)
concentration of the hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate) in the bulk of the liquid (g/m3)
concentration of unreacted lignin in the liquid in the pore of the solid (g/m3)
concentration of soluble lignin product in the liquid in the pore of the solid (g/m3)
concentration of soluble lignin in the bulk of the liquid (g/m3)
effective diffusivity of A and C, respectively (m2/s)
reaction rate constant (m3/(g.s))
slab thickness (m)
the number of thin slabs
cross sectional of slab, perpendicular to x axis (m2)
volume of liquid (m3)
- n, m
reaction order of hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate) and lignin, respectively
pseudo-stoichiometric mass ratio of hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate) to lignin (g hydrotrope/g lignin)
1. Ansari, KB, Gaikar, VG. Green hydrotropic extraction technology for delignification of sugarcane bagasse by using alkybenzene sulfonates as hydrotropes. Chem Eng Sci 2014;115:157–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2013.10.042.10.1016/j.ces.2013.10.042Search in Google Scholar
2. Banoub, J, Delmas, GHJr, Joly, N, Mackenzie, G, Cachet, N, Benjelloun-Mlayah, B, et al.. A critique on the structural analysis of lignins and application of novel tandem mass spectrometric strategies to determine lignin sequencing. J Mass Spectrom 2015;50:5–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.3541.10.1002/jms.3541Search in Google Scholar
3. Renault, H, Werck-Reichhart, D, Weng, JK. Harnessing lignin evolution for biotechnological applications. Curr Op in Biotechnol 2019;56:105–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2018.10.011.10.1016/j.copbio.2018.10.011Search in Google Scholar
4. Carvajal, JC, Gómez, A, Cardona, CA. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: economic and environmental assessment. Bioresour Technol 2016;214:468–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.103.10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.103Search in Google Scholar
5. Moubarik, A, Grimi, N, Boussetta, N, Pizzi, A. Isolation and characterization of lignin from Moroccan sugar cane bagasse : production of lignin – phenol-formaldehyde wood adhesive. Ind Crop Prod 2013;45:296–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.12.040.10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.12.040Search in Google Scholar
6. Al Arni, S. Extraction and isolation methods for lignin separation from sugarcane bagasse: a review. Ind Crop Prod 2018;115:330–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.012.10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.012Search in Google Scholar
7. Macfarlane, AL, Farid, MM, Chen, JJJ. Process intensification kinetics of delignification using a batch reactor with recycle. Chem Eng Proc 2009;48:864–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2008.11.005.10.1016/j.cep.2008.11.005Search in Google Scholar
8. Devendra, LP, Kumar, MK, Pandey, A. Evaluation of hydrotropic pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 2016;213:350–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.059.10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.059Search in Google Scholar
9. Devendra, LP, Pandey, A. Hydrotropic pretreatment on rice straw for bioethanol production. Renew Energy 2016;98:2–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.032.10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.032Search in Google Scholar
10. Denisova, MN, Kukhlenko, AA, Orlov, SE. Investigation into the process of hydrotropic delignification of oat straw in the universal thermobaric unit. Theor Found Chem Eng 2018;52:661–3. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0040579518040073.10.1134/S0040579518040073Search in Google Scholar
11. Gabov, K, Hemming, J, Fardim, P. Industrial crops & products sugarcane bagasse valorization by fractionation using a water-based hydrotropic process. Ind Crop Prod 2017;108:495–504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.06.038.10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.06.038Search in Google Scholar
12. Denisova, MN, Kukhlenko, AA, Orlov, SE, Sakovich, GV. The characteristics of the hydrotropic Miscanthus pulp. Russ Chem Bull 2015;64:2182–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11172-015-1136-7.10.1007/s11172-015-1136-7Search in Google Scholar
13. Hartati, I, Sediawan, WB, Sulistyo, H, Azis, MM,Fahrurrozi, M. Mathematical modelling and simulation of hydrotropic delignification. J Rekayasa Proses 2019;13:31–40. https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.42364.10.22146/jrekpros.42364Search in Google Scholar
14. Dang, VQ, Nguyen, KL. A universal kinetic equation for characterising the fractal nature of delignification of lignocellulosic materials. Cellulose 2007;14:153–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-006-9094-8.10.1007/s10570-006-9094-8Search in Google Scholar
15. Chang, CW, Webb, C. Production of a generic microbial feedstock for lignocellulose biorefineries through sequential bioprocessing. Bioresour Technol 2017;227:35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.055.10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.055Search in Google Scholar
16. Pérez, NP, Pedroso, D, Machin, EB, Antunes, JS, Tuna, CE, Silveira, JL. Geometrical characteristics of sugarcane bagasse for being used as fuel in fluidized bed technologies. Renew Energy 2019;143:1210–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.082.10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.082Search in Google Scholar
17. Morais, AB, Jayakumar, C, Gandhi, NN. Hydrotropic effect and thermodynamic analysis on the solubility and mass transfer coefficient enhancement of ethylbenzene. Korean J Chem Eng. 2013;30:925–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-012-0213-y.10.1007/s11814-012-0213-ySearch in Google Scholar
18. Cui, Y. Hydrotropic solubilization by urea derivatives: a molecular dynamics simulation study. J Pharm 2013;2013:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/791370.10.1155/2013/791370Search in Google Scholar
19. Nguyen, KL, Dang, VQ. The fractal nature of kraft pulping kinetics applied to thin Eucalyptus nitens chips. Cellulose 2006;64:104–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.10.036.10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.10.036Search in Google Scholar
20. Huang, G, Shi, JX, Langrish, TAG. NH4OH-KOH pulping mechanisms and kinetics of rice straw. Bioresour Technol 2007;98:1218–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.05.002.10.1016/j.biortech.2006.05.002Search in Google Scholar
21. Sun, JX, Sun, XF, Sun, RC, Fowler, P, Baird, MS. Inhomogeneities in the chemical structure of sugarcane. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:6719–25. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034633j.10.1021/jf034633jSearch in Google Scholar
22. Rezende, CA, De Lima, MA, Maziero, P, deAzevedo, ER, Garcia, W, Polikarpov, I. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol Biofuels 2011;54:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-4-54.10.1186/1754-6834-4-54Search in Google Scholar
23. Zeng, J, Tong, Z, Wang, L, Zhu, JY, Ingram, L. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 2014;154:274–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.072.10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.072Search in Google Scholar
24. Makavana, JM, Agravat, VV, Balas, PR, Makwana, PJ, Vyas, VG. Engineering properties of various agricultural residue. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2018;7:2362–67. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.706.282.10.20546/ijcmas.2018.706.282Search in Google Scholar
25. Zhang, Y, Ghaly, AE, Li, B. Availability and physical properties of residues from major agricultural crops for energy conversion. Am J Agric Biol Sci 2012;7:312–21. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2012.312.321.10.3844/ajabssp.2012.312.321Search in Google Scholar
26. Karthyani, S, Pandey, A, Devendra, LP. Delignification of cotton stalks using sodium cumene sulfonate for bioethanol Delignification of cotton stalks using sodium cumene sulfonate for bioethanol production. Biofuels 2017;0:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2017.1370884.10.1080/17597269.2017.1370884Search in Google Scholar
27. Qi, G, Xiong, L, Li, H, Huang, Q, Luo, M, Tian, L, et al.. Biomass and bioenergy hydrotropic pretreatment on wheat straw for efficient biobutanol production. Biomass and Bioenergy 2018;122:76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.01.039.10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.01.039Search in Google Scholar
28. Zhao, X, Wu, R, Liu, D. Evaluation of the mass transfer effects on delignification kinetics of atmospheric acetic acid fractionation of sugarcane bagasse with a shrinking– layer model. Bioresour Technol 2018;261:52–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.140.10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.140Search in Google Scholar
29. Winitsorn, A, Douglas, PL, Douglas, S, Pongampai, S, Teppaitoon, W. Modeling the extraction of valuable substances from natural plants using solid - Liquid extraction. Chem Eng Commun 2008;195:1457–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986440801967288.10.1080/00986440801967288Search in Google Scholar
30. Jokić, S, Velić, D, Bilić, M, Bucić-kojić, A, Planinić, M. Modelling of the process of solid-liquid extraction of total polyphenols from soybeans. Czech J Food Sci 2010;28:206–12. https://doi.org/10.17221/200/2009-cjfs.10.17221/200/2009-CJFSSearch in Google Scholar
31. Salmi, T, Grénman, H, Wärnå, J, Murzin, DY. New modelling approach to liquid – solid reaction kinetics: from ideal particles to real particles. Chem Eng Res Des 2013; 91:1876–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2013.08.004.10.1016/j.cherd.2013.08.004Search in Google Scholar
32. Bucić-Kojic, A, Planinić, M, Tomas, S, Bilić, M, Velić, D. Study of solid-liquid extraction kinetics of total polyphenols from grape seeds. J Food Eng 2007;81:236–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.027.10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.027Search in Google Scholar
© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston