Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access April 5, 2022

Mapping the mindfulness: An literature Review of mindfulness in educational field

  • Dong Jin Kim
From the journal Open Education Studies


This study presents an overview of the literature of mindfulness in education, which is based on the definition of mindfulness, and accompanying key terms, and the philosophy and practices it involves. The review includes a survey of Buddhism, Eastern and Western mindfulness traditions. This literature review gathers the thinking of scholars on the importance of mindfulness and its beneficial practices—particularly in Western contexts—including mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and related therapies. The literature review is also a motivator in the use of mindfulness because it reveals its proven role in both helping career professionals and reducing stress for students by reducing the psychological and physical distress inherent in work and personal lives or students’ academic lives.


Allison, D. G. (1997). Coping with stress in the principalship. Journal of Educational Administration, 35(1), 39-55. in Google Scholar

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2020). COVID-19. guidance for safe schools. in Google Scholar

American College Health Association. (2020a). American college health association-national college health assessment III: Reference group executive summary Fall 2019Search in Google Scholar

American College Health Association. (2020b). American college health association-national college health assessment III: Reference group executive summary fall 2020Search in Google Scholar

American College Health Association. (2021). American college health association-national college health assessment III: Reference group executive summary spring 2021Search in Google Scholar

American Mindfulness Research Association. (2021). Library. Retrieved July 30 from in Google Scholar

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. in Google Scholar

Baker, C. N., Peele, H., Daniels, M., Saybe, M., Whalen, K., Overstreet, S., & Trauma-Informed Schools Learning Collaborative The New Orleans. (2020). The experience of COVID-19 and its impact on teachers’ mental health, coping, and teaching. School Psychology Review, 1-14. in Google Scholar

Baron, E. J., Goldstein, E. G., & Wallace, C. T. (2020). Suffering in silence: How COVID-19 school closures inhibit the reporting of child maltreatment. Journal of Public Economics, 190, 1-13. in Google Scholar

Basilaia, G., & Kvavadze, D. (2020). Transition to online education in schools during a SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic in Georgia. Pedagogical Research, 5(4), 1-9. in Google Scholar

Behan, C. (2020). The benefits of meditation and mindfulness practices during times of crisis such as COVID-19. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 37(4), 256-258. in Google Scholar

Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26(5), 359-371. in Google Scholar

Bodhi, B. (2011). What does mindfulness really mean? A canonical perspective. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 19-39. in Google Scholar

Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope and compassion. Harvard Business School Press.Search in Google Scholar

Breakwell, G. M. (1986). Coping with threatened identities. Psychology Press.Search in Google Scholar

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848. in Google Scholar

Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Addressing fundamental questions about mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 272-281. in Google Scholar

Burgstahler, M. S., & Stenson, M. C. (2019). Effects of guided mindfulness meditation on anxiety and stress in a prehealthcare college student population: A pilot study. Journal of American College Health, 1-7. in Google Scholar

Cachon-Zagalz, J., Sanchez-Zafra, M., Sanabrias-Moreno, D., Gonzalez-Valero, G., Lara-Sanchez, A. J., & Zagalaz-Sanchez, M. L. (2020). Systematic review of the literature about the effects of the covid-19 pandemic on the lives of school children Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 569348. in Google Scholar

Carlson, L. E., Ursuliak, Z., Goodey, E., Angen, M., & Speca, M. (2001). The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up. Support Care Cancer, 9, 112-123. in Google Scholar

Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Stress Management in Healthy People: A Review and Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593-600. in Google Scholar

Crane, R. S., & Hecht, F. M. (2018). Intervention integrity in mindfulness-based research. Mindfulness, 9, 1370-1380. in Google Scholar

Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Prospects, 38(4), 91-96. in Google Scholar

Danitz, S. B., & Orsillo, S. M. (2014). The mindful way through the semester: An investigation of the effectiveness of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy program on psychological wellness in first-year students. Behavior Modification, 38(4), 549-566. in Google Scholar

De Vibe, M., Solhaug, I., Tyssen, R., Friborg, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., Sorlie, T., & Bjorndal, A. (2013). Mindfulness training for stress management: A randomized controlled study of medical and psychology students. BMC Medical Education, 13(1), 1-11. in Google Scholar

DiCarlo, C. F., Meaux, A. B., & LaBiche, E. H. (2019). Exploring mindfulness for perceived teacher stress and classroom climate. Early Childhood Education Journal, 1-12. in Google Scholar

Dick, R. V., & Wagner, U. (2001). Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), 243-259. in Google Scholar

Dimidjian, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2015). Prospects for a clinical science of mindfulness-based intervention. American Psychologist, 70(7), 593-620. in Google Scholar

Elsalem, L., Al-Azzam, N., Jum’ah, A. A., Obeidat, N., Sindiani, A. M., & Kheirallah, K. A. (2020). Stress and behavioral changes with remote E-exams during the covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among undergraduates of medical sciences. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 60, 271-279. in Google Scholar

Epstein, R. M. (1999). Mindful practice. JAMA, 282(9), 833-839.10.1001/jama.282.9.833Search in Google Scholar

Ergas, O. (2015). The deeper teachings of mindfulness-based ‘Interventions’ as a reconstruction of ‘education’. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 49(2), 203-220. in Google Scholar

Ergas, O. (2019). A contemplative turn in education: Charting a curricular-pedagogical countermovement. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 27(2), 251-270. in Google Scholar

Fabbro, A., Fabbro, F., Capurso, V., D’Antoni, F., & Crescentini, C. (2020). Effects of mindfulness training on school teachers’ self-reported personality traits as well as stress and burnout levels. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 127(3), 515-532. in Google Scholar

Fantini, M. P., Reno, C., Biserni, G. B., Savoia, E., & Lanari, M. (2020). COVID-19 and the re-opening of schools: A policy maker’s dilemma. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 46, 79. in Google Scholar

Finnan, C. (2015). Getting on the mat: Teachers and students engaging in yoga together. Childhood Education, 91(6), 463-468. in Google Scholar

Fontenelle-Tereshchuk, D. (2021). Mental health and the COVID-19 crisis: The hopes and concerns for children as schools re-open. Interchange, 52(1), 1-16. in Google Scholar

Frank, J. L., Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Mindfulness-based interventions in school settings: An introduction to the special issue. Research in Human Development, 10(3), 205-210. in Google Scholar

Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., Goldin, P. R., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: a process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293-314. in Google Scholar

Ghodspour, Z., Najafi, M., & Boogar, I. R. (2018). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on psychological aspects of quality of life, depression, anxiety, and stress among patients with multiple sclerosis. Practice in Clinical Psycholog, 6(4), 215-222. in Google Scholar

Greenberg, M. T., Brown, J., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2016). Teacher stress and health effects on teachers, students, and schools. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University.Search in Google Scholar

Harris, A. R., Jennings, P. A., Katz, D. A., Abenavoli, R. M., & Greenberg, M. T. (2016). Promoting stress management and wellbeing in educators: Feasibility and efficacy of a school-based yoga and mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness, 7(1), 143-154. in Google Scholar

Hawk, N., & Martin, B. (2011). Understanding and reducing stress in the superintendency. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 39(3), 364-389. in Google Scholar

Hea Ann Sunim. (2017). 마음 다루기 수업: 혜안 스님의 삶을 바꾸는 명상 이야기 [Mindfulness lesson: Meditation story to change the life of Hae Ann Sunim]. 싱긋.Search in Google Scholar

Husky, M. M., Kovess-Masfety, V., & Swendsen, J. D. (2020). Stress and anxiety among university students in France during covid-19 mandatory confinement. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 102, 1-3. in Google Scholar

Hyland, T. (2017). McDonaldizing spirituality: Mindfulness, education, and consumerism. Journal of Transformative Education, 15(4), 334-356.10.1177/1541344617696972Search in Google Scholar

Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I., & Schwartz, G. E. R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 11-21. in Google Scholar

Jakubowski, T. D., & Sitko-Dominik, M. M. (2021). Teachers’ mental health during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. PloS one, 19(9), e025725. in Google Scholar

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491-525.10.3102/0034654308325693Search in Google Scholar

Jones, P. J., Park, S. Y., & Lefevor, G. T. (2018). Contemporary college student anxiety: The role of academic distress, financial stress, and support. Journal of College Counseling, 21(3), 252-264. in Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. A Delta Book.Search in Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York : Hyperion.Search in Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L. G., Fletcher, K. E., Pbert, L., Lenderking, W. R., & Santorelli, S. F. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 149(7), 936-943.10.1176/ajp.149.7.936Search in Google Scholar

Kang, C., & Whittingham, K. (2010). Mindfulness: A dialogue between buddhism and clinical psychology. Mindfulness, 1(3), 161-173. in Google Scholar

Kim, D. J. (2020). Personal Mindfulness Practices and Educational Leadership: A Qualitative Study [Doctor of Philosophy, Washington State University]. Pullman, WA.Search in Google Scholar

Kim, J. (2020). Learning and teaching online during COVID-19: Experiences of student teachers in an early childhood education practicum. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52(2), 145-158. in Google Scholar

Klapproth, F., Federkeil, L., Heinschke, F., & Jungmann, T. (2020). Teachers’ experiences of stress and their coping strategies during COVID-19 induced distance teaching. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 4(4), 444-452. in Google Scholar

Klocko, B. A., & Wells, C. M. (2015). Workload pressures of principals: A focus on renewal, support, and mindfulness. NASSP Bulletin, 99(4), 332-355. in Google Scholar

König, J., Jager-Biela, D. J., & Glutsch, N. (2020). Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: Teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 608-622. in Google Scholar

Kostanski, M., & Hassed, C. (2008). Mindfulness as a concept and a process. Australian Psychologist, 43(1), 15-21. in Google Scholar

Krygier, J. R., Heathers, J. A. J., Shahrestani, S., Maree, Gross, J. J., & Kemp, A. H. (2013). Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: A preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89(3), 305-313. in Google Scholar

Kuhfeld, M., Soland, J., Tarasawa, B., Johnson, A., Ruzek, E., & Liu, J. (2020). Projecting the porential impact of COVID-19 school closures on academic achievement. Educational Researcher, 49(8), 549-565. in Google Scholar

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational Research, 29(2), 146-152.10.1080/0013188870290207Search in Google Scholar

Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53(1), 27-35. in Google Scholar

Lederman, D. (2020). Will shiht to remote teaching be boon or bane for online learning. Inside HigherEd. Retrieved March 18, 2020 from in Google Scholar

Lee, D. J., Kulubya, E., Goldin, P., Goodarzi, A., & Girgis, F. (2018). Review of the neural oscillations underlying meditation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12, 1-7. in Google Scholar

Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(6), 421. in Google Scholar

Leland, M. (2015). Mindfulness and student success. Journal of Adult Education, 44(1), 19-24.Search in Google Scholar

Ludwig, D. S., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Mindfulness in Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 300(11), 1350-1352. in Google Scholar

Maclntyre, P. D., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2020). Language teachers’ coping strategies during the COVID-19 conversion to online teaching: Correlations with stress, wellbeing and negative emotions. System, 94, 1-13. in Google Scholar

Mahfouz, J. (2020a). Principals and stress: Few coping strategies for abundant stressors. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 48(3), 440-458. in Google Scholar

Mahfouz, J. (2020b). Principals and stress: Few coping strategies for abundant stressors. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 1-19. in Google Scholar

Marchand, W. R. (2012). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 18(4), 233-252. in Google Scholar

Matiz, A., Fabbro, F., Paschetto, A., Cantone, D., Paolone, A. R., & Crescentini, C. (2020). Positive impact of mindfulness meditation on mental health of female teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 1-22. in Google Scholar

Maxwell, L., & Duff, E. (2016). Mindfulness: An effective prescription for depression and anxiety. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(6), 403-409. in Google Scholar

Meiklejohn, J., Phillips, C., Freeman, M. L., Griffin, M. L., Biegel, G., Roach, A., Frank, J., Burke, C., Pinger, L., Soloway, G., Isberg, R., Sibinga, E., Grossman, L., & Saltzman, A. (2012). Integrating mindfulness training into K-12 education: fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness, 3(4), 291-307. in Google Scholar

Moawad, R. A. (2020). Online learning during the covid-19 pandemic and academic stress in university students. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 12(1Sub2), 100-107. in Google Scholar

Nairn, R. (1999). What is meditation? Buddhism for everyone. Shambhala Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Netolicky, D. M. (2020). School leadership during a pandemic: Navigating tensions. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 5(3/4), 391-395. in Google Scholar

Newberry, M., & Allsop, Y. (2017). Teacher attrition in the USA: The relational elements in a Utah case study. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 23(8), 863-880. in Google Scholar

O’Loughlin, R. E., & Zuckerman, M. (2008). Mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone and reported physical symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1193-1202. in Google Scholar

Oman, D., Shapiro, S. L., Thoresen, C. E., Plante, T. G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Meditation lowers stress and supports forgiveness among college students: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American College Health, 56(5), 569-578. in Google Scholar

Ozamiz-Etwebarria, N., Santxo, N. B., Mondragon, N. I., & Santamaria, M. D. (2021). The psychological state of teachers during the COVID-19 crisis: The challenge of returning to face-to-face teaching. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-10. in Google Scholar

Parsons, C., Stears, D., & Thomas, C. (1996). The health promoting school in Europe: Conceptualising and evaluating the change. Health Education Journal, 55(3), 311-321.10.1177/001789699605500306Search in Google Scholar

Pelletier, K., Brown, M., Brooks, D. C., McCormack, M., Reeves, J., Arbino, N., Bozkurt, A., Crawford, S., Czerniewicz, L., Gibson, R., Linder, K., MAson, J., & Mondelli, V. (2021). 2021 EDUCAUSE horizon report teaching and learning edition. EDU. in Google Scholar

Pressley, T. (2021). Factors contributing to teacher burnout during COVID-19. Educational Researcher, 1-3. in Google Scholar

Purser, R., & Loy, D. (2013, 07/01/2013). Beyond McMindfulness. Retrieved from in Google Scholar

Quezada, R. L., Talbot, C., Belen, K., & Quezada-Parker, B. (2020). From bricks and mortar to remote teaching: A teacher education program’s response to COVID-19. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 472-483. in Google Scholar

Ramler, T. R., Tennison, L. R., Lynch, J., & Murphy, P. (2016). Mindfulness and the college transition: The efficacy of an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in fostering adjustment among first-year students. Mindfulness, 7(1), 179-188. in Google Scholar

Richards, J. (2012). Teacher stress and coping strategies: A national snapshot. The Educational Forum, 76(3), 299-316. in Google Scholar

Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., Orberle, E., & Thomson, K. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787-804. in Google Scholar

Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Hojat, M. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 88-92. in Google Scholar

Rundle, A. G., Park, Y., Herbstman, J. B., Kinsey, E. W., & Wang, Y. C. (2020). COVID-19-related school closings and risk of weight gain among children. Obesity, 28(6), 1008-1009. in Google Scholar

Sauer, S., Lynch, S., Walach, H., & Kohls, N. (2011). Dialectics of mindfulness: Implecations for Western medicine. Philosophy Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 6(1). in Google Scholar

Serhan, D. (2020). Transitioning from face-to-face remote learning: Students’ attitudes and perceptions of using Zoom during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 335-342.10.46328/ijtes.v4i4.148Search in Google Scholar

Seung Sahn. (1982). Only don’t know: Selected teaching letters of Zen master Seung Sahn. Shambhala, Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S. L., Bootzin, R. R., Figueredo, A. J., Lopez, A. M., & Schwartz, G. E. (2003). The efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the treatment of sleep disturbance in women with breast cancer: An exploratory study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 85-91. in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 105-115. in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386. in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581-599.10.1023/A:1018700829825Search in Google Scholar

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teachers’ feeling of belonging, exhaustion, and job satisfaction: The role of school goal structure and value consonance. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(4), 369-385.10.1080/10615806.2010.544300Search in Google Scholar

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2016). Teacher stress and teacher self-efficacy as predictors of engagement, emotional exhaustion, motivation to leave the teaching profession. Creative Education, 7(13), 1-15. in Google Scholar

Smallwood, J., McSpadden, M., & Schooler, J. W. (2007). The lights are on but no one’s home: Meta-awareness and the decoupling of attention when the mind wanders. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(3), 527-533. in Google Scholar

Sogunro, O. A. (2012). Stress in school administration: Coping tips for principals. Journal of School Leadership, 22(3), 664-700. in Google Scholar

Song, Y., & Lindquist, R. (2015). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 35(1), 86-90. in Google Scholar

Sonmez, S., & Kolasinli, I. B. (2021). The effect of preschool teachers’ stress states on classroom climate. Education, 49(2), 3-13. in Google Scholar

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. New Harbinger.Search in Google Scholar

Stapp, A. C., & Lambert, A. B. (2020). The impact of mindfulness-based yoga interventions on fifth-grade students’ perceived anxiety and stress. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 12(5), 471-480. in Google Scholar

Stein, E., & Witkiewitz, K. (2020). Dismantling mindfulness-based programs: A systematic review to identify active components of treatment. Mindfulness, 11, 2470-2485. in Google Scholar

Steptoe, A. (1991). Psychological coping, individual differences and psysiological stress responses. In C. L. Cooper & R. Payne (Eds.), Personality and stress: Individual differences in the stress process (Vol. John Wiley & Sons).Search in Google Scholar

Stewart, T. M. (2004). Light on body image treatment: Acceptance through mindfulness. Behavior Modification, 28(6), 783-811. in Google Scholar

Suzuki, S. (1970). Zen mind, beginner’s mind (1st ed.). Weatherhill.Search in Google Scholar

Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 275-287. in Google Scholar

Terry, M. L., & Leary, M. R. (2011). Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self and Identity, 10(3), 352-362. in Google Scholar

Thakur, A. (2020). Mental health in high school students at the time of covid-19: A student’s perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(12), 1309-1310. in Google Scholar

Thera, N. (1972). The power of mindfulness. Unity Press.Search in Google Scholar

Thich, N. H. (1975). The miracle of mindfulness: A manual on meditation. Beacon Press.Search in Google Scholar

Thich, N. H. (2008). Breathe, you are alive! The sutra on the full awareness of breathing (20th anniversary ed.). Parallax Press.Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, S. P. (2003). Anger: The mismanaged emotion. Dermatology Nursing, 15(4), 351-357.Search in Google Scholar

Torjesen, I. (2021). Covid-19 will become endemic but with decreased potency over time, Scientists believe. British Medical Journal (Online), 372, 1. in Google Scholar

UNESCO. (2021). Education: From disruption to recovery. in Google Scholar

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2020). COVID-19 education response: Preparing the reopening of schools. UNESCO.Search in Google Scholar

von der Embse, N., & Mankin, A. (2021). Changes in teacher stress and wellbeing throughout the academic year. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 37(2), 165-184. in Google Scholar

Voss, A., Bogdanski, M., Langohr, B., Albrecht, R., & Sandbothe, M. (2020). Mindfulness-based student training leads to a reduction in physiological evaluated stress. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-12. in Google Scholar

Wallace, D. D., Boynton, M. H., & Lytle, L. A. (2017). Multilevel analysis exploring the links between stress, depression, and sleep problems among two-year college students. Journal of American College Health, 65(3), 187-196. in Google Scholar

Weick, K. E., & Putnam, T. (2006). Organizing for mindfulness Eastern wisdom and Western knowledge. Journal of Management Inquiry, 15(3), 275-287. in Google Scholar

Weis, R., Ray, S. D., & Cohen, T. A. (2020). Mindfulness as a way to cope with COVID-19-related stress and anxiety. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 21(1), 8-18. in Google Scholar

Wells, C. M. (2016). Mindfulness: How school leaders can reduce stress and thrive on the job. Rowan & Littlefield.Search in Google Scholar

Wells, C. M., & Klocko, B. A. (2018). Principal well-being and resilience: Mindfulness as a means to that end. NASSP Bulletin, 102(2), 161-173. in Google Scholar

Widha, L., Rahmat, H. K., & Basri, A. S. H. (2021). A review of mindfulness therapy to improve psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceeding International Conference on Science and Engineering, 4, 383-386.Search in Google Scholar

Wolgast, A., & Fischer, N. (2017). You are not alone: Colleague support and goal-oriented cooperation as resources to reduce teachers’ stress. 20(1), 97-114. in Google Scholar

Wong, K. S., & Cheuk, W. H. (2005). Job-related stress and social support in kindergarten principals: The case of Macau. International Journal of Educational Management, 19(3), 183-196. in Google Scholar

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. in Google Scholar

Yoon, B. (2020). The global pandemic as learning opportunities about the world: Extending school curriculum. Middle Grades Review, 6(2), 1-7.Search in Google Scholar

Yoon, J. S. (2002). Teacher characteristics as predictors of teacher-student relationships: Stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy. Social Behavior and Personality, 30(5), 485-494.10.2224/sbp.2002.30.5.485Search in Google Scholar

Zenner, C., Herrnleben-Kurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-20. in Google Scholar

Zhu, J. L., Schulke, R., Vatansever, D., Xi, D., Yan, J., Zhao, H., Xie, X., Feng, J., Chen, M. Y., Sahakian, B. J., & Wang, S. (2021). Mindfulness practice for protecting mental health during the covid-19 pandemic. Translational Psychiatry, 11(1), 1-11. in Google Scholar

Zurlo, M. C., Cattaneo Della Volta, M. F., & Vallone, F. (2020). COVID-19 student stress questionnaire: Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate students’ stressors related to the coronavirus pandemic lockdown. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-11. in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-08-26
Accepted: 2022-02-02
Published Online: 2022-04-05

© 2022 Dong Jin Kim, published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Downloaded on 29.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow