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BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access October 26, 2018

Stress-sensing and regulatory mechanism of the endoplasmic-stress sensors Ire1 and PERK

  • Yuki Ishiwata-Kimata , Giang Quynh Le and Yukio Kimata EMAIL logo
From the journal Cell Pathology


Ire1 and its family protein PERK are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress sensors that initiate cellular responses against ER accumulation of unfolded proteins. As reviewed in this article, many publications describe molecular mechanisms by which yeast Ire1 senses ER conditions and gets regulated. We also cover recent studies which reveal that mammalian Ire1 (IRE1α) and PERK are controlled in a similar but not exactly the same manner. ER-located molecular chaperone BiP captures these ER-stress sensors and suppresses their activity. Intriguingly, Ire1 is associated with BiP not as a chaperone substrate, but as a unique ligand. Unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER promote dissociation of the Ire1-BiP complex. Moreover, Ire1 is directly bound with unfolded proteins, leading to its cluster formation and potent activation. PERK also captures unfolded proteins and then forms self-oligomers. Meanwhile, membrane-lipid aberrancy is likely to activate these ER-stress sensors independently of ER accumulation of unfolded proteins. In addition, there exist a number of reports that touch on other factors that control activity of these ER-stress sensors. Such a multiplicity of regulatory mechanisms for these ER-stress sensors is likely to contribute to fine tuning of their activity.


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Received: 2018-07-17
Accepted: 2018-08-27
Published Online: 2018-10-26
Published in Print: 2018-10-01

© by Yuki Ishiwata-Kimata et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

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