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BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 16, 2015

Flow of River Tigris and its Effect on the Bed Sediment within Baghdad, Iraq

Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali, Qusay Al-Suhail and Sven Knutsson
From the journal Open Engineering

Abstract

River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. Sediment at the bed of the river within a reach of about 18 km from the center of Baghdad upstream was investigated. Sixty five cross sections were surveyed, and 46 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. It was noticed that fine sand was dominant in the bed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177 mm), while the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16 mm). In addition, the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment decreased relative to previous investigations due to the construction of the Adhaim dam on tributary, which used to be the main sediment supplier to the Tigris River before entering Baghdad. Furthermore, the discharge of the Tigris River for the period 1983–2013 (715 m3/s) decreased by about 40% and 30%since 1983when compared with the periods 1931–1956 (1208 m3/s) and 1956–1980 (1015 m3/s), respectively, due to climate change and construction of dams upstream from Baghdad. This has decreased the capacity and the competence of the river. The bed elevation has increased compared to previous surveys. Itwas noticed that dredging operations and obstructions (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) have disturbed the flow of the river and sediment characteristics in several sites.

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Received: 2015-1-22
Accepted: 2015-10-8
Published Online: 2015-12-16

©2015 N. Al-Ansari et al.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

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