Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) March 20, 2018

Leiblichkeit und personale Identität in der Demenz

Thomas Fuchs

Abstract

Theories of personal identity in the tradition of John Locke and Derek Parfit emphasize the importance of psychological continuity and the abilities to think, to remember and to make rational choices as a basic criterion for personhood. These concepts, however, are situated within a dualistic framework, in which the body is regarded as a mere vehicle of the person, or a carrier of the brain as the organ of mental faculties. Based on the phenomenology of embodiment, this paper elaborates a different approach to personal identity. In this perspective, selfhood is primarily constituted by pre-reflective self-awareness and the body memory of an individual, which consists in the embodiment and enactment of familiar habits, practices and preferences. As can be shown, this understanding of personhood still applies to dementia patients even in the later stages of the disease.

Literatur

Bachelard, G. (1960), Poetik des Raumes, München.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, S., Kaspar, R., u. Kruse, A. (2006), Die Bedeutung unterschiedlicher Referenzgruppen für die Beurteilung der Lebensqualität demenzkranker Menschen, in: Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 39, 350–357.Search in Google Scholar

Bergson, H. (1991), Materie und Gedächtnis. Eine Abhandlung über die Beziehung zwischen Körper und Geist, übers. v. Frankenberger, J., Hamburg.Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (1987), Sozialer Sinn. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main.Search in Google Scholar

de Biran, M. (1953), Influence de l’habitude sur la faculté de penser, Paris.Search in Google Scholar

Descartes, R. (1954), Meditationen über die Grundlagen der Philosophie. Mit sämtlichen Einwänden und Erwiderungen, übers. v. Buchenau, A., Hamburg.Search in Google Scholar

Eldridge, L. L., Masterman, D., u. Knowlton, B. J. (2002), Intact implicit habit learning in Alzheimer’s disease, in: Behavioral Neuroscience 116, 722–726.Search in Google Scholar

Fazio, S., u. Mitchell, D. B. (2009), Persistence of self in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Evidence from language and visual recognition, in: Dementia 8, 39–59.Search in Google Scholar

Fleischman, D. A., Wilson, R., Gabriele, J. D., Schneider, J., Bienias, J., u. Bennett, D. A. (2005), Implicit memory and Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology, in: Brain 128, 2006–2015.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2006), Gibt es eine leibliche Persönlichkeitsstruktur? Ein phänomenologisch-psychodynamischer Ansatz, in: Psychodynamische Psychotherapie 5, 109–117.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2008), Das Gedächtnis des Leibes, in: ders., Leib und Lebenswelt. Neue philosophisch-psychiatrische Essays, Kusterdingen, 37–64.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2010), Das Leibgedächtnis in der Demenz, in: Kruse, A. (Hg.), Lebensqualität bei Demenz. Zum gesellschaftlichen und individuellen Umgang mit einer Grenzsituation im Alter, Heidelberg, 231–242.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2012a), Person und Gehirn, in: Bartram, C. R., Bobbert, M., Dölling, D., Fuchs, T. Schwarzkopf, G., u. Tanner, K. (Hg.), Der (un-)durchsichtige Mensch. Wie weit reicht der Blick in die Person?, Heidelberg, 33–45.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2012b), The phenomenology of body memory, in: Koch, S., Fuchs, T., Summa, M., u. Müller, C. (Hg.), Body Memory, Metaphor and Movement, Amsterdam, 9–22.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2013), Leiblichkeit und personale Identität, in: Römer, I., u. Wunsch, M. (Hg.), Person. Anthropologische, phänomenologische und analytische Perspektiven, Münster, 171–188.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2017a), Self across time: the diachronic unity of bodily existence, in: Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16, 291–315.Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, T. (2017b), Das Gehirn – ein Beziehungsorgan. Eine phänomenologisch-ökologische Konzeption, 5. Aufl., Stuttgart.Search in Google Scholar

Garrett, B. (1998), Personal identity and self-consciousness, London.Search in Google Scholar

Golby, A., Silverberg, G., Race, E., Gabrieli, S., O’Shea, J., Knierim, K., Stebbins, G., u. Gabrieli, J. (2005), Memory encoding in Alzheimer’s disease: an fMRI study of explicit and implicit memory, in: Brain 128, 773–787.Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, B. E., Son, G., Kim, J., u. Whall, A. L. (2007), Preserved implicit memory in dementia: a potential model of care, in: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias 22, 286–293.Search in Google Scholar

Kitwood, T. (1997), Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first, Buckingham.Search in Google Scholar

Kontos, P. C. (2004), Ethnographic reflections on selfhood, embodiment and Alzheimer’s disease, in: Ageing & Society 24, 829–849.Search in Google Scholar

Kontos, P. C., u. Naglie, G. (2009), Tacit knowledge of caring and embodied selfhood, in: Sociology of Health and Illness 31, 688–704.Search in Google Scholar

Kruse, A. (2008), Der Umgang mit demenzkranken Menschen als ethische Aufgabe, in: Archiv für Wissenschaft und Praxis der sozialen Arbeit 39, 14–21.Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, D. (1976), Survival and identity, in: Rorty, A. (Hg.), The identities of persons, Berkeley, 17–40.Search in Google Scholar

Locke, J. (2006), Versuch über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg.Search in Google Scholar

McMahan, J. (2003), The Ethics of Killing. Problems at the Margins of Life, Oxford.Search in Google Scholar

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1966), Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung, Berlin.Search in Google Scholar

Parfit, D. (1976), Lewis, Perry, and what matters, in: Rorty, A. (Hg.), The identities of persons, Berkeley, 91–108.Search in Google Scholar

Parfit, D. (1984), Reasons and persons, Oxford.Search in Google Scholar

Radden, J., u. Fordyce, J. M. (2006), Into the darkness: losing identity with dementia, in: Hughes, J. C., Louw, S. J., u. Rabat, S. R. (Hg.), Dementia: mind, meaning, and the person, Oxford, 71–87.Search in Google Scholar

Rösler, A., Seifritz, E., Kräuchi, K., Spoerl, D., Brokuslaus, I., Proserpi, S. M., Gendre, A., Savaskan, E., u. Hofmann, M. (2002), Skill learning in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective pilot-study of waltz-lessons, in: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 17, 1155–1156.Search in Google Scholar

Sabat, S. R., u. Harre, R. (1992), The construction and deconstruction of self in Alzheimer’s disease, in: Ageing & Society 12, 443–461.Search in Google Scholar

Schacter, D. L. (1987), Implicit memory: History and current status, in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 13, 501–518.Search in Google Scholar

Schacter, D. L. (1992), Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach, in: American Psychologist 47, 559–569.Search in Google Scholar

Shoemaker, S. (1970), Persons and their pasts, in: American Philosophical Quarterly 7, 269–285.Search in Google Scholar

Shoemaker, S. (1999), Self, body, and coincidence, in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume 73, 287–306.Search in Google Scholar

Singer, P. (1979), Practical Ethics, Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

Squire, L. R. (2004), Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective, in: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 82, 171–177.Search in Google Scholar

Stern, D. N. (1998), The process of therapeutic change involving implicit knowledge: Some implications of developmental observations for adult psychotherapy, in: Infant Mental Health Journal 19, 300–308.Search in Google Scholar

Summa, M. (2011a), Das Leibgedächtnis. Ein Beitrag aus der Phänomenologie Husserls, in: Husserl Studies 27, 173–196.Search in Google Scholar

Summa, M. (2011b), Zwischen Erinnern und Vergessen. Implizites Leibgedächtnis und das Selbst am Beispiel der Demenz-Erkrankungen, in: Phänomenologische Forschungen (2011), 155–174.Search in Google Scholar

Sung, H., u. Chang, A. M. (2005), Use of preferred music to decrease agitated behaviours in older people with dementia: a review of the literature, in: Journal of Clinical Nursing 14, 1133–1140.Search in Google Scholar

Zahavi, D. (1999), Self-awareness and alterity. A phenomenological investigation, Evanstone, Ill.Search in Google Scholar

Zahavi, D. (2006), Subjectivity and Selfhood. Investigating the First-Person Perspective, Cambridge, Mass.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2018-3-20
Published in Print: 2018-3-26

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston