Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton October 31, 2018

Aspects of a psychologically informed theory of agreement

  • Carlos Acuña-Fariña EMAIL logo
From the journal Folia Linguistica


In this paper I try to establish bidirectional links between the grammar and the processing (especially production) of agreement in order to provide the broad strokes of a psychologically viable theory of agreement. I start by arguing that full encapsulation and full interactivity in agreement operations are not realistic options. The question therefore becomes how much of each should be posited on principled grounds. It is further argued that in language production agreement ‘leaks’, in the sense that conceptual structure is ready to interfere in the establishment of agreement ties, and that that interference is neatly modulated by morphological strength, in the sense that morphology acts a barrier to it. I suggest a series of components that a theory of agreement must contain if it is to be psyscholinguistically realistic. Among these: a. constant conceptual pressure (leaking) and varying degrees of morphologisation both inter- and intra-linguistically (blocking); b. constructional ‘listing’, which adds to the division of labour between direct semantic influence and encapsulated feature transmission; c. ‘Avalanching’ (a chain reaction of chunking), which results in near encapsulation in practice in the minds of speakers of languages with a rich morphology; d. a process of ‘Match and Check’, which ensures automatic, non-strategic computations of massive feature redundancy (Match) without the need for accompanying access to conceptual structure (Check).


Acuña-Fariña, Carlos. 2009b. Aspects of the grammar of close apposition and the structure of the noun phrase. English Language and Linguistics 13(3). 453–481.10.1017/S1360674309990190Search in Google Scholar

Acuña-Fariña, Carlos. 2016. Opportunistic processing of language. Language Sciences 57. 34–48.10.1016/j.langsci.2016.05.003Search in Google Scholar

Acuña-Fariña, Carlos. 2018. The role of morphology in setting production biases in agreement: A cross-linguistic completion study. Language Sciences 66. 28–41.10.1016/j.langsci.2017.12.008Search in Google Scholar

Acuña-Fariña, Juan, Manuel Carreiras Carlos & Enrique Meseguer. 2014. Gender and number agreement in comprehension in Spanish. Lingua 143. 108–128.10.1016/j.lingua.2014.01.013Search in Google Scholar

Acuña-Fariña, Juan Carlos. 2009a. The psycholinguistics of agreement in English and Spanish: A tutorial overview. Lingua 119. 389–424.10.1016/j.lingua.2008.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Acuña-Fariña, Juan Carlos. 2012. Agreement, attraction and architectural opportunism. Journal of Linguistics 48(2). 257–296.10.1017/S0022226712000084Search in Google Scholar

Antón-Méndez, Inés, Julie Nicol & Merrill Garret. 2002. The relation between gender and number agreement processing. Syntax 5(1). 1–25.10.1111/1467-9612.00045Search in Google Scholar

Arias-Trejo, Natalia, Alberto Falcón & Elda A. Alva-Canto. 2013. The gender puzzle: Toddlers’ use of articles to access noun information. Psicológica 34. 1–23.Search in Google Scholar

Badecker, William & Frantisek Kuminiak. 2007. Morphology, agreement and working memory retrieval in sentence production: Evidence from gender and case in Slovak. Journal of Memory and Language 56. 65–85.10.1016/j.jml.2006.08.004Search in Google Scholar

Baker, Mark. 2008. The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511619830Search in Google Scholar

Barlow, Michael. 1992. A situated theory of agreement. New York: Garland.Search in Google Scholar

Berg, Thomas. 1998. The resolution of number agreement conflicts in English and German agreement patterns. Linguistics 36. 41–70.10.1515/ling.1998.36.1.41Search in Google Scholar

Bobaljik, J. D. 2002. Realizing Germanic inflection: Why morphology does not drive syntax. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 6(2–3). 129–167.10.1023/A:1023669927250Search in Google Scholar

Bobaljik, Jonathan D. & Höskuldur Thráinsson. 1998. Two heads aren’t always better than one. Syntax 1(1). 37–71.10.1111/1467-9612.00003Search in Google Scholar

Bock, J. K., M. Carreiras & E. Meseguer. 2012. Number meaning and number grammar. Language and Cognitive Processes 26(4–6). 509–529.Search in Google Scholar

Bock, Kathryn & J. Cooper. Cutting. 1992. Regulating mental energy: Performance units in language production. Journal of Memory and Language 31. 99–127.10.1016/0749-596X(92)90007-KSearch in Google Scholar

Bock, Kathryn & Kathleen Eberhard. 1993. Meaning, sound, and syntax in English number agreement. Language and Cognitive Processes 8. 57–99.10.1080/01690969308406949Search in Google Scholar

Bock, Kathryn, J. Kathleen Eberhard, Cooper Cutting, Antje Meyer & Herbert Schriefers. 2001. Some attractions of verb agreement. Cognitive Psychology 43. 83–128.10.1006/cogp.2001.0753Search in Google Scholar

Bock, Kathryn & Carol A Miller. 1991. Broken agreement. Cognitive Psychology 23. 45–93.10.1016/0010-0285(91)90003-7Search in Google Scholar

Bock, Kathryn, Julie Nicol & J. C. Cutting. 1999. The ties that bind: Creating number agreement in speech. Journal of Memory and Language 40. 330–346.10.1006/jmla.1998.2616Search in Google Scholar

Boeckx, Cedric. 2009. On long-distance agree. Iberia: An International Journal of Theoretical Linguistics 1(1). 1–32.Search in Google Scholar

Boeckx, Cedric & Youngmi Jeong. 2004. The fine structure of intervention in syntax. In Chungja Kwon & Wonbin Lee (eds.), Issues in current linguistic theory: A Festschrift for Hong Bae Lee, 83–116. Seoul: Kyungchin.Search in Google Scholar

Bradley, D. C. & K. L. Foster. 1987. A reader’s view of listening. In Uli. K Frauenfelder & Lorrayne K. Tyler (eds.), Spoken word recognition, 103–133. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Cacciari, C., P. Corradini, R. Padovani & M. Carreiras. 2011. Pronoun resolution in Italian: The role of grammatical gender and context. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 23(4). 416–434.10.1080/20445911.2011.526599Search in Google Scholar

Cacciari, Cristina, Manuel Carreiras & Cristina B. Cionini. 1997. When words have two genders: Anaphor resolution for Italian functionally ambiguous words. Journal of Memory and Language 37. 517–532.10.1006/jmla.1997.2528Search in Google Scholar

Carreiras, M., L. Carr, H. Barber & A. Hernández. 2010. Where syntax meets math: Right Intraparietal Sulcus activation in response to grammatical number agreement violations. NeuroImage 49. 1741–1749.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.058Search in Google Scholar

Casillas Martıínez, L. 2003. Gender mismatched in Spanish and French N1/A de N2 affective constructions: Index agreement vs. morphosyntactic concord. In Jong Bok Kim & Stephen Wechsler (eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 1–17. Stanford, CA: CSLI.10.21248/hpsg.2002.1Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The Minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam. 1999. Minimalist enquiries: The framework. In Roberts Martin, David Michaels & Juan Uriagereka (eds.), Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honour of Howard Lasnik, 89–155. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Beyond explanatory adequacy. Ms., Cambridge: MIT.Search in Google Scholar

Coltheart, Max. 1978. Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (ed.), Strategies of information processing, 151–216. London: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Copestake, Ann. 2002. Implementing typed feature structure grammars. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Corbett, Greville. 1979. The agreement hierarchy. Journal of Linguistics 15. 203–224.10.1017/S0022226700016352Search in Google Scholar

Corbett, Greville. 2006. Agreement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Croft, William. 1988. Agreement vs case marking and direct objects. In Michael Barlow & Charles Ferguson (eds.), Agreement in natural language: Approaches, theories, descriptions, 159–180. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Croft, William. 2001. Radical construction grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

De Smedt, Koenraad. 1990. IPF: An incremental parallel formulator. In R. Dale, C. H. Mellish & M. Zock (eds.), Current research in natural language generation, 167–192. London: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Eberhard, Kathleen. 1999. The accessibility of conceptual number to the processes of subject–verb agreement in English. Journal of Memory and Language 41. 560–578.10.1006/jmla.1999.2662Search in Google Scholar

Eberhard, Kathleen, J. Cooper Cutting & Kathryn Bock. 2005. Making syntax of sense: Number agreement in sentence production. Psychological Review 112(3). 531–559.10.1037/0033-295X.112.3.531Search in Google Scholar

Embick, David & Rolf Noyer. 2007. Distributed morphology and the syntax/morphology interface. In Gilliam Ramchand & Charles Reiss (eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces, 290–324. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199247455.013.0010Search in Google Scholar

Ferguson, Charles & Michael Barlow. 1988. Introduction. In Michael Barlow & Charles Ferguson (eds.), Agreement in natural language, 1–22. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira, Victor & Zenzi M Griffin. 2003. Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection. Psychological Science 14. 86–90.10.1111/1467-9280.01424Search in Google Scholar

Floripi, Simone & Ideneida Moreno. 2010. Marcas de concordância no caboverdiano no português: Uma visão comparativa. Estudos da Língua(gem) 8(1). 223–240.10.22481/el.v8i1.1121Search in Google Scholar

Foote, Rebecca & Kathryn Bock. 2012. The role of morphology in subject-verb number agreement: A comparison of Mexican and Dominican Spanish. Language and Cognitive Processes 27(3). 429–461.10.1080/01690965.2010.550166Search in Google Scholar

Francis, W. N. 1986. Proximity concord in English. Journal of English Linguistics 19. 309–317.10.1177/007542428601900212Search in Google Scholar

Franck, Julie, Simona Colinna & Luigi Rizzi. 2015. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 6. 349.10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00807Search in Google Scholar

Franck, Julie, Glenda Lassi, Ulrich Frauenfelder & Luigi Rizzi. 2006. Agreement and movement: A syntactic analysis of attraction. Cognition 101. 173–216.10.1016/j.cognition.2005.10.003Search in Google Scholar

Franck, Julie, Gabriela Soare, Ulrich Frauenfelder & Luigi Rizzi. 2010. Object interference in subject-verb agreement: The role of intermediate traces of movement. Journal of Memory and Language 62. 166–182.10.1016/j.jml.2009.11.001Search in Google Scholar

Franck, Julie, Gabriela Vigliocco, Inés Antón-Méndez, Simona Collina & Ulrich Frauenfelder. 2008. The interplay of syntax and form in language production: A cross-linguistic study of form effects on agreement. Language and Cognitive Processes 23. 329–374.10.1080/01690960701467993Search in Google Scholar

Franck, Julie, Gabriella Vigliocco & Julie Nicol. 2002. Subject-verb agreement errors in French and English: The role of syntactic hierarchy. Language and Cognitive Processes 17(4). 371–404.10.1080/01690960143000254Search in Google Scholar

Frazier, Lynn & Janet D. Fodor. 1978. The sausage machine: A new two-stage parsing model. Cognition 6(4). 291–325.10.1016/0010-0277(78)90002-1Search in Google Scholar

Friederici Angela, D. 2002. Towards a neural basis of auditory sentence processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6(2). 78–84.10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01839-8Search in Google Scholar

Fuß, Eric. 2005. The rise of agreement. A formal approach to syntax and the grammaticalization of verbal inflection. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/la.81Search in Google Scholar

Garrett, Merrill F. 1976. Syntactic processes in sentence production. In Roger J. Wales & Edward Walker (eds.), New approaches to language mechanisms, 231–256. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Search in Google Scholar

Garrod Simon & Melody Terras. 2000. The contribution of lexical and situational knowledge to resolving discourse roles: Bonding and resolution. Journal of Memory and Language 42. 526–544.10.1006/jmla.1999.2694Search in Google Scholar

Gillespie, Maureen & Neal J. Pearlmutter. 2011. Hierarchy and scope of planning in subject-verb agreement production. Cognition 118. 377–397.10.1016/j.cognition.2010.10.008Search in Google Scholar

Goldberg, Adele. 2006. Constructions at work: The nature of generalization in language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268511.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Guasti, Teresa & Luigi Rizzi. 2001. Agreement and tense as distinct syntactic positions: Evidence from acquisition. In Guglielmo Cinque (ed.), The structure of DP and IP. The cartography of syntactic structures, 167–194. New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Halle, Morris & Alex Marantz. 1993. Distributed Morphology and the pieces of inflection. In Samuel J. Keyser & Ken Hale (eds.), The view from Building 20, 111–176. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Hartsuiker, Robert, Herbert Schriefers, Katryn Bock & Gerdien Kikstra. 2003. Morphophonological influences on the construction of subject-verb agreement. Memory and Cognition 31. 1316–1326.10.3758/BF03195814Search in Google Scholar

Haskell, Todd & Maryellen Macdonald. 2003. Conflicting cues and competition in subject-verb agreement. Journal of Memory and Language 48. 760–778.10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00010-XSearch in Google Scholar

Haskell, Todd, Robert Thornton & MacDonald Maryellen. 2010. Experience and grammatical agreement: Statistical learning shapes number agreement production. Cognition 114. 151–164.10.1016/j.cognition.2009.08.017Search in Google Scholar

Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffey Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/9781316423530Search in Google Scholar

Humphreys, Karin & Katryn Bock. 2005. Notional number agreement in English. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 12. 689–695.10.3758/BF03196759Search in Google Scholar

Jackendoff, R. 2007. Linguistics and cognitive science: The state of the art. The Linguistic Review 24. 347–401.10.1515/TLR.2007.014Search in Google Scholar

Jean-Yves, Pollock. 1989. Verb movement, universal grammar, and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20. 365–424.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, Kyle. 1990. On the syntax of inflectional paradigms. Unpublished ms., University of Wisconsin, Madison.Search in Google Scholar

Joseph, Brian D. 1979. On the agreement of reflexive forms in English. Linguistics 17. 519–523.Search in Google Scholar

Kathol, Andreas. 1999. Agreement and the Syntax-Morphology Interface in HPSG. In Robert Levine & Georgia Green (eds.), Studies in contemporary Phrase Structure Grammar, 223–274. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511554421.007Search in Google Scholar

King, Tracy & Mary Dalrymple. 2004. Determiner agreement and noun conjunction. Journal of Linguistics 40. 69–104.10.1017/S0022226703002330Search in Google Scholar

Kutas, Marta & Kara Federmeier. 2009. N400. Scholarpedia 4. 77–90.10.4249/scholarpedia.7790Search in Google Scholar

Kutas, Marta & Stephen A. Hillyard. 1984. Brain potentials during reading reflect word expectancy and semantic association. Nature 307. 161–163.10.1038/307161a0Search in Google Scholar

Lee, Osterhout & Linda A. Mobley. 1995. Event-related brain potentials elicited by failure to agree. Journal of Memory and Language 34(6). 739–773.10.1006/jmla.1995.1033Search in Google Scholar

Levelt, Willem J. M. 1989. Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, Shevaun & Colin Phillips. 2015. Aligning grammatical theories and language processing models. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 44. 27–46.10.1007/s10936-014-9329-zSearch in Google Scholar

Lorimor, Heidi, Kathryn Bock, Ekaterina Zalkind, Alina Sheyman & Robert Beard. 2008. Agreement and attraction in Russian. Language and Cognitive Processes 23. 769–799.10.1080/01690960701774182Search in Google Scholar

MacWhinney, Brian. 2001. Emergentist approaches to language. In Joan Bybee & Paul Hopper (eds.), Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure, 449–470. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.45.23macSearch in Google Scholar

Marantz, Alex. 2005. Generative linguistics within the cognitive neuroscience of language. The Linguistic Review 22. 429–446.10.1515/tlir.2005.22.2-4.429Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, Antje & Kathryn Bock. 1999. Representations and processes in the production of pronouns: Some perspectives from Dutch. Journal of Memory and Language 41. 281–301.10.1006/jmla.1999.2649Search in Google Scholar

Miyagawa, Shigeru. 2009. Why agree, why move? Unifying agreement-based and discourse con- figurational languages. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.10.7551/mitpress/8116.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Molinaro, Nicola, Horacio Barber & Manuel Carreiras. 2011. Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions. Cortex 47. 908–930.10.1016/j.cortex.2011.02.019Search in Google Scholar

Pearlmutter, Neal J., Susan Garnsey & Kathryn Bock. 1999. Agreement processes in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language 41. 427–456.10.1006/jmla.1999.2653Search in Google Scholar

Pfau, Roland. 2003. Defective feature copy and anti-agreement in language production. In William Earl Griffin (ed.), The role of agreement in natural language. TLS 5 Proceedings, 95–108. Austin: Texas Linguistics Forum 53.Search in Google Scholar

Phillips, Colin. 2004. Linguistics and linking problems. In Mabel Rice & Steven Warren (eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies, 241–287. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Phillips, Colin, Nina Kazanina & Shani Abada. 2005. ERP effects of the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies. Cognitive Brain Research 22. 407–428.10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.09.012Search in Google Scholar

Phillips, Colin & Elen Lau. 2004. Foundational Issues. Journal of Linguistics 40. 1–21.10.1017/S0022226704002774Search in Google Scholar

Poeppel, David & David Embick. 2005. Defining the relation between linguistics and neuroscience. In Anne Cutler (ed.), Twenty-first century psycholinguistics: Four cornerstones, 1–16. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Pollard, Carl & Ivan A. Sag. 1994. Head-driven phrase structure grammar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Stanford: CSLI Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Putnam, Michael. 2007. Scrambling and the Survive Principle. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/la.115Search in Google Scholar

Riveiro-Outeiral, Sara & J. Carlos Acuña-Fariña. 2012. Agreement processes in English and Spanish: A completion study. Functions of Language 19(1). 58–88.10.1075/fol.19.1.03rivSearch in Google Scholar

Sauerland, Uli & Paul Elbourne. 2002. Total reconstruction, PF movement, and derivational order. Linguistic Inquiry 33(2). 283–319.10.1162/002438902317406722Search in Google Scholar

Seidenberg, Mark S. & McClelland James. 1989. A distributed developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review 96(4). 523–568.10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.523Search in Google Scholar

Shieber, Stuart. 1986. An Introduction to unification-based approaches to grammar, volume 4 of CSLI Lecture Notes Series. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.Search in Google Scholar

Slobin, Dan I. 1996. From ‘thought and language’ to ‘thinking to speaking’. In John J. Gumperz & Stephen C. Levinson (eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity, 70–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mancini, Simona. 2011. When persons disagree: An ERP study of Unagreement in Spanish. Psychophysiology 48. 1361.10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01212.xSearch in Google Scholar

Solomon, Eric & Neal Pearlmutter. 2004. Semantic integration and syntactic planning in language production. Cognitive Psychology 49. 1–46.10.1016/j.cogpsych.2003.10.001Search in Google Scholar

Staub, Adrian. 2009. On the interpretation of the number attraction effect: Response time evidence. Journal of Memory and Language 60(2). 308–27.10.1016/j.jml.2008.11.002Search in Google Scholar

Staub, Adrian. 2010. Response time distributional evidence for distinct varieties of number attraction. Cognition 114(3). 447–454.10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.003Search in Google Scholar

Steele, Susan. 1978. Word order variation: A typological study. In Joseph H. Greenberg, Charles A. Ferguson & Edith A. Moravcsik (eds.), Universals of human language IV: Syntax, 585–623. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Stowe, Laurie. 1986. Models of gap location in the human language processor. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.Search in Google Scholar

Swinney, David A. 1979. Lexical access during sentence comprehension: (Re)consideration of context effects. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18. 645–660.10.1016/S0022-5371(79)90355-4Search in Google Scholar

Thornton, Robert & Maryellen MacDonald. 2003. Plausibility and grammatical agreement. Journal of Memory and Language 48. 740–749.10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00003-2Search in Google Scholar

Thráinsson, Höskuldur. 1996. On the (non)-universality of functional projections. In Samuel D. Werner Abraham, Höskuldur Thráinsson Epstein & C. Jan-Wouter Zwart (eds.), Minimal ideas: Syntactic studies in the minimalist framework, 253–281. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/la.12.13thrSearch in Google Scholar

Toribio, Almeida J. 2000. Setting parametric limits on dialectal variation in Spanish. Lingua 10. 315–341.10.1016/S0024-3841(99)00044-3Search in Google Scholar

Van Heugten, Maieke & Rushen Shi. 2009. French-learning toddlers use gender information on determiners during word recognition. Developmental Science 12(3). 419–425.10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00788.xSearch in Google Scholar

Van Heugten, Marieke & Elisabeth Johnson. 2011. Gender-marked determiners help Dutch learners’ word recognition when gender information itself does not. Journal of Child Language 38. 87–100.10.1017/S0305000909990146Search in Google Scholar

Verveckken, Katrien y. & Bert Cornillie. 2012. Un análisis cognitivo-funcional de la concordancia verbal con construcciones (pseudo) partitivas del tipo [N1 + de + N2]. Revue Romane 47(2). 219–257.10.1075/rro.47.2.02verSearch in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella, Brian Butterworth & Carlo Semenza. 1995. Constructing subject-verb agreement in speech: The role of semantic and morphological factors. Journal of Memory and Language 34. 186–215.10.1006/jmla.1995.1009Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella, Brian Butterworth & Merryl Garrett. 1996a. Subject-verb agreement in Spanish and English: Differences in the role of conceptual factors. Cognition 51. 261–298.10.1016/S0010-0277(96)00713-5Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella, Robert Hartsuiker, Gonia Jarema & Herman Kolk. 1996b. One or more labels on the bottles? Notional concord in Dutch and French. Language and Cognitive Processes 11, 407–421.10.1080/016909696387169Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella & Julie Franck. 1999. When sex and syntax go hand in hand: Gender agreement in language production. Journal of Memory and Language 40. 455–478.10.1006/jmla.1998.2624Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella & Robert J. Hartsuiker. 2002. The interplay of meaning, sound and syntax in language production. Psychological Bulletin 128. 442–472.10.1037/0033-2909.128.3.442Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella & Tiziana Zilli. 1999. Syntactic accuracy in sentence production: The case of gender disagreement in Italian language-impaired and unimpaired speakers. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 28. 623–648.10.1023/A:1023268911312Search in Google Scholar

Vigliocco, Gabriella, R. J. Hartsuiker, G. Jarema & H. H. J. Kolk. 1996a. One or more labels on the bottles? Notional concord in Dutch and French. Language and Cognitive Processes 11. 407–442.10.1080/016909696387169Search in Google Scholar

Wagers, Matthew, Ellen Lau & Colin Phillips. 2009. Agreement attraction in comprehension: Representations and processes. Journal of Memory and Language 61. 206–237.10.1016/j.jml.2009.04.002Search in Google Scholar

Wechsler, Stephen. 2011. Mixed Agreement, the person feature, and the index/concord distinction. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29. 999–1031.10.1007/s11049-011-9149-xSearch in Google Scholar

Wechsler, Stephen & Hyun-Long Hahm. 2011. Polite plurals and adjective agreement. Morphology 21. 247–281.10.1007/s11525-010-9168-zSearch in Google Scholar

Wechsler, Stephen & Larisa Zlatic. 2003. The many faces of agreement. Stanford & Chicago: CSLI Publications & Chicago University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wicha, Nicole Y., Eva Moreno & Marta Kutas. 2003. Expecting gender: An event related brain potential study on the role of grammatical gender in comprehending a line drawing within a written sentence in Spanish. Cortex 39. 483–508.10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70260-0Search in Google Scholar

Zwitserlood, Pienie. 1996. Form priming. Language and Cognitive Processes 11. 589–596.10.1080/016909696386980Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-05-26
Revised: 2017-11-02
Revised: 2017-11-30
Accepted: 2018-01-25
Published Online: 2018-10-31
Published in Print: 2018-10-25

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 25.9.2023 from
Scroll to top button