Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 18, 2021

Tacking into the Wind: How Women Entrepreneurs can Sail Through Family-to-Work Conflict to Ensure their Firms’ Entrepreneurial Orientation

Dirk De Clercq, Eugene Kaciak and Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl

Abstract

When women entrepreneurs experience family-to-work conflict, it may discourage them from adopting an entrepreneurial orientation, an effect mediated by work-related emotional exhaustion and moderated by both family-to-work enrichment and family support at home. According to survey data collected among women entrepreneurs in Ghana, negative interferences of family with work can steer women entrepreneurs away from adopting an entrepreneurial orientation for their company, largely because they feel emotionally overextended by their work. However, enrichment of their work, attained through family involvement, can buffer this detrimental effect. The buffering role of family-to-work enrichment in turn is particularly effective when women entrepreneurs receive help on household tasks from other family members. This study accordingly identifies a key mechanism by which family-induced work strain can hamper bold strategic actions by women entrepreneurs—because they feel emotionally drained at work—and details when this mechanism is less prominent, namely, in the presence of relevant family resources.


Corresponding author: Dirk De Clercq, Brock University Goodman School of Business, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada, E-mail:

Funding source: Narodowe Centrum Nauki

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2017/27/B/HS4/02075

  1. Research funding: This research was funded by research grant no. 2017/27/B/HS4/02075 for Eugene Kaciak, National Science Centre, Poland.

References

Adom, K., I. T. Asare-Yeboa, D. M. Quaye, and A. O. Ampomah. 2018. “A Critical Assessment of Work and Family Life of Female Entrepreneurs in Sub-saharan Africa: Some Fresh Evidence from Ghana.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 25: 405–27, https://doi.org/10.1108/jsbed-02-2017-0063.Search in Google Scholar

Agarwal, S., and U. Lenka. 2015. “Study on Work-Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs – Review and Research Agenda.” Industrial and Commercial Training 47: 356–62, https://doi.org/10.1108/ict-01-2015-0006.Search in Google Scholar

Aiken, L. S., and S. G. West. 1991. Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Amstad, F. T., L. L. Meier, U. Fasel, A. Elfering, and N. K. Semmer. 2011. “A Meta-Analysis of Work–Family Conflict and Various Outcomes with a Special Emphasis on Cross-Domain versus Matching-Domain Relations.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16: 151–69, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022170.Search in Google Scholar

Anand, S., P. Vidyarthi, S. Singh, and S. Ryu. 2015. “Family Interference and Employee Dissatisfaction: Do Agreeable Employees Better Cope with Stress?” Human Relations 68: 691–708, https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726714539714.Search in Google Scholar

Annink, A., and L. den Dulk. 2012. “Autonomy: The Panacea for Self-Employed Women’s Work-Life Balance?” Community, Work & Family 15: 383–402, https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2012.723901.Search in Google Scholar

Antonakis, J., S. Bendahan, P. Jacquart, and R. Lalive. 2010. “On Making Causal Claims: A Review and Recommendations.” The Leadership Quarterly 21: 1086–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.010.Search in Google Scholar

Arend, R. J. 2014. “Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: How Firm Age and Size Affect the ‘capability Enhancement–SME Performance’ Relationship.” Small Business Economics 42: 33–57, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-012-9461-9.Search in Google Scholar

Au, K., and H. K. Kwan. 2009. “Start-up Capital and Chinese Entrepreneurs: The Role of Family.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 33: 889–908, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00331.x.Search in Google Scholar

Bai, Q., W. Lin, and L. Wang. 2016. “Family Incivility and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model of Self-Esteem and Emotional Regulation.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 94: 11–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.02.014.Search in Google Scholar

Batool, H., and K. Ullah. 2017. “Successful Antecedents of Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Underdeveloped Nation.” Entrepreneurship Research Journal 7: 73–119, https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2016-0066.Search in Google Scholar

Benzing, C., and H. M. Chu. 2009. “A Comparison of the Motivations of Small Business Owners in Africa.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 16: 60–77, https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000910932881.Search in Google Scholar

Brush, C., L. F. Edelman, T. Manolova, and F. Welter. 2019. “A Gendered Look at Entrepreneurship Ecosystems.” Small Business Economics 53: 393–408, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-9992-9.Search in Google Scholar

Calantone, R., J. M. Whipple, J. Wang, H. Sardashti, and J. W. Miller. 2017. “A Primer on Moderated Mediation Analysis: Exploring Logistics Involvement in New Product Development.” Journal of Business Logistics 38: 151–69, https://doi.org/10.1111/jbl.12166.Search in Google Scholar

Carlson, D. S., M. Ferguson, K. M. Kacmar, J. G. Grzywacz, and D. Whitten. 2011. “Pay it Forward: The Positive Crossover Effects of Supervisor Work–Family Enrichment.” Journal of Management 37: 770–89, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310363613.Search in Google Scholar

Carlson, D. S., K. M. Kacmar, J. H. Wayne, and J. G. Grzywacz. 2006. “Measuring the Positive Side of the Work–Family Interface: Development and Validation of a Work–Family Enrichment Scale.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 68: 131–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.02.002.Search in Google Scholar

Chadwick, I. C., and J. L. Raver. 2020. “Psychological Resilience and its Downstream Effects for Business Survival in Nascent Entrepreneurship.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 44: 233–55, https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258718801597.Search in Google Scholar

Clifton, T. J., and E. Shepard. 2004. “Work and Family Programs and Productivity: Estimates Applying a Production Function Model.” International Journal of Manpower 25: 714–28, https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720410570036.Search in Google Scholar

Constantinidis, C., T. Lebègue, M. E. Abboubi, and N. Salman. 2019. “How Families Shape Women’s Entrepreneurial Success in Morocco: An Intersectional Study.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 25: 1786–808, https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-12-2017-0501.Search in Google Scholar

Covin, J. G., and W. J. Wales. 2019. “Crafting High-Impact Entrepreneurial Orientation Research: Some Suggested Guidelines.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 43: 3–18, https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258718773181.Search in Google Scholar

Crowne, D. P., and D. Marlowe. 1960. “A New Scale of Social Desirability Independent of Psychopathology.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 24 (4): 349–54, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0047358.Search in Google Scholar

Davies, E., and A. Kerr. 2018. “Firm Survival and Change in Ghana, 2003–2013.” Journal of African Economies 2: 149–71, https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/ejx023.Search in Google Scholar

Dawson, J. F., and A. W. Richter. 2006. “Probing Three-Way Interactions: The Development and Application of a Slope Difference Test.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91: 917–26, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.917.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D. 2020. ““I Can’t Help at Work! My Family Is Driving Me Crazy!” How Family-to-Work Conflict Diminishes Change-Oriented Citizenship Behaviors and How Key Resources Disrupt this Ink.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 56: 166–94, https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886320910558.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., and I. Belausteguigoitia. 2019a. “Reducing the Harmful Effect of Work Overload on Creative Behavior: Buffering Roles of Energy-Enhancing Resources.” Creativity and Innovation Management 28: 5–18, https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12278.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., and I. Belausteguigoitia. 2019b. “Political Skill and Organizational Identification: Preventing Role Ambiguity from Hindering Organizational Citizenship Behaviour.” Journal of Management and Organization, https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2019.31.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., and S. A. Brieger. 2021. “When Discrimination is Worse, Autonomy is Key: How Women Entrepreneurs Leverage Job Autonomy Resources to Find Work–Life Balance.” Journal of Business Ethics, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04735-1.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., D. Dimov, and N. Thongpapanl. 2013. “Organizational Social Capital, Formalization, and Internal Knowledge Sharing in Entrepreneurial Orientation Formation.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 37: 505–37, https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12021.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., I. U. Haq, and M. U. Azeem. 2019a. “Workplace Ostracism and Job Performance: Roles of Self-Efficacy and Job Level.” Personnel Review 48: 184–203, https://doi.org/10.1108/pr-02-2017-0039.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., Z. Rahman, and I. U. Haq. 2019b. “Explaining Helping Behavior in the Workplace: The Interactive Effect of Family-to-Work Conflict and Islamic Work Ethic.” Journal of Business Ethics 155: 1167–77, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3541-3.Search in Google Scholar

De Clercq, D., S. A. Brieger, and C. Welzel. 2021. “Leveraging the Macro-Level Environment to Balance Work and Life: An Analysis of Female Entrepreneurs’ Job Satisfaction.” Small Business Economics 56: 1361–834, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-019-00287-x.Search in Google Scholar

Dixit, S., and S. Moid. 2015. “The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Entrepreneurial Orientation of Enterprises Owned by Women Entrepreneur.” FIIB Business Review 4: 9–19, https://doi.org/10.1177/2455265820150202.Search in Google Scholar

Douglas, E. J., D. A. Shepherd, and C. Prentice. 2020. “Using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis for a Finer-Grained Understanding of Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Business Venturing 35: 105970, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2019.105970.Search in Google Scholar

Dormann, C., and M. A. Griffin. 2015. “Optimal Time Lags in Panel Studies.” Psychological Methods 20: 489–505, https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000041.Search in Google Scholar

Eddleston, K. A., and G. N. Powell. 2012. “Nurturing Entrepreneurs’ Work–Family Balance: A Gendered Perspective.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 36: 513–41, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00506.x.Search in Google Scholar

Fleck, E., C. Hegarty, and H. Neergaard. 2011. “The Politics of Gendered Growth.” International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship 3: 164–73, https://doi.org/10.1108/17566261111140224.Search in Google Scholar

Forson, C. 2013. “Contextualising Migrant Black Business Women’s Work-Life Balance Experiences.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 19: 460–77, https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-09-2011-0126.Search in Google Scholar

Frone, M. R., J. K. Yardley, and K. S. Markel. 1997. “Developing and Testing an Integrative Model of the Work–Family Interface.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 50: 145–67, https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.1577.Search in Google Scholar

Fuentes-Fuentes, M. D. M., A. M. Bojica, and M. Ruiz-Arroyo. 2015. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Knowledge Acquisition: Effects on Performance in the Specific Context of Women-Owned Firms.” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 11: 695–717, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0336-1.Search in Google Scholar

Gherardi, S. 2015. “Authoring the Female Entrepreneur While Talking the Discourse of Work–Family Life Balance.” International Small Business Journal 33: 649–66, https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242614549780.Search in Google Scholar

Greckhamer, T., S. Furnari, P. C. Fiss, and R. V. Aguilera. 2018. “Studying Configurations with Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Best Practices in Strategy and Organization Research.” Strategic Organization 16: 482–95, https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127018786487.Search in Google Scholar

Gudeta, K. H., and M. L. van Engen. 2017. “Work-Life Boundary Management Styles of Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia – ‘Choice’ or Imposition?” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 25: 368–86, https://doi.org/10.1108/jsbed-02-2017-0073.Search in Google Scholar

Gupta, V. K., S. Niranjan, B. A. Goktan, and J. Eriskon. 2016. “Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation Role in Shaping Reactions to New Technologies.” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 12: 935–61, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-015-0373-4.Search in Google Scholar

Gutek, B. A., S. Searle, and L. Klepa. 1991. “Rational Versus Gender Role Explanations for Work–Family Conflict.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76: 560–8, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.4.560.Search in Google Scholar

Gutiérrez, P. R., M. M. F. Fuentes, and L. Ariza. 2014. “Strategic Capabilities and Performance in Women-Owned Businesses in Mexico.” Journal of Small Business Management 52: 541–54.Search in Google Scholar

Haar, J. 2013. “Testing a New Measure of Work–Life Balance: A Study of Parent and Non-parent Employees from New Zealand.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 24: 3305–24, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.775175.Search in Google Scholar

Haar, J. M., M. Russo, A. Suñe, and A. Ollier-Malaterre. 2014. “Outcomes of Work–Life Balance on Job Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction and Mental Health: A Study across Seven Cultures.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 85: 361–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.08.010.Search in Google Scholar

Hack-Polay, D., P. A. Igwe, and N. O. Madichie. 2020. “The Role of Institutional and Family Embeddedness in the Failure of Sub-saharan African Migrant Family Businesses.” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 21: 237–49, https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750320909732.Search in Google Scholar

Hair, J. F., W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, R. E. Anderson, and R. L. Tatham. 2006. Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Search in Google Scholar

Halbesleben, J. R. B., and A. R. Wheeler. 2015. “To Invest or Not? The Role of Coworker Support and Trust in Daily Reciprocal Gain Spirals of Helping Behavior.” Journal of Management 41: 1628–50, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206312455246.Search in Google Scholar

Hayes, A. F. 2015. “An Index and Test of Linear Moderated Mediation.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 50: 1–22, https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2014.962683.Search in Google Scholar

Hayes, A. F. 2018. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press.Search in Google Scholar

Hayes, A. F., A. K. Montoya, and N. J. Rockwood. 2017. “The Analysis of Mechanisms and their Contingencies: PROCESS Versus Structural Equation Modeling.” Australasian Marketing Journal 25: 76–81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2017.02.001.Search in Google Scholar

Hilbrecht, M., and D. S. Lero. 2014. “Self-Employment and Family Life: Constructing Work–Life Balance When You’re ‘Always On.” Community, Work & Family 17: 20–42, https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2013.862214.Search in Google Scholar

Hobfoll, S. E. 2001. “The Influence of Culture, Community, and the Nested-Self in the Stress Process: Advancing Conservation of Resource Theory.” Applied Psychology: An International Review 50: 337–69, https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00062.Search in Google Scholar

Hobfoll, S. E., J. Halbesleben, J.-P. Neveu, and M. Westman. 2018. “Conservation of Resources in the Organizational Context: The Reality of Resources and their Consequences.” Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 5: 103–28, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104640.Search in Google Scholar

Hobfoll, S. E., and A. Shirom. 2000. “Conservation of Resources Theory: Applications to Stress and Management in the Workplace.” In Handbook of Organization Behavior, edited by R. T. Golembiewski, 2nd ed., 57–81. New York: Dekker.Search in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G., G. J. Hofstede, and M. Minkov. 2010. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Re. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

Hon, A. H., M. Bloom, and J. M. Crant. 2014. “Overcoming Resistance to Change and Enhancing Creative Performance.” Journal of Management 40: 919–41, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311415418.Search in Google Scholar

Hoobler, J. M., J. Hu, and M. Wilson. 2010. “Do Workers Who Experience Conflict Between the Work and Family Domains Hit a “Glass Ceiling?”: A Meta-Analytic Examination.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 77: 481–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.07.001.Search in Google Scholar

Hsu, D. K., J. Wiklund, S. E. Anderson, and B. S. Coffey. 2016. “Entrepreneurial Exit Intentions and the Business-Family Interface.” Journal of Business Venturing 31: 613–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.08.001.Search in Google Scholar

Hutchins, H. M., L. M. Penney, and L. W. Sublett. 2018. “What Imposters Risk at Work: Exploring Imposter Phenomenon, Stress Coping, and Job Outcomes.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 29: 31–48, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21304.Search in Google Scholar

Igbanugo, I. C., M. C. Uzonwanne, and R. U. Ezenekwe. 2016. “Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in African Setting: The Place of Women.” International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management 4: 762–78.Search in Google Scholar

Jawahar, I. M., J. L. Kisamore, T. H. Stone, and D. L. Rahn. 2012. “Differential Effect of Inter-role Conflict on Proactive Individual’s Experience of Burnout.” Journal of Business and Psychology 27: 243–54, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-011-9234-5.Search in Google Scholar

Jayawarna, D., S. Marlow, and J. Swail. 2020. “A Gendered Life Course Explanation of the Exit Decision in the Context of Household Dynamics.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258720940123.Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, M. T. 2014. “Exploring Business Travel with Work–Family Conflict and the Emotional Exhaustion Component of Burnout as Outcome Variables: The Job Demands-Resources Perspective.” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 23: 497–510, https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2013.787183.Search in Google Scholar

Jordan, P. J., and A. C. Troth. 2020. “Common Method Bias in Applied Settings: The Dilemma of Researching in Organizations.” Australian Journal of Management 45: 3–14, https://doi.org/10.1177/0312896219871976.Search in Google Scholar

Kaciak, E., and D. H. B. Welsh. 2020. “Women Entrepreneurs and Work–Life Interface: The Impact of Sustainable Economies on Success.” Journal of Business Research 112: 281–90, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.073.Search in Google Scholar

Kacmar, K. M., M. C. Andrews, M. C. Valle, C. J. Tillman, and C. Clifton. 2020. “The Interactive Effects of Role Overload and Resilience on Family–Work Enrichment and Associated Outcomes.” Journal of Social Psychology 160: 688–701, https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2020.1735985.Search in Google Scholar

Karatepe, O. M. 2013. “The Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation, Marketing Innovation and Competitive Marketing Advantage of Female Entrepreneurs in Egypt.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 25: 614–34, https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111311322952.Search in Google Scholar

Kayanula, D., and P. Quartey. 2000. The Policy Environment for Promoting Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Ghana and Malawi. Finance and Development Research Programme Working Paper Series No. 15. University of Manchester.Search in Google Scholar

Khandelwal, P. and A. Sehgal. 2018. “Exploring Work–Family Interface for Indian Women Entrepreneurs.” Gender in Management 33: 203–16, https://doi.org/10.1108/gm-04-2016-0075.Search in Google Scholar

Kickul, J., J. Liao, L. Gundry, and T. Iakovleva. 2010. “Firm Resources, Opportunity Recognition, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance: The Case of Russian Women-Led Family Businesses.” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management 12: 52–69, https://doi.org/10.1504/ijeim.2010.033167.Search in Google Scholar

King, L. A., L. K. Mattimore, D. W. King, and G. A. Adams. 1995. “Family Support Inventory for Workers: A New Measure of Perceived Social Support from Family Members.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 16: 235–58, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160306.Search in Google Scholar

Kollmann, T., C. Stöckmann, Y. Meves, and J. M. Kensbock. 2017. “When Members of Entrepreneurial Teams Differ: Linking Diversity in Individual-Level Entrepreneurial Orientation to Team Performance.” Small Business Economics 48: 843–59, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-016-9818-6.Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y., M. Wang, C. Chang, J. Shi, L. Zhou, and R. Shao. 2015. “Work–Family Conflict, Emotional Exhaustion, and Displaced Aggression Toward Others: The Moderating Roles of Workplace Interpersonal Conflict and Perceived Managerial Family Support.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100: 793–808, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038387.Search in Google Scholar

MacKinnon, D. P., C. M. Lockwood, and J. Williams. 2004. “Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 39: 99–128, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.Search in Google Scholar

Maram, S. S., and K. Thomas. 2019. “Psycho-attitudinal Features: A Study of Female Entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia.” International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship 11: 459–80.Search in Google Scholar

Mathew, R. V., and N. Panchanatham. 2011. “An Exploratory Study on the Work-Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs in South India.” Asian Academy of Management Journal 16: 77–105.Search in Google Scholar

Matthews, L. M., and B. N. Rutherford. 2021. “The Impact of Skill Discretion and Work Demands on Salesperson Job Satisfaction: The Mediating Influence of the Burnout Facets.” The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 41: 17–27, https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2020.1815542.Search in Google Scholar

Miller, D. 1983. “The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms.” Management Science 29: 770–91, https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.29.7.770.Search in Google Scholar

Miller, D. 2018. “Challenging Trends in Configuration Research: Where are the Configurations?” Strategic Organization 16: 453–69, https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127017729315.Search in Google Scholar

Mishra, P., J. Bhatnagar, R. Gupta, and S. MacDermid Wadsworth. 2019. “How Work–Family Enrichment Influence Innovative Work Behavior: Role of Psychological Capital and Supervisory Support.” Journal of Management and Organization 25: 58–80, https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.23.Search in Google Scholar

Mumuni, I. A., B. Insah, and A. P. Bowan. 2013. “Women in Entrepreneurship as a Means to Sustainable Livelihood in Ghana: A Study of the Upper West Region.” African Journal of Social Sciences 3: 160–71.Search in Google Scholar

Neneh, B. N. 2017. “Family Support and Performance of Women-Owned Enterprises: The Mediating Effect of Family-to-Work Enrichment.” Journal of Entrepreneurship 26: 196–219, https://doi.org/10.1177/0971355717716762.Search in Google Scholar

Neveu, J. 2007. “Jailed Resources: Conservation of Resources Theory as Applied to Burnout Among Prison Guards.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 28: 21–42, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.393.Search in Google Scholar

Nga, J. K. H., and G. Shamuganathan. 2010. “The Influence of Personality Traits and Demographic Factors on Social Entrepreneurship Start-Up Intentions.” Journal of Business Ethics 95: 259–82, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0358-8.Search in Google Scholar

Nicklin, J. M., and L. A. McNall. 2013. “Work–Family Enrichment, Support, and Satisfaction: A Test of Mediation.” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 22: 67–77, https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2011.616652.Search in Google Scholar

Nohe, C., and K. Sonntag. 2014. “Work–Family Conflict, Social Support, and Turnover Intentions: A Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 85: 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.03.007.Search in Google Scholar

Ntiamoah, E. B., B. Opoku, E. Abrokwah, G. Baah-Frimpong, and M. Agyei-Sakyi. 2014. “Assessing the Contributions of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises to Ghana’s Economic Growth.” International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management 2: 1–14.Search in Google Scholar

Ofori, D., and M. Aryeetey. 2011. “Recruitment and Selection Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises: Perspectives from Ghana.” International Journal of Business Administration 2: 45–60, https://doi.org/10.5430/ijba.v2n3p45.Search in Google Scholar

Oren, L., and L. Levin. 2017. “Work–Family Conflict/Enrichment: The Role of Personal Resources.” International Journal of Manpower 38: 1102–13, https://doi.org/10.1108/ijm-06-2014-0135.Search in Google Scholar

Pittino, D., F. Visintin, and G. Lauto. 2017. “A Configurational Analysis of the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Orientation.” European Management Journal 35: 224–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.07.003.Search in Google Scholar

Podsakoff, P. M., S. B. MacKenzie, J. Y. Lee, and N. P. Podsakoff. 2003. “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88: 879–903, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.Search in Google Scholar

Poggesi, S., M. Mari, and L. De Vita. 2019. “Women Entrepreneurs and Work–Family Conflict: An Analysis of the Antecedents.” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 15: 431–54, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0484-1.Search in Google Scholar

Powell, G. N., and K. A. Eddleston. 2013. “Linking Family-to-Business Enrichment and Support to Entrepreneurial Success: Do Female and Male Entrepreneurs Experience Different Outcomes?” Journal of Business Venturing 28 (2): 261–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2012.02.007.Search in Google Scholar

Preacher, K. J., D. D. Rucker, and A. F. Hayes. 2007. “Assessing Moderated Mediation Hypotheses: Theory, Methods, and Prescriptions.” Multivariate Behavioural Research 42: 185–227, https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170701341316.Search in Google Scholar

Quinn, R. W., G. M. Spreitzer, and C. F. Lam. 2012. “Building a Sustainable Model of Human Energy in Organizations: Exploring the Critical Role of Resources.” Academy of Management Annals 6: 337–96, https://doi.org/10.5465/19416520.2012.676762.Search in Google Scholar

Ragin, C. C. 2014. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies, 216. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Rastogi, M., O. M. Karatepe, and M. Mehmetoglu. 2019. “Linking Resources to Career Satisfaction through Work–Family Enrichment.” The Service Industries Journal 39: 855–76, https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2018.1449835.Search in Google Scholar

Rauch, A., J. Wiklund, G. T. Lumpkin, and M. Frese. 2009. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: An Assessment of Past Research and Suggestions for the Future.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 33: 761–87, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00308.x.Search in Google Scholar

Rehman, S., and M. A. Roomi. 2012. “Gender and Work-Life Balance: A Phenomenological Study of Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 19: 209–28, https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001211223865.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, L. P., and P. B. Robinson. 2010. “Home-Based Entrepreneurs, Commercial Entrepreneurs and White-Collar Workers: A Comparative Study of Attitudes Toward Self-Esteem, Personal Control and Business Growth.” Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship 23: 333–53, https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2010.10593489.Search in Google Scholar

Rosenbusch, N., A. Rauch, and A. Bausch. 2013. “The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Task Environment–Performance Relationship: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Management 39: 633–59, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311425612.Search in Google Scholar

Sapienza, H. J., D. De Clercq, and W. R. Sandberg. 2005. “Antecedents of International and Domestic Learning Effort.” Journal of Business Venturing 20: 437–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2004.03.001.Search in Google Scholar

Schjoedt, L. 2021. “Exploring Differences Between Novice and Repeat Entrepreneurs: Does Stress Mediate the Effects of Work-and-Family Conflict on Entrepreneurs’ Satisfaction?” Small Business Economics 56: 1251–72, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-019-00289-9.Search in Google Scholar

Singh, R., Y. Zhang, M. Wan, and N. A. Fouad. 2018. “Why Do Women Engineers Leave the Engineering Profession? The Roles of Work–Family Conflict, Occupational Commitment, and Perceived Organizational Support.” Human Resource Management 57: 901–14, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21900.Search in Google Scholar

Spector, P. E. 2006. “Method Variance in Organizational Research: Truth or Urban Legend?” Organizational Research Methods 9: 221–32, https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105284955.Search in Google Scholar

Studenmund, A. H. 1992. Using Econometrics: A Practical Guide. New York: Harper Collins.Search in Google Scholar

Tajeddini, K., and S. Mueller. 2019. “Moderating Effect of Environmental Dynamism on the Relationship Between a Firm’s Entrepreneurial Orientation and Financial Performance.” Entrepreneurship Research Journal 9: 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2018-0283.Search in Google Scholar

ten Brummelhuis, L. L. and A. B. Bakker. 2012. “A Resource Perspective on the Work–Home Interface: The Work–Home Resources Model.” American Psychologist 67: 545–56, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027974.Search in Google Scholar

Thanacoody, P. R., A. Newman, and S. Fuchs. 2014. “Affective Commitment and Turnover Intentions Among Healthcare Professionals: The Role of Emotional Exhaustion and Disengagement.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 25: 1841–57, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.860389.Search in Google Scholar

Torres, O. 2011. “The Silent and Shameful Suffering of Bosses: Layoffs in SME.” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 13 (2): 181–92, https://doi.org/10.1504/ijesb.2011.040759.Search in Google Scholar

Triandis, H. C., and M. J. Gelfand. 1998. “Converging Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74: 118–28, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.118.Search in Google Scholar

Ufuk, H., and O. Özgen. 2001. “Interaction Between the Business and Family Lives of Women Entrepreneurs in Turkey.” Journal of Business Ethics 31: 95–106, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1010712023858.Search in Google Scholar

Ungwansupaphan, C., and J. K. Sharma Leihaothabam. 2019. “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Performance and the Moderating Role of Institutional Capital: A Case Study of Female Entrepreneurs in Thailand.” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 24: 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1142/s1084946719500080.Search in Google Scholar

Wales, W. J., V. K. Gupta, and F. T. Mousa. 2013. “Empirical Research on Entrepreneurial Orientation: An Assessment and Suggestions for Future Research.” International Small Business Journal 31: 357–83, https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242611418261.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Y., L. Liu, J. Wang, and L. Wang. 2012. “Work–Family Conflict and Burnout Among Chinese Doctors.” Journal of Occupational Health 54: 232–40, https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.11-0243-oa.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, J., W. Wang, S. Laureys, and H. Di. 2020. “Burnout Syndrome in Healthcare Professionals Who Care for Patients with Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: A Cross-Sectional Survey.” BMC Health Services Research 20: 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05694-5.Search in Google Scholar

Wayne, S. J., G. Lemmon, J. M. Hoobler, G. W. Cheung, and M. S. Wilson. 2017. “The Ripple Effect: A Spillover Model of the Detrimental Impact of Work–Family Conflict on Job Success.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 38: 876–94, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2174.Search in Google Scholar

Welsh, D. H. B., E. Kaciak, E. Memili, and C. Minialai. 2018. “Business–Family Interface and the Performance of Women Entrepreneurs: The Moderating Effect of Economic Development.” International Journal of Emerging Markets 13: 330–49, https://doi.org/10.1108/ijoem-03-2017-0095.Search in Google Scholar

Williams, L. J., N. Hartman, and F. Cavazotte. 2010. “Method Variance and Marker Variables: A Review and Comprehensive CFA Marker Techniques.” Organizational Research Methods 13: 477–514, https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110366036.Search in Google Scholar

Wood, W., and A. H. Eagly. 2010. “Gender.” In Handbook of Social Psychology, 1, edited by S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, and G. Lindzey, 5th ed., 629–67. New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Yoon, J., and G. T. Solomon. 2017. “A Curvilinear Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Employees’ Psychological Safety.” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 13: 1139–56, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0448-5.Search in Google Scholar

Yu, X., X. Meng, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, and B. Nguyen. 2018. “Work–Family Conflict, Organizational Ambidexterity and New Venture Legitimacy in Emerging Economies.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 135: 229–40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.10.003.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, G., and M. Inness. 2019. “Transformational Leadership and Employee Voice: A Model of Proactive Motivation.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 40: 777–90, https://doi.org/10.1108/lodj-01-2019-0017.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-01-29
Accepted: 2021-11-06
Published Online: 2021-11-18

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow