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Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton April 26, 2018

Barthes’s Semiotic Theory and the TCSL Classroom

Yanhua Xu
From the journal Chinese Semiotic Studies

Abstract

With the help of Chinese reform and the opening-up policy, as well as the global cultural fusion, TCSL (Teaching Chinese as a Second Language) is gradually growing into a hot research field where more and more research has been conducted to solve difficulties in practical teaching. However, little of this is concerned with the semiotic value of the TCSL classroom. To fill this research gap, this paper innovatively regards the TCSL classroom as a special semiotic text and applies Roland Barthes’ textual analysis theory into the TCSL classroom. Through a series of theoretical analyses and case studies, it aims at exploring the mutual connection between Barthes’ free text and the TCSL classroom and elaborating five codes existing in the TCSL classroom. At the same time, a new plural teaching model is expected to be constructed which can realize the democratic communication between the teacher and students, bring students’ subjective initiative into full play and eventually achieve the goal of mutual learning.

Acknowledgements

This paper is supported by Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province in 2017. The project number is KYCX17_1031.

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Appendix: An example of transcription

T: Tóng xué men hǎo ! {Hello, class!}

Ss: Lǎo shī hǎo ! {Hello, teacher!}

Hǎo le, xiàn zài wǒ men kāi shǐshàng kè. Jīn tiān wǒ men yào xué xí de hé lǚ xíng yǒu guān xi. Dà jiā kàn dào lǎo shī de hēi bǎn shang yǒu yī zhāng shén me? {Now, let’s begin our class. Today, we are going to learn something about travelling. First, what can you see on the blackboard?}

Ss:   [Dì tú]. {A map.}

T:  Shén me [dì tú]? {What kind of map?}

T: Duì, [zhōng guó dì tú]. Nǐ men lái zhōng guó dà gài yǒu kuàī yī nián le ba. {Yes, it’s the map of China. You have already been in China for about one year. Am I right?}

Ss: En. {Yes.}

T: Wǒ xiǎng bù shǎo tóng xué yīng gāi yǐ jīng qù le hěn duō dì fāng lǚ xíng guò le. [Shì] bú shì? {I believe that many of you must have travelled many places. Right?}

Ss:      [Shì]. {Yes.}

T: Xiān kǎo kǎo nǐ men, kàn kàn nǐ men zhī bù zhī dào yī xiē zhōng guó hěn yǒu míng de dì fāng. Hǎo, lǎo shī zhè yǒu yī xiē tú piàn. Xiàn zài wǒ gěi nǐ kàn yi kàn. Gào sù wǒ, kàn kàn nǐ rèn shi bú rèn shi shì nǎ’ér? ((shows students the picture)) Dì yī gè dì fāng - Zhè shì nǐ’ér? {OK, let’s see whether you can recognize some famous places in China. I have some pictures on hand. After showing you these pictures, can you tell me what place it is? ((shows students the picture)) The first place. Where is it?}

Ss:    [Shànghǎi]. {Shanghai.}

T: ((laugh)) [Shànghǎi] zài nǎ’ér? Zài? ((Nomi)) {((laugh)) Where is Shanghai? In? ((Nomi))}

S1: Zhè gè dì fāng. ((points at the position of Shanghai in the map)) {In this place. ((points at the position of Shanghai on the map))}

T: Kàn dào le ma? [Duì] bú duì? {Did you see? Is he right?}

Ss:     [Duì]. {Yes.}

T:     [Duì], hěn hǎo. Qǐng nǐ bǎ zhè zhāng tú piàn tiē zài shànghǎi de pàng biān. ((S1 pins up the picture)) Hǎo, xiè xie. Shànghǎi, yǒu tóng xuè qù shàng hǎi lǚ xíng guò ma? Shéi qù guò? ((Raises her right hand to encourage students to raise their hands)) Shànghǎi yǒu shén me yǒu míng de dí fāng? Jiè shào yí xià. {Yes, very good. Please pin this picture beside the position of Shanghai. ((S1 pins up the picture)) Good, thank you. Have any of you ever been to Shanghai? Who has travelled there before? ((raises her right hand to encourage students to raise their hands)) Are there any places of interest in Shanghai? Please introduce them.}

S1: Wǒ méi yǒu qù guò nà’ér de míng shèng gǔ jì, dàn wǒ qù guò nà’ér de bó wù guǎn. Tā men de bó wù guǎn tǐng yǒu yì si de. Tā men de shū fǎ tè bié hǎo. Tā men yǒu cǎo shū, fēi cháng piào liang. {I’ve never travelled to places of interest in Shanghai, but I’ve visited the museum there. It is very interesting. The calligraphy is wonderful, such as cursive script. Very pretty.}

T: Zhè shì shànghǎi. Zài lái. Zhù yì a - dì’èr gè dì fang. Nǐ men yīng gāi rèn shi. ((shows students the picture)) Zhè shì na’ér? {This is Shanghai. Pay attention - the second place. You should know it. ((shows students the picture)) Where is it?}

Ss: Xī’ān. {Xi’an.}

T: ((laughs)) Zhī dào le. Zhè shì xī’ān zuì yǒu míng de jiào shén me? {((laughs)) That is right. This is the most famous place in Xi’an. What’s it called?}

Ss:   [Bīng mǐ yǒng]. {Terracotta warriors.}

T: Duì, [bīng mǎ yǒng]. xī’ān yīng gāi zhī dào le ba. Zài na’ér? ((pause)) Duì, shéi zhī dào? Shéi lái gěi wǒ zhǐ yí xià? Shéi lái zhǐ yí xià? Shéi zhī dào? {Yes, terracotta warriors. You should know Xi’an. Where is it? ((pause)) Who knows? Who can point to its position on the map? Who can? Who knows?}

((hands up))

T: ((Nomi)) Zhǎo yi zhǎo ha, bú yào zhǐ cuò le. Xiān zhǐ yi zhǐ xī’ān zài nǎ’ér? {((Nomi)) Look them up. Don’t point at the wrong position. First, point at its position with your finger.}

((points at the position of Xi’an))

T: Hǎo, gěi tóng xué men kàn yi kàn. [Duì] bú duì? {Good, show your classmates. Is that right?}

Ss:       [Duì]. {Yes.}

T:       [Duì], hěn hǎo. Xiè xie. Lái, bǎ bīng mǐ yǒng tiē zài páng biān. {Yes, very good. Thank you. Please pin the picture of the terracotta warriors beside the position of Xi’an.}

((S2 pins up the picture))

T: Zuǒ biān, xī’ān de zuǒ biān. Hěn hǎo, xiè xie. Shéi qù xī’ān lǚ xíng guò, kàn guò bīng mǎ yǒng? ((Nomi)) Jiè shào yí xià. {Left, on the left side of Xi’an. Very good, thank you. Who has been to Xi’an and seen the terracotta warriors before? ((Nomi)) Please share something with us.}

S2: Wǒ qù nián qù guò xī’ān kàn guò bīng mǎ yǒng. ( ) Wǒ hěn gǎn dòng, yīn wèi shì wǒ dì yī cì kàn guò zhè yàng de dōng xī. Zhēn de [hěn yǒu yì si]. {Last year, I visited Xi’an and saw terracotta warriors. ( ) I was touched because this was my first time to see such things. It was really interesting.}

T:     O, [hěn yǒu yì si]. Duì ma? Zhè gè xī’ān de bīng mǎ yǒng [hé zhēn de rén yí yàng gāo]? (NV) {Well, it was interesting, wasn’t it? Were the terracotta warriors as high as real people? (NV)}

S2:   Yǒu xiē[hé zhēn de rén yí yàng gāo]. Yǒu xiē [xiǎo]. {Some are as high as real people, some are smaller.}

T:4     [xiǎo]? ((laughs)) {Smaller? ((laughs))}

S2: Duì, duì. Yǒu de shì. ( ) {Yes. Yes. Some are. ( )}

T: Dì sān gè kàn kàn zhī dào bù zhī dào - Zhè shì nǎ ér? {Do you know the third place- where is it?}

Ss:   [Hā’ěr bǐn]. {Harbin.}

T: Duì, [hā’ěr bīn]. Wèi shén me zhī dào shì hā’ěr bīn - Zhè shì shén me? {Yes, Harbin. How do you know this is Harbin. What is it?}

Ss: Bīng dēng. {Ice lanterns.}

T: Duì le, hěn piào liang, shì bú shì? Chú le bīng dēng, wǒ hái yǒu ne. ((pause)) Kàn kàn, zhè shì shén me? {Right. Very pretty, isn’t it? Apart from ice lanterns, I have something else to show you. ((pause)) Look, what is it?}

Ss: [Bīng diāo]. {Ice sculptures.}

T: [Bīng diāo]. Duì le, hěn hǎo. Nà hā’ěr bīn zài nǎ er? ((pause)) ((Nomi)) Lái, zhǐ yi zhǐ. Yī dìng zhī dào. Duì. ((pause)) Zhǐ gěi tóng xué men kàn yi kàn hā’ěr bīn. {Ice sculptures. Right. Very good. So where is Harbin? ((pause)) ((Nomi)) Point at it. You must know. ((pause)) Show your classmates where Harbin is.}

((S3 points at the position of hā’ěr bin))

T: Duì, dà jiā kàn kàn, [duì] ma? {Right. Let’s see. Is he right?}

Ss:     [Duì]. {Yes.}

T:     [Duì] le, hěn hǎo. Lái, bāng wǒ tiē zài hā’ěr bīn páng biān. {Yes, very good. Please help me to pin two pictures beside the position of Harbin.}

((S3 pins up the picture))

T: Hǎo de, xiè xie. hā’ěr bīn de bīng dēng hé bīng diāo. Hā’ěr bīn shì yī gè shén me yàng de dì fāng? ((pause)) Zài zhōng guó de běi biān, suǒ yǐ tiān qì? {Good, thank you. Ice lanterns and sculptures of Harbin. What kind of place is Harbin? ((pause)) Which side of China does it located on? Thus, how about its weather?}

Ss: Hěn [lěng]. {Very cold.}

T:   [Lěng], shì ba? Zuì lěng de dì fāng. ((pause)) Zuì hòu yī gè dì fāng le, kàn kàn nǐ men zhī dào bù zhī dào? ((shows the picture)) Zhè shì nǎ’ér? {Cold, isn’t it? The coldest place. Let’s see whether you can recognize it or not. ((show the picture)) Where is it?}

T&Ss: [Sān yà]. {Sanya.}

T:    [Sān yà] zài hǎi nán de? - Zài hǎi nán de zuì nán biān. Dà jiā bāng wǒ zài dì tú shang zhǎo yi zhǎo. ((Nomi)) Lái zhǎo yi zhǎo - kě yǐ zhǎo dào sān yà zài nǎ ma? Shì shì kàn. {Where is Sanya located? - In the southernmost part of Hainan. Class, help me find Sanya on the map. ((Nomi)) Look it up - can you find where Sanya is? Have a try.}

((S4 looks for Sanya on the map))

T: Hǎi nán de zuì nán biān. Zhǎo dào le ma? {The southernmost part of Hainan. Have you found it?}

((S4 pins up the picture))

T: Duì le. Hǎo, xiè xie. Gāng cái wǒ men shuō hā’ěr bīn zài běi biān, suǒ yǐ tiān qì fēi cháng de - lěng. Nà me sān yà zěn me yàng? {Right. Well, thank you. We mentioned that Harbin was in the north just now, so the weather there was very-cold. Now, how about the weather of Sanya?}

Ss:    [Rè]. {Hot.}

T: Dāng rán hěn [rè], nán biān shì bú shì? Suǒ yǐ nǐ kàn sān yà hěn yǒu míng de fēng jǐng yǒu shén me? {Of course, very hot. In the south, right? Thus, what famous scenery is in Sanya?}

Ss:    [Rè]. {Hot.}

T: Dāng rán hěn [rè], nán biān shì bú shì? Suǒ yǐ nǐ kàn sān yà hěn yǒu míng de fēng jǐng yǒu shén me? {Of course, very hot. In the south, right? Thus, what famous scenery is in Sanya?}

Ss:  [Hǎi]. {The sea.}

T: Dà [hǎi], hái yǒu ne, hǎi biān? {The sea. Something else at the seaside?}

Ss: [Shā]. {Sand.}

T: [Shā] tān. Hái yǒu hěn yǒu míng de yē shù, [ye zi shù]. {The beach. There are also famous coconut trees.}

Ss:          [Yē zi shù]. { Coconut trees.}

T: Hǎo le, wǒ gěi le dà jiā zhè xiē dì fang, nà chú le zhè xiē dì fang, nǐ men hái qù nǎ lǚ xíng guò? Wǒ xiǎng nǐ men yī dìng hái qù le bié de dì fang, yǒu nǎ? ((pause)) Qù le nǎ? {Well, I show you so many places. Besides these, have you travelled to some other places? I think you must have travelled to other places, haven’t you? ((pause)) Where have you been?}

S1: Wǒ qù guò [chéng dōu]. {I have been to Chěngtu.}

T:    [Chéng dōu]. En, sì chuān. Wǒ men dōu zhī dào sì chuān hěn yǒu míng de yǒu sì chuān cài. Sì chuān cài hěn hǎo chī. Sì chuān cài hěn? {Chengtu. Well, Sichuan. As is known to us, Sichuan cuisine is famous there. It’s very delicious. Sichuan food is very?}

Ss:  [Là]. {Spicy.}

T: Hěn [là], nǐ [chī le] ma? ((Nomi)) {Very spicy. Did you eat some? ((Nomi))}

S1:    [Chī le]. {Yes.}

T: Nà nǐ hái jué de yǒu shén me tè bié de? {Is there something else which is special to you?}

S1: Wǒ jué de nà’ér de [dà fó] tǐng yǒu yì si de. {I think the Buddha there is rather interesting.}

T:  Duì, sì chuān yǒu [dà fó]. Nǐ men hái qù le nǎ? ((Nomi)) {That’s right. There are Buddhas in Sichuan. Somewhere else? ((Nomi))}

S5: Qù [gān sù]. Duì. {I’ve been to Gansu.}

T:  [Gān sù] de shén me dì fang? {Which place in Gansu?}

S5: Shì [lán zhōu]. {Lanzhou.}

T:    O, [lán zhōu]. Qù le [lán zhōu]. {Well, Lanzhou. You’ve been to Lanzhou.}

S5:    Duì, [lán zhōu]. {Yes, Lanzhou.}

T: Hěn piào liàng de chéng shì. Hǎo, lán zhōu. Hái yǒu bié de dì fang ma? ((Raises her right hand to encourage students to raise their hands)) ((pause)) Chéng dōu, lán zhōu. ((Nomi)) [Qù guò] nǎ? {It’s a pretty city. Good, Lanzhou. Somewhere else? ((Raises her right hand to encourage students to raise their hands)) ((pause)) Chengtu. Lanzhou. ((Nomi)) Where have you been?}

S4: [Qù guò] [tiān jīn]. {I have been to Tianjin.}

T:   [Tiān jīn], zài běi jīng de fù jìn, [duì] ma ? {Tianjin. It is near Beijing, isn’t it?}

S4:     [Duì], tīng shuō yī gè xiǎo shí jiù dào le. {Yes, I heard that it wǒuld take about one hour.}

T: Nǐ zài nà chī shén me la? {What did you eat there?}

S4: Wǒ zài nà dài qù le zì jǐ zuò de fàn. {I took some food cooked by myself.}

T: Duì. Tiān jīn de xiǎo chī hěn yǒu míng. Nǐ yīng gāi qù chī yi chī. Hǎo, wèn le wèn dà jiā de qíng kuàng. Jīn tiān wǒ men yào xué xí de jiù shì tán yi tán lǚ xíng jì huà. Hǎo, xiàn zài qǐng kàn hēi bǎn. ((points at the wǒrd)) [“Zhèng hǎo”]. {Tianjin food is very famous. You should have a try. Now, I already know something about you. What we’re going to learn today is to talk about your travelling plans. Now, please look at the blackboard. ((points at the word)) “Be suitable”.}

Ss:     [“Zhèng hǎo”]. {“Be suitable”.}

T: [“Jù tǐ”]. ((points at the word)) {“Specific”. ((points at the word))}

Ss: [“Jù tǐ”]. {“Specific”.}

T: [“Zài shuō”]. ((points at the word)) {“Moreover”. ((points at the word))}

Ss: [“Zài shuō”]. {“Moreover”.}

T:[“Bīng dēng”]. ((points at the word)) {“Ice lanterns”. ((points at the word))}

Ss: [“Bīng dēng”]. {“Ice lanterns”.}

T:[“Bīngdiāo”]. ((points at the word)) {“Ice sculptures”. ((points at the word))}

Ss: [“Bīngdiāo”]. {“Ice sculptures”.}

T: Hǎo de. ((Nomi)) {Good. ((Nomi))}

S6: “Zhèng hǎo, jù tǐ, zài shuo, bīng dēng, bīng diāo”. {“Be suitable, specific, moreover, ice lanterns, ice sculptures.”}

((Nomi))

S2: “Jí le, dǎn liàng, dōng yong, cóng lái, pà”. {“Extremely, courage, winter swimming, ever, afraid.”}

T: “Zhèng hǎo”, kàn yi kàn lǎo shī de yī fu, hé shì, féi [bù féi]? {“Be suitable”. Look at my dress today. It is suitable. Is it too big?}

Ss: [Bù féi]. {Not too big.}

T: Yé bú shòu, cháng [bù cháng]? (NV) {Not too small, either. Is it too long?}

Ss:  [Bù cháng]. {Not too long.}

T: Yé bù duǎn, [zhè jiàn yī fu - lǎo shī chuān zhèng – hǎo]. Zài shuō yi biàn. {Not too short, either. This dress-is just suitable for me. Say it again.}

Ss:  [Zhè jiàn yī fu lǎo shī chuān zhèng hǎo]. {This dress is just suitable for the teacher.}

T: Xiàn zài yǒu yī gè wèn tí. Nǐ xiǎng qù wèn mài kè. Ā ya, hěn zháo jí. Nǐ xiǎng wèn mài kè. Jiù zài zhè gè shí hou, nǐ hén xiǎng wèn, hěn xū yào tā de shí hou, mài kè lái le. Mài kè nǐ? {Now, there is one question. You want to ask Mike. It’s really urgent. You want to ask Mike. At this very time, Mike comes. You can say Mike, you?}

Ss:  [Lái de zhèng hǎo]. {You come at the right time.}

T: Duì le, hěn hǎo, zài shuō yī biàn. {Right. Very good. Please say it again.}

Ss : Mài kè, nǐ [lái de zhèng hǎo]. {Mike, you come at the right time.}

T: “Jù tǐ”, gāng cái yǒu tóng xué shuō qù shàng hǎi lǚ xíng guò. ((Nomi)) Shàng hǎi [hǎo wán] ma? {“Specific”. Just now, someone said you had travelled Shanghai. ((Nomi)) Is Shanghai interesting?}

S1: Tè bié [hǎo wán]. (Very interesting.}

T:  [Hǎo wán], zěn me hǎo wán ne? Qǐng nǐ shuō jù tǐ yī diǎn. (Interesting, isn’t it? Can you say something specific?}

S1: Xīn tiān dì yòu hěn hǎo de fàn guǎn. {There are good restaurants in Shanghai Xintiandi.}

T: Hǎo, hěn hǎo, jiù shì zhè yàng, shuō jù tǐ yī diǎn. Gēn wǒ shuō yī biàn, [“nǐ shuō jù tǐ yī diǎn”]. {Good, very good. That’s it. Say something specific. Repeat after me. “Please say something specific.”}

Ss:  [“Nǐ shuō jù tǐ yī diǎn”]. {“Please say something specific.”}

T: “Cóng lái”, gāng cái wǒ men shuō dào le hā’ěr bīn, dà jiā shuo le, hā’ěr bīn de tiān qì shì fēi cháng lěng de, zěn me lěng, nǐ men zhī dào ma? Nà me, zuì lěng de shí hou qì wēn néng dào duō shǎo dù, nǐ men zhī dào ma? {“Ever”. You mentioned Harbin just now. We said it is very cold in Harbin. To which degree? Do you know?}

Ss: [Língxià]. (Below zero.}

T: Dāng rán shì[líng xià]. ((laughs)) {Of course, below zero. ((laughs))}

Ss:  [Sān shí jǐ dù]. {Minus 30 degrees.}

T: Duì, hěn lěng de, líng xià [sān shí duō dù]. Hǎo le, nà nǐ men qù guò nà me lěng de dì fāng ma? {Yes, very cold. Minus 30 degrees. Well, have you ever been to such a place as Harbin?}

Ss: Cóng lái méi yǒu. {Never.}

T: Qù guò ma? Méi qù guò, yí cì yě[méi qù guò], wǒ ((pause)) {Have you? Never. Not once. I((pause))}

Ss:  Cóng lái [méi qù guò]. {Never been to.}

T: [Nà me]. {Such.}

Ss: [Nà me]lěng de dì fang. {Such cold places.}

T: Sān yà zuì lěng de shí hòu, dōng tiān dà gài yī yuè, yī yuè de píng jūn qì wēn èr shí jǐ dù, zuì gāo de shí hòu, yǒu de shí hòu zuì rè de shí hòu néng dào san shí ji dù ne, fei cháng nuǎn huo. Nà me, nǐ men yǒu guò guò zhè me nuǎn huo de dōng tiān ma? ((Nomi)) Zài hán guó yǒu ma? {The coldest month in Sanya is around January. The average temperature in January is about 20 degrees. The highest temperature can reach 30 degrees. It is very warm. So have you been to such places whose winter is so warm? ((Nomi)) Is there such a place in South Korea?}

S7:  [Méi yǒu]. {No.}

T: Wǒ jué dé[méi yǒu], nà me wǒ? {I think so. Thus, we can say I?}

S7:   [Cóng lái méi guò - nà me nuǎn huo de dōng tiān]. {Never spent such a warm winter.}

T:   Wǒ [cóng lái méi guò guò nà me nuǎn huo de dōng tiān]. Qǐng dà jiā zhù yì yí xià, cóng “lái” - “méi guò guò”, “méi qù guò”, tā hòu miàn shì shén me cí? {I’ve never spent such a warm winter. Pay attention, class. “ever”- “never spent”, “never been”. What kind of word after it?”}

Ss:   [Fǒu dìng cí]. {Negative words.}

T: Duì le, [fǒu dìng cí]. Yǐ qián de shí jiān shì “méi”, rú guǒ shì yǐ hòu de shí jiān kě yǐ shì “bù”, hòu biān yī dìng shì “méi” huò zhě “bù”. {Yes, negative words. If it refers to previous time, we should add the Chinese character “mei” behind it. If it refers to future time, we should add the Chinese character “bu”. It must be “mei” or “bu” behind it.}

T: “Shài”, qǐng dà jiā kàn yí xià tā zài zuò shén me? {“Bask”. Please look at what he is doing now?}

Ss: Tài yang. {Sun.}

T: Wǒ men hàn yǔ yào shuō “[shài tài yang]”. {In Chinese, we should say “bask in the sun”.}

Ss:     [Shài tài yang]. {Bask in the sun.}

T: Nà qǐng wèn nǐ men [xǐ huān] zài hǎi biān shài tài yáng ma? {So do you like basking in the sun?}

Ss:     [Xǐ huān]. {Yes.}

T:    ((Nomi)) [Xǐ huān] ma? { ((Nomi)) Do you like it?}

S8:     [Xǐ huān]. {Yes.}

T:    [Xi huan] zuò shén me? [Wǒ]- {What do you like? I - }

S8:             [Wǒ] xǐ huān. {I like.}

T: [Zài] – {In - .}

S8: [Zài] hǎi biān shài tài yang {Basking in the sun at the seaside.}

T: Nǚ tóng xué ne? ((Nomi)) [Xǐ huān] ma? {How about our girl students? ((Nomi)) Do you like it?}

S7:         Wǒ bù [xǐ huān] zài hǎi biān shài tài yang. {I don’t like basking in the sun at the seaside.}

T: Wèi shén me? {Why?}

S7: Pí fū hēi. {My skin will turn dark.}

T: [Wǒ pà] - {I am afraid - }

S7: [Wǒ pà] hēi. {I am afraid of darkness.}

T: [Wǒ pà shài hēi]. {I am afraid sunburn.}

S7: [Wǒ pà shài hēi]. {I am afraid sunburn.}

T: “Rè dài ”. Nǐ men [chī guò] rè dài shuǐ guǒ ma? {“tropic”. Have you eaten tropical fruit before?}

Ss:         [Chī guò]. {Yes, we have.}

T: Shén me yàng de shuǐ guǒ shì rè dài shuǐ guō? {What kind of fruit can be called tropical fruit?}

Ss: Xiāng jiāo, [bō luó]. {Bananas, pineapples.}

T:     Duì, [bō luó] shì, wǒ gěi dà jiā dài lái le. ((shows the students the pineapple)) {Yes, pineapples are tropical fruit. I have brought one for you. ((shows the students the pineapple))}

Ss:         [Bō luó]. {A pineapple.}

T:     Duì le, [bō luó] shì yī zhǒng rè dài shuǐ guǒ. {Yes, pineapples are a kind of tropical fruit.}

S4: Lǎo shī, [zhēn de] hái shì jiǎ de? ((laughs)) {Teacher, is this pineapple authentic or fake? ((laughs))}

T:         [Zhēn de]. {It is authentic.}

S4: ((touches the pineapple)) Duì, shì zhēn de. ((laughs)) {((touches the pineapple)) Well, it’s authentic. ((laughs))}

T: Bō luó, hái yǒu. ((shows the students the mango)) {This is a pineapple. I have something else. ((shows the students the mango))}

Ss: Máng guǒ. {A mango.}

T: Xiàn zài zài běi jīng yě tǐng duō de, hěn xiāng, shì ba? ((passes the mango to the students)) {There are many mangoes in Beijing. Very fragrant, isn’t it? ((passes the mango to students))}

S4: Lǎo shī, wǒ zuì xǐ huān de. ( ) wǒ xiǎng chī ((laughs)) {Teacher, this is my favorite. ( ) I’d like to eat. ((laughs))}

T: Yī huì sòng gěi nǐ, xiū xī de shí hòu wǒ men jiù kě yǐ chī le, máng guǒ duì ba. {Give you one later. You can eat this mango at break.}

S4: Wǒ de huí dá zuì duō shì máng guǒ. {What I answered most is mango.}

T: Duì le, nà me sān yà yě yǒu hěn duō máng guǒ, rè dài shuǐ guǒ. Dāng rán hái yǒu hěn duō bié de rè dài shuǐ guǒ. Hǎo, nà xiàn zài qǐng tóng xué gào sù wǒ, nǐ [chī guò rè dài shuǐ guǒ] ma? ((Nomi)) {Well, there are many mangoes in Sanya, tropical fruit. Of course, there are many other fruits. Now, I want you to tell me whether you’ve eaten tropical fruit before. ((Nomi))}

S9:                 Chī guò, wǒ [chī guò rè dài de shuǐ guǒ]. {Yes, I’ve eaten tropical fruit before.}

T:         Hǎo le, zhè shì wǒ men jīn tiān de shēng cí, yī qǐ kàn hēi bǎn zài lái yī biàn. [“Zhèng hǎo”]. {Well, these are today’s new words. Look at the blackboard together and read them again. “Be suitable”.}

Ss: [“Zhèng hǎo”], “jù ti”, “zài shuo” … {“Be suitable”, “specific”, “moreover” …}

T: Nà jīn tiān wǒ men yào tán lǚ xíng. Bǎ nǐ men de shū qǐng xiān guān shang. Xiān tīng wǒ shuō: zhè shì mǎ lì, zhè shì mài kè. ((shows the students two cards)) “ - Mǎ lì, kuài fàng hán jiǎ le, nǐ yǒu shén me dǎ suàn? - Wǒ xiǎng qù wài dì lǚ xíng. - Xiǎng hǎo qù nǎ le ma? - Hái méi ne, nǐ lái de zhèng hǎo, nǐ shuō qù nǎ hǎo? - Yào wǒ shuō jiù qù hā’ěr bīn. - Hā’ěr bīn bú shì hěn lěng ma? - Duì ya, jiù shì yào qù hěn lěng de dì fang. -Wèi shí me, nǐ shuō jù tǐ yī diǎn? - Hā’ěr bīn zài zhōng guó de dōng běi, nà lǐ zuì lěng de shí hou néng dào líng xià sān shí jǐ dù, zài shuō nà’er de bīng dēng, bīng diāo měi jí le. Rú guǒ nǐ yǒu dǎn liàng, hái kě yǐ shì shì d–ng yǒng. - En, tīng qǐ lái tǐng bú cuò de.” …Gāng cái tán huà de liǎng gè rén shì shéi ya? {So today we are going to talk about travelling. Close your books and listen to me first: This is Mary. This is Mike. ((shows students two cards)) “-Mary, winter vocation is coming. What’s your plan? - I want to travel. -Have you already thought of some place? - Not yet. You come at the right time. What do you think? - I advise you to go to Harbin. - Harbin is very cold, isn’t it? - Yes, it is. - Why? Can you say something specific? - Harbin is located in the northwest of China. The lowest temperature there can reach minus 30 degrees. Besides, ice lanterns and sculptures in Harbin are very pretty. If you have the courage, you can even try the winter swimming there. – En, that sounds nice.” … Who are these two people in the conversation?}

Ss: [Mài kè hé mǎ lì]. {Mike and Mary.}

T:  [Mài kè hé mǎ lì], tā men zài tán shén me? {Mike and Mary. What are they talking about?}

Ss: [Lǚ xíng]. {Travelling.}

T: [Lǚ xíng] de jì huá,shéi [xiǎng qù lǚ xíng]. {The travelling plan. Who wants to go travelling?}

Ss:     Mǎ lì [xiǎng qù lǚ xíng]. {Mary wants to travel.}

T: Tán huà lǐ miàn tā men shuō dào le jǐ [gè dì fāng]? {How many places are mentioned in that conversation?}

Ss:     Liǎng [gè dì fang]. {Two places.}

T: Shì shén me dì fāng? {Which places?}

Ss: Hā’ěr bīn hái yǒu sān yà. {Harbin and Sanya.}

T: Hǎo le, xiàn zài qǐng dà jiā dǎ kāi shū, xiān gēn wǒ niàn yí biàn kè wén, niàn de shí hou zhù yì fā yīn. wǒ niàn yí jù, nǐ men gēn wǒ niàn yí jù. [“Mǎ lì, kuài fàng hán jiǎ le”]. {Well, now, let’s open our books. First read the text after me. Pay attention to your pronunciation while reading. Sentence by sentence. “Mary, the winter vacation is coming.”

Ss:     [“Mǎ lì kuài fàng hán jiǎ le”]. {“Mary, the winter vocation is coming.”}

T: [“Nǐ yǒu shén me dǎ suàn”]. {“What’s your plan?”}

Ss: [“Nǐ yǒu shén me dǎ suàn”]. {“What’s your plan?”}

T: Hǎo, wǒ men xiān xué xí zhè dì yī bù fen, gào sù wǒ mǎ lì yǒu shén me jì hua? {Well, let’s first learn this first part. Can you tell me what Mary’s plan it is?}

Ss:   [Xiǎng qù wài dì]. {She wants to travel.}

((Nomi))

S10: Tā [xiǎng qù wài dì] lǚ hίng,dàn shì tā bù zhī dào qù na hao. {She wants to travel, but she doesn’t have a good idea.}

T: Tā xiǎng hǎo qù shén me dì fang le ma? {Does she already know where to go?}

Ss: Hái méi yǒu. {Not yet.}

T: Duì, mài kè yǒu shén me jiàn yì? {Yes, so what’s Mike’s suggestion?}

Ss: Mài kè shuō kè yǐ qù haā’ěr bin. {Mike said she could go to Harbin.}

T: Duì, nà hā’ěr bīn [lěng] bù lěng? ((Nomi)) {That’s right, so, is Harbin cold? ((Nomi))}

S11:     Hěn [lěng]. {Very cold.}

T: Nà mài kè wèi shén me yào jiàn yì qù [hā’ěr bīn]? {So why does Mike suggest going to Harbin?}

Ss:             [Hā’ěr bīn] de bīng dēng, bīng diāo, měi jí le. {Because ice lanterns and sculptures in Harbin are very pretty.}

T: Zhè shì yī gè, hái yǒu ne? Wèi shén me jiàn yì qù hā’ěr bīn? ((Nomi)) {This is one reason. Something else? Why does he suggest going to Harbin? ((Nomi))}

S7: Yīn wéi tā shuō, tā yǒu dǎn liàng hái kě yǐ qù yóu yǒng. {Because he said he had the courage to swim.}

T: Hái yǒu ne? ((Nomi)) {Something else? ((Nomi))}

S12: Rú guǒ tā qù hā’ěr bīn, jiù zhī dào shén me shì zhēn zhèng de dōng tiān. {If he goes to Harbin, he will know what a real winter is.}

T: Zhè lǐ hái yǒu jǐ gè zhòng yào de jù zi wǒ men xū yào xué xí, wǒ men zěn me lái shuō. {Here are some important sentences to learn as well. How can we say it?}

T: Gāng cái wǒ men liàn xí le kè wén hé jǐ gè zhòng yào de jù zi, xià biān hái shì yí yàng, qǐng dà jiā bú yào kàn shū, lái kàn zhè. ((points at the ppt)) Wǒ men yī qǐ lái bǎ zhè duàn kè wén shuō yí biàn, wǒ gěi nǐ men yī xiē cí. {We practised the text and several key sentences just now. Likewise, please don’t look at your textbook and look here. ((points at the PPT)) Let’s retell this paragraph together with some key words listed for you.}

T: Hǎo, jiù shì zhè yí duàn, xiàn zài liǎng gè tóng xué liǎng gè tóng xué lián qǐ lái shuō yí biàn. {Well, that’s it. Now, please practice this paragraph in pairs.}

((pair exercise))

T: ((applauds)) Hǎo le, nà wǒ men kè wén yǐ jīng liàn xí le hěn duō biàn le, zhè xiē shì wǒ men zhǔ yào de jù zi. Nǐ kě yǐ yòng tā lái biǎo dá nǐ de jiàn yì, yě kě yǐ yòng lái wèn bié rén de yì jiàn. Xià biān, wǒ xiǎng ràng nǐ men zì jǐ shāng liàng gè lǚ xíng jì huà, yí gè tóng xué xiǎng qù lǚ xíng le, dàn shì bù zhī dào qù nǎ hǎo, nà me wǒ men gāng cái shuō le hěn duō dì fang, chú le zhè xiē, nǐ qù guò de yě kě yǐ gěi tā jiàn yì. {((applauds)) Well, we have practised the text many times. These are key sentences. You can use these sentences to express your opinions or ask others’ advice. Next, I want all of you to discuss your own travelling plans. Provided that one student plans to travel but doesn’t know where to go. We talked about many places just now. Besides these, you can also recommend him some other places you’ve been to.}

((pair discussion))

T: Nà wǒ men jīn tiān xué xí de jiù shì tán lǚ xíng jì huá, tè bié shì méi qù guò de yī dìng yào qù lǚ xíng xià, jīn tiān dà jiā shuō de fēi cháng hǎo, xī wàng nǐ men yǐ hòu néng yòng dào wǒ men zhè xiē jù zi qù liàn xí kǒu yǔ. {Well, what you’ve learned today is travelling plans. Especially those students who have never travelled before must find a chance to travel. You all did a great job today. I hope that you can use what we’ve learned today in your oral Chinese in the future.}

Published Online: 2018-4-26
Published in Print: 2018-4-25

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston