Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 19, 2020

Optimization of operational and design parameters of a Simultaneous Mixer-Separator for enhanced continuous biodiesel production

Ebrahim Fayyazi, Barat Ghobadian, S. Mohamad Mousavi, Gholamhassan Najafi, Jun Yue and Bahram Hosseinzadeh

Abstract

Nowadays, biodiesel is promoted as an alternative and renewable fuel. The mass-transfer limited transesterification reaction is commonly used for biodiesel production, but it could benefit from process intensification technologies. The Simultaneous Mixer-Separator (SMS) is a novel process intensification reactor capable of integrating the mixing and separation of reactants within a single unit. The current study aims to determine the ideal parameters for continuous biodiesel production using an SMS setup that was exclusively designed and fabricated in-home for enhanced biodiesel production. The research statistically analyzed the effect of the space between the rotor and the bottom of reactor (h) (0.7, 1.0, 1.3 cm), the diameter ratio between the rotor and the stator (Dr/Ds) (0.5, 0.7, 0.9), and the frequency of the rotor’s rotary speed (R f ) (20, 40, 60 Hz) on biodiesel yield using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Optimal oil to fatty acid methyl ester(FAME) conversion of 93.2% and the optimal volumetric production rate of 1,980 (kg FAME/m3·h) were obtained by setting the SMS to a rotational frequency of 39 Hz, an h of 0.7 cm, and a D r /D s of 0.85.


Corresponding author: Barat Ghobadian, Department of Mechanics of Biosystems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, E-mail:

Funding source: Tarbiat Modares University

Award Identifier / Grant number: IG/39705

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Tarbiat Modares University (http://www.modares.ac.ir) for financial supports given under IG/39705 grant for Renewable Energies of Modares research group. Also, the authors express their thankful regards for TMU Renewable Energies Research Institute who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted this research.

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The research was funded by Tarbiat Modares University.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

1. Ilmi, M, Kloekhorst, A, Winkelman, JGM, Euverink, GJW, Hidayat, C, Heeres, HJ. Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes: continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator. Chem Eng J 2017; 321:76–85.Search in Google Scholar

2. Renewables Global Status Report; 2019:1–335 p. Available from: https://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/gsr_2019_full_report_en.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

3. Abbaszaadeh, A, Ghobadian, B, Omidkhah, MR, Najafi, G. Current biodiesel production technologies: a comparative review. Energy Convers Manag 2012;63:138–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2012.02.027.Search in Google Scholar

4. Qiu, Z, Zhao, L, Weatherley, L. Process intensification technologies in continuous biodiesel production. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2010;49:323–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2010.03.005.Search in Google Scholar

5. Thompson, JC, He, BB. Biodiesel production using static mixers. Trans ASABE 2007;50:161–6.Search in Google Scholar

6. Sun, J, Ju, J, Ji, L, Zhang, L, Xu, N. Synthesis of biodiesel in capillary microreactors. Ind Eng Chem Res 2008;47:1398–403. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie070295q.Search in Google Scholar

7. Harvey, AP, Mackley, MR, Seliger, T. Process intensification of biodiesel production using a continuous oscillatory flow reactor. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2003;78:338–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.782.Search in Google Scholar

8. Available at: https://www.arisdyne.com/content/controlled-flow-cavitation-cfc.Search in Google Scholar

9. Gülyurt, MÖ, Özçimen, D, İnan, B. Biodiesel production from Chlorella protothecoides oil by microwave-assisted transesterification. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17:579. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040579.Search in Google Scholar

10. Gude, V, Patil, P, Martinez-Guerra, E, Deng, S, Nirmalakhandan, N. Microwave energy potential for biodiesel production. Sustain Chem Process 2013;1:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/2043-7129-1-5.Search in Google Scholar

11. Lin, JJ, Chen, YW. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 2017;75:43–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.03.034.Search in Google Scholar

12. Chee Loong, T, Idris, A. One step transesterification of biodiesel production using simultaneous cooling and microwave heating. J Clean Prod 2017;146:57–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.155.Search in Google Scholar

13. Fayyazi, E, Ghobadian, B, Najafi, G, Hosseinzadeh, B, Mamat, R, Hosseinzadeh, J. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 2015;26:312–20.Search in Google Scholar

14. Fayyazi, E, Ghobadian, B, Najafi, G, Hosseinzadeh, B. Genetic algorithm approach to optimize biodiesel production by ultrasonic system. Chem Prod Process Model 2014;9:59–70. https://doi.org/10.1515/cppm-2013-0043.Search in Google Scholar

15. Dube, MA, Tremblay, AY, Liu, J. Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor. Bioresour Technol 2007;98:639–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.02.019.Search in Google Scholar

16. Cheng, LH, Yen, SY, Chen, ZS, Chen, J. Modeling and simulation of biodiesel production using a membrane reactor integrated with a prereactor. Chem Eng Sci 2012;69:81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2011.09.049.Search in Google Scholar

17. Poddar, T, Jagannath, A, Almansoori, A. Use of reactive distillation in biodiesel production: a simulation-based comparison of energy requirements and profitability indicators. Appl Energy 2017;185:985–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.12.054.Search in Google Scholar

18. Boon-anuwat, N, Kiatkittipong, W, Aiouache, F, Assabumrungrat, S. Process design of continuous biodiesel production by reactive distillation: comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2015;92:33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2015.03.025.Search in Google Scholar

19. Poddar, T, Jagannath, A, Almansoori, A. Biodiesel production using reactive distillation: a comparative simulation study. Energy Procedia 2015;75:17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.129.Search in Google Scholar

20. Perez-Cisneros, ES, Mena-Espino, X, Rodríguez-Lóppez, V, Sales-Cruz, M, Viveros-Garcia, T, Lobo-Oehmichen, R. An integrated reactive distillation process for biodiesel production. Comput Chem Eng 2016;91:233–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2016.01.008.Search in Google Scholar

21. Vedantam, S, Joshi, JB. Annular centrifugal contactors—a review. Chem Eng Res Des 2006;84:522–42. https://doi.org/10.1205/cherd.05219.Search in Google Scholar

22. Schuur, B, Jansma, WJ, Winkelman, JGM, Heeres, HJ. Determination of the interfacial area of a continuous integrated mixer/separator (CINC) using a chemical reaction method. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2008;47:1484–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2007.05.028.Search in Google Scholar

23. Abduh, MY, Van Ulden, W, Van De Bovenkamp, HH, Buntara, T, Picchioni, F, Manurung, R, et al. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2015;117:242–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400206.Search in Google Scholar

24. Schuur, B, Kraai, GN, Winkelman, JGM, Heeres, HJ. Hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators: experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2012;55:8–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2012.02.008.Search in Google Scholar

25. Vedantam, S, Wardle, KE, Tamhane, TV, Ranade, VV, Joshi, JB. CFD simulation of annular centrifugal extractors. Int J Chem Eng 2012;2012:1–31.https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/759397.Search in Google Scholar

26. Tang, K, Wang, Y, Zhang, P, Huang, Y, Hua, J. Optimization study on continuous separation of equol enantiomers using enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators. Process Biochem 2016;51:113–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2015.11.021.Search in Google Scholar

27. Schuur, B, Verkuijl, BJV, Bokhove, J, Minnaard, AJ, De Vries, JG, Heeres, HJ, et al. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of (R,S)-phenylglycinol using a bisnaphthyl phosphoric acid derivative as chiral extractant. Tetrahedron 2011;67:462–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2010.11.001.Search in Google Scholar

28. Zhang, P, Zhang, H, Tang, K, Yi, J, Huang, Y. Influence of pH on enantioselective extraction of aromatic acid enantiomers in centrifugal contactor separators: experiments and simulation. Separ Purif Technol 2015;141:68–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.11.045.Search in Google Scholar

29. Schuur, B, Winkelman, JGM, de Vries, JG, Heeres, HJ. Experimental and modeling studies on the enantio-separation of 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-(R),(S)-leucine by continuous liquid-liquid extraction in a cascade of centrifugal contactor separators. Chem Eng Sci 2010;65:4682–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.05.015.Search in Google Scholar

30. Schuur, B, Hallett, AJ, Winkelman, JGM, De Vries, JG, Heeres, HJ. Scalable enantioseparation of amino acid derivatives using continuous liquid-liquid extraction in a cascade of centrifugal contactor separators. Org Process Res Dev 2009;13:911–4. https://doi.org/10.1021/op900152e.Search in Google Scholar

31. Xu, W, Dai, G, Tang, K, Zhang, P, Xiong, B, Liu, Y. Continuous chiral separation of 2-phenylbutyric acid by liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators. Separ Purif Technol 2017;179:53–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2017.01.063.Search in Google Scholar

32. Zhang, P, Feng, X, Tang, K, Xu, W. Study on enantioseparation of α-cyclopentyl-mandelic acid enantiomers using continuous liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators: experiments and modeling. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2016;107:168–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2016.04.002.Search in Google Scholar

33. Tang, K, Wang, Y, Zhang, P, Huang, Y, Dai, G. Process optimization of continuous liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators for separation of oxybutynin enantiomers. Separ Purif Technol 2015;150:170–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.06.027.Search in Google Scholar

34. Schuur, B, Kraai, GN, Winkelman, JGM, Heeres, HJ. Chemical engineering and processing: process intensification hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators: experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2012;55:8–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2012.02.008.Search in Google Scholar

35. Kraai, GN, Schuur, B, van Zwol, F, van de Bovenkamp, HH, Heeres, HJ. Novel highly integrated biodiesel production technology in a centrifugal contactor separator device. Chem Eng J 2009;154:384–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.04.047.Search in Google Scholar

36. Abduh, MY, van Ulden, W, Kalpoe, V, van de Bovenkamp, HH, Manurung, R, Heeres, HJ. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2013;115:123–31. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201200173.Search in Google Scholar

37. Fayyazi, E, Ghobadian, B, van de Bovenkamp, HH, Najafi, G, Hosseinzadehsamani, B, Heeres, HJ, . Optimization of biodiesel production over chicken eggshell-derived CaO catalyst in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator. Ind Eng Chem Res 2018;57:12742–55. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.8b02678.Search in Google Scholar

38. Taylor, GI. Stability of a viscous liquid contained between two rotating cylinders. Philosophical Trans Royal Soc A 1923;223:289–343.Search in Google Scholar

39. Metcalfe, LD, Schmitz, AA, Pelka, JR. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal Chem 1966;38:514–5. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60235a044.Search in Google Scholar

40. Fayyazi, E, Ghobadian, B, Mousavi, SM, Najafi, G. Intensification of continues biodiesel production process using a simultaneous mixer- separator reactor. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2018;40:1125–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2018.1474293.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-01-10
Accepted: 2020-04-28
Published Online: 2020-08-19

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston