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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter May 27, 2022

Two-stage adsorber optimization of NaOH-prewashed oil palm empty fruit bunch activated carbon for methylene blue removal

Tivya Sarawanan, Noor Sabariah Mahat, Nurfarhain Mohamed Rusli and Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini


The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of two-stage adsorber of activated carbon from oil palm empty fruit bunch for methylene blue removal. The model was developed to predict optimum adsorbent mass and time at a specified volumes and concentrations of dye solution. Results show that the adsorbent mass can be reduced by 6.67%. Operating time taken to attain the equilibrium in a two-stage adsorber has dramatically decreased from 22 h to 0.52 h. In the performance evaluation, the adsorbent mass in stage-1 is higher than in stage-2, which lessen the workload to achieve equilibrium. A two-stage adsorber aids to optimize the mass and contact time for different percentage of dye removal that economically feasible for industrial applications.

Corresponding author: Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini, School of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; and Centre of Lipids Engineering & Applied Research (CLEAR), Ibnu-Sina Institute for Scientific & Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia, E-mail:

Funding source: UTM ICONIC

Award Identifier / Grant number: 09G54

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The project presented in this article is supported by UTM ICONIC Fund No. 09G54.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2022-02-15
Accepted: 2022-05-14
Published Online: 2022-05-27

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