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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 10, 2018

The 4 I’s of Entrepreneurship: A Study of the Entrepreneurial Perspectives behind A Failed Large-Scale Distributed Research Infrastructure

  • Anthony Larsson ORCID logo EMAIL logo


This case study investigates whether collective entrepreneurial team cognition remains consistent throughout all stage processes when setting up a large-scale, distributed research infrastructure. A new “action phase model” has been devised, known as the “4 I’s of entrepreneurship”, with each “I” elucidating the entrepreneurial rationale behind various stages of the creation process: Intention, Initiation, Implementation and Introspection. The case investigated was (BioBanking and Molecular Resource Infrastructure in Sweden) – a Swedish large-scale distributed research infrastructure aimed at harmonizing biobanking standards. Managers and key personnel involved in founding and/or operating the organization were interviewed. The results showed there was agreement regarding the need for the research infrastructure, while there were disagreeing perceptions of what the organization should be doing and regarding the difficulties it had faced. These developments would ultimately lead to’s demise. The homogenous mindset would begin to dissipate once the Initiation stage was reached and worsened throughout the Implementation stage. The results indicate that’s managerial structure, personal ambitions and lack of transparency and communication were key contributors to its ultimate failure. The implications highlight the risk of fragmented motivations as collective entrepreneurs turn their ambition into reality, if given too much autonomy.

Funding statement: This work was supported by The Swedish Research Council (2009) as part of the Operation Grant application [2009-18438-71700-8] through the creation of Work Package 8 (funding and financing). Financial contribution from Umeå University is gratefully acknowledged.


The author would like to extend an acknowledgement to Skrivcenter, for their help in transcribing some of the interviews.


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Published Online: 2018-07-10

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