Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 28, 2019

The Evolution of Morality Policy Debate: Moralization and Demoralization

Rebecca J. Kreitzer EMAIL logo , Kellen A. Kane EMAIL logo and Christopher Z. Mooney EMAIL logo
From the journal The Forum


Scholars of morality policy have built an extensive literature surrounding these issues, which often are associated with unusual political behavior. Early studies aimed at explaining this behavior but avoided defining a “morality policy” explicitly, typically by focusing on issues that appeared obviously to pertain to morality, like abortion and LGBTQ+ rights. Drawing on the existing morality policy scholarship and classic theories of public policy, we argue that no public policy is inherently moral. Rather, policies may be “moralized” or “demoralized” over time, not due to any intrinsic characteristic, but because the prominent policy frames in their debate have changed. Public opinion and its proxies, along with certain exogenous shocks, may be important in determining when a morality frame will be more prevalent. Because the distinctiveness of morality policy lies in the discourse surrounding it, scholars should examine the behavior and attitudes of relevant advocates in these debates, rather than relying on aggregate data and making assumptions about intrinsic policy characteristics.


Adams, Greg D. 1997. “Abortion: Evidence of an Issue Evolution”. American Journal of Political Science 41: 718–737.10.2307/2111673Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, Sarah, Matthew Potoski, Alex DeGolia, Dena Gromet, David Sherman, and Leaf Van Boven. 2014. “Mobilization, Polarization, and Compromise: The Effect of Political Moralizing on Climate Change Politics.” Social Science Research Network 1–24.Search in Google Scholar

Ball, Philip. 2017. “Designer Babies: An Ethical Horror Waiting to Happen?” Guardian. Accessed January 8, 2017. in Google Scholar

Baumann, Markus, Marc Debus, and Jochen Müller. 2015. “Personal Characteristics of MPs and Legislative Behavior in Moral Policymaking.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 40: 179–210.10.1111/lsq.12072Search in Google Scholar

Baumgartner, Frank R., and Bryan D. Jones. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Berkman, Michael B., and Robert E. O’Connor. 1993. “Do Women Legislators Matter? Female Legislators and State Abortion Policy.” American Politics Quarterly 21 (1): 101–124.10.1177/1532673X9302100107Search in Google Scholar

Berman, Eliza. 2015. “What the Panic Over Pot Looked Like in 1967.” Time, April 20. in Google Scholar

Bishin, Benjamin G., Thomas J. Hayes, Matthew B. Incantalupo, and Charles Anthony Smith. 2016. “Opinion Backlash and Public Attitudes: Are Political Advances in Gay Rights Counterproductive?” American Journal of Political Science 60: 625–648.10.1111/ajps.12181Search in Google Scholar

Bloom, Pazit Ben-Nun. 2013. “The Public’s Compass: Moral Conviction and Political Attitudes.” American Politics Research 41: 937–964.10.1177/1532673X13481842Search in Google Scholar

Bloom, Pazit Ben-Nun. 2014. “Disgust, Harm, and Morality in Politics.” Political Psychology 35: 495–513.10.1111/pops.12053Search in Google Scholar

Brisbin, Richard A. 2001. “From Censorship to Ratings: Substantive Rationality, Political Entrepreneurship, and Sex in the Movies.” In The Public Clash of Private Values: The Politics of Morality Policy, edited by Christopher Mooney, 91–112. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Search in Google Scholar

Budde, Emma, and Stephan Heichel. 2017. “Women Matter: The Impact of Gender Empowerment on Abortion Regulation in 16 European Countries between 1960 and 2010.” Politics & Gender 13: 432–457.10.1017/S1743923X16000556Search in Google Scholar

Budde, Emma, Stephan Heichel, Steffen Hurka, and Christoph Knill. 2018a. “Partisan Effects in Morality Policy Making.” European Journal of Political Research 57: 427–449.10.1111/1475-6765.12233Search in Google Scholar

Budde, Emma T., Christoph Knill, Xavier Fernández-i-Marín, and Caroline Preidel. 2018b. “A Matter of Timing: The Religious Factor and Morality Policies.” Governance 31: 45–63.10.1111/gove.12296Search in Google Scholar

Bumpass, Larry L. 1997. “The Measurement of Public Opinion on Abortion: The Effects of Survey Design.” Family Planning Perspectives 29: 177–180.10.2307/2953382Search in Google Scholar

Burlone, Nathalie, and Rebecca Grace Richmond. 2018. “Between Morality and Rationality: Framing End-of-Life Care Policy Through Narratives.” Policy Sciences 51: 1–22.10.1007/s11077-018-9320-xSearch in Google Scholar

Camobreco, John F., and Michelle A. Barnello. 2008. “Democratic Responsiveness and Policy Shock: The Case of State Abortion Policy.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 8: 48–65.10.1177/153244000800800104Search in Google Scholar

Carmines, Edward G., and James Woods. 2002. “The Role of Party Activists in the Evolution of the Abortion Issue.” Political Behavior 24: 361–377.10.1023/A:1022510927796Search in Google Scholar

Carpini, Michael X. Delli, and Scott Keeter. 1996. What Americans Know About Politics and Why it Matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Clifford, Scott. 2014. “Linking Issue Stances and Trait Inferences: A Theory of Moral Exemplification.” The Journal of Politics 76: 698–710.10.1017/S0022381614000176Search in Google Scholar

Clifford, Scott. 2019. “How Emotional Frames Moralize and Polarize Political Attitudes.” Political Psychology 40: 75–91.10.1111/pops.12507Search in Google Scholar

Clifford, Scott, and Jennifer Jerit. 2013. “How Words do the Work of Politics: Moral Foundations Theory and the Debate Over Stem Cell Research.” The Journal of Politics 75: 659–671.10.1017/S0022381613000492Search in Google Scholar

Clifford, Scott, Ryan M. Jewell, and Philip D. Waggoner. 2015. “Are Samples Drawn from Mechanical Turk Valid for Research on Political Ideology?” Research & Politics 1–9.10.1177/2053168015622072Search in Google Scholar

Clifford, Scott, Jennifer Jerit, Carlisle Rainey, and Matt Motyl. 2015. “Moral Concerns and Policy Attitudes: Investigating the Influence of Elite Rhetoric.” Political Communication 32: 229–248.10.1080/10584609.2014.944320Search in Google Scholar

Daniels, Steven R. 2015. “The Evolution of Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage in California and the US.” California Journal of Politics and Policy 7 (4): 1–17.10.5070/P2CJPP7428925Search in Google Scholar

de Saxe Zerden, Lisa, Erin O’Quinn, and Corey Davis. 2015. “Evidence-Based Policy versus Morality Policy: The Case of Syringe Access Programs.” Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 12: 425–437.10.1080/15433714.2013.873751Search in Google Scholar

Death Penalty Information Center. 2019. “Homepage.” Accessed March 7, 2019. in Google Scholar

Debruin, Eric Michael. 2013. “Shared Determinants Within the Typology of Morality Policy.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis. University of Houston.Search in Google Scholar

Doan, Alesha E., and Deborah R. McFarlane. 2012. “Saying no to Abstinence-Only Education: An Analysis of State Decision-Making.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 42: 613–635.10.1093/publius/pjr052Search in Google Scholar

Donovan, Todd, Daniel A. Smith, and Christopher Z. Mooney. 2012. State and Local Politics: Institutions and Reform. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Search in Google Scholar

Engel, Stephen M. 2013. “Frame Spillover: Media Framing and Public Opinion of a Multifaceted LGBT Rights Agenda.” Law & Social Inquiry 38: 403–441.10.1111/j.1747-4469.2012.01319.xSearch in Google Scholar

Engeli, Isabelle, and Frédéric Varone. 2012. “Morality Politics in Switzerland: Politicization Through Direct Democracy.” In Morality Politics in Western Europe. New York, NY: Springer.10.1057/9781137016690Search in Google Scholar

Engeli, Isabelle, and Christine Rothmayr Allison. 2013. “Diverging Against all Odds? Regulatory Paths in Embryonic Stem Cell Research across Western Europe.” Journal of European Public Policy 20: 407–424.10.1080/13501763.2013.761509Search in Google Scholar

Epstein, Lee, and Joseph Kobylka. 1992. The Supreme Court and Legal Change: Abortion and the Death Penalty. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Search in Google Scholar

Erikson, Robert S., Gerald C. Wright, and John P. McIver. 1993. Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511752933Search in Google Scholar

Euchner, Eva-Maria, Stephan Heichel, Kerstin Nebel, and Andreas Raschzok. 2013. “From Morality Policy to Normal Policy: Framing of Drug Consumption and Gambling in Germany and the Netherlands and their Regulatory Consequences.” Journal of European Public Policy 20 (3): 372–389.10.4324/9781315091051-5Search in Google Scholar

Fairbanks, David. 1977. “Religious Forces and “Morality” Policies in the American States.” Western Political Quarterly 30: 411–417.10.1177/106591297703000311Search in Google Scholar

Ferraiolo, Kathleen. 2013. “Is State Gambling Policy “Morality Policy”? Framing Debates Over State Lotteries.” Policy Studies Journal 41: 217–242.10.1111/psj.12015Search in Google Scholar

Ferraiolo, Kathleen. 2014. “Morality Framing in US Drug Control Policy: An Example from Marijuana Decriminalization.” World Medical & Health Policy 6: 347–374.10.1002/wmh3.114Search in Google Scholar

Flores, Andrew R., and Scott Barclay. 2016. “Backlash, Consensus, Legitimacy, or Polarization: The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Policy on Mass Attitudes.” Political Research Quarterly 69: 43–56.10.1177/1065912915621175Search in Google Scholar

Flores, Andrew R., Jody L. Herman, and Christy Mallory. 2015. “Transgender Inclusion in State Non-Discrimination Policies: The Democratic Deficit and Political Powerlessness.” Research & Politics 1–8.10.1177/2053168015612246Search in Google Scholar

Franklin, Charles H., and Liane C. Kosaki. 1989. “Republican Schoolmaster: The US Supreme Court, Public Opinion, and Abortion.” American Political Science Review 83: 751–771.10.2307/1962059Search in Google Scholar

Friedersdorf, Conor. 2014. “America Fails the ‘Rule of Law’ Test.” The Atlantic. Accessed February 18, 2019. in Google Scholar

Gallup. 2018. “Moral Issues”. Gallup. Accessed February 24, 2019. in Google Scholar

Glick, Henry R., and Amy Hutchinson. 2001. “Physician-Assisted Suicide: Agenda Setting and the Elements of Morality Policy.” In The Public Clash of Private Values: The Politics of Morality Policy, edited by Christopher Mooney, 55–70. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Search in Google Scholar

Gordon, Mara. 2018. More Older Americans Are Turning to Marijuana. National Public Radio. Accessed February 18, 2019. in Google Scholar

Grosskopf, Anke, and Jeffery J. Mondak. 1998. “Do attitudes Toward Specific Supreme Court Decisions Matter? The Impact of Webster and Texas v. Johnson on Public Confidence in the Supreme Court.” Political Research Quarterly 51: 633–654.10.1177/106591299805100304Search in Google Scholar

Groves, Julian McAllister. 1997. Hearts and Minds: The Controversy Over Laboratory Animals. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Gusfield, Joseph. 1963. Symbolic Crusade. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Search in Google Scholar

Haider-Markel, Donald P. 2001. “Policy Diffusion as a Geographical Expansion of the Scope of Political Conflict: Same-Sex Marriage Bans in the 1990s.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 1: 5–26.10.1177/153244000100100102Search in Google Scholar

Haider-Markel, Donald P., and Kenneth J. Meier. 1996. “The Politics of Gay and Lesbian Rights: Expanding the Scope of the Conflict.” The Journal of Politics 58: 332–349.10.2307/2960229Search in Google Scholar

Haider-Markel, Donald P., and Van M. Cagle. 2004. “Media Coverage of Lawrence v. Texas: An Analysis of Content, Tone, and Frames in National and Local News Reporting.” GLAAD Center for the Study of Media and Society 1–121.Search in Google Scholar

Halperin, Alex. 2018. “Cannabis Capitalism: Who is Making Money in the Marijuana Industry?” The Guardian. Accessed February 18, 2019. in Google Scholar

Heidt-Forsythe, Erin. 2017. “Morals or Markets? Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technologies as Morality or Economic Policies in the States.” AJOB Empirical Bioethics 8: 58–67.10.1080/23294515.2016.1209595Search in Google Scholar

Heidt-Forsythe, Erin. 2018. Between Families and Frankenstein: The Politics of Egg Donation in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.10.1525/california/9780520298187.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Hildebrandt, Achim. 2016. “Who’s in Favour? Same-Sex Union Laws in Parliament.” The Journal of Legislative Studies 22: 404–423.10.1080/13572334.2016.1202649Search in Google Scholar

Hunter, James Davison. 1992. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Control the Family, Art, Education, Law, and Politics in America. New York, NY: Basic Books.Search in Google Scholar

Hurka, Steffen, Christoph Knill, and Léonie Rivière. 2018. “Four Worlds of Morality Politics: The Impact of Institutional Venues and Party Cleavages.” West European Politics 41: 428–447.10.1080/01402382.2017.1380463Search in Google Scholar

Jacob, Herbert. 1988. Silent Revolution: The Transformation of Divorce Law in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Jelen, Ted G., and Clyde Wilcox. 2003. “Causes and Consequences of Public Attitudes Toward Abortion: A Review and Research Agenda.” Political Research Quarterly 56: 489–500.10.1177/106591290305600410Search in Google Scholar

Karch, Andrew. 2012. “Vertical Diffusion and the Policy-Making Process: The Politics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.” Political Research Quarterly 65: 48–61.10.1177/1065912910385252Search in Google Scholar

Kingdon, John W. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.Search in Google Scholar

Knill, Christoph, and Caroline Preidel. 2015. “Institutional Opportunity Structures and the Catholic Church: Explaining Variation in the Regulation of Same-Sex Partnerships in Ireland and Italy.” Journal of European Public Policy 22: 374–390.10.1080/13501763.2014.951066Search in Google Scholar

Kreitzer, Rebecca J. 2015. “Politics and Morality in State Abortion Policy.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 15: 41–66.10.1177/1532440014561868Search in Google Scholar

Kreitzer, Rebecca J., and Candis Watts Smith. 2018. “Reproducible and Replicable: An Empirical Assessment of the Social Construction of Politically Relevant Target Groups.” PS: Political Science & Politics 51: 1–7.10.1017/S1049096518000987Search in Google Scholar

Kreitzer, Rebecca J., Allison J. Hamilton, and Caroline J. Tolbert. 2014. “Does Policy Adoption Change Opinions on Minority Rights? The Effects of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage.” Political Research Quarterly 67: 795–808.10.1177/1065912914540483Search in Google Scholar

Lax, Jeffrey R., and Justin H. Phillips. 2009a. “Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness.” American Political Science Review 103: 367–386.10.1017/S0003055409990050Search in Google Scholar

Lax, Jeffrey R., and Justin H. Phillips. 2009b. “How Should We Estimate Public Opinion in the States?.” American Journal of Political Science 53: 107–121.10.1111/j.1540-5907.2008.00360.xSearch in Google Scholar

Lax, Jeffrey R., and Justin H. Phillips. 2012. “The Democratic Deficit in the States.” American Journal of Political Science 56: 148–166.10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00537.xSearch in Google Scholar

Luker, Kristin. 1985. Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lupia, Arthur. 1994. “Shortcuts versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections.” American Political Science Review 88: 63–76.10.2307/2944882Search in Google Scholar

Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. “Should blacks represent blacks and women represent women? A contingent “yes”.” The Journal of Politics 61: 628–657.10.2307/2647821Search in Google Scholar

McAllister, Ian. 2014. “Public Opinion Towards Gambling and Gambling Regulation in Australia.” International Gambling Studies 14: 146–160.10.1080/14459795.2013.861001Search in Google Scholar

McCarthy, Justin. 2018. Two in Three Americans Now Support Legalizing Marijuana. Gallup. Accessed January 21, 2019. in Google Scholar

McCoppin, Robert. 2018. “Opponents of legal Marijuana in Illinois say it Would Amount to Companies ‘Pimping’ Black, Hispanic Customers.” Chicago Tribune, November 29. in Google Scholar

McGuire, Ashley. 2019. “Most Americans Don’t Want a Standing Ovation for Abortions Until Birth. But Democrats Do.” USA Today, January 30. in Google Scholar

Medoff, Marshall H. 2012. “State Abortion Politics and TRAP Abortion Laws.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 33: 239–262.10.1080/1554477X.2012.667746Search in Google Scholar

Medoff, Marshall H., and Christopher Dennis. 2011. “TRAP Abortion Laws and Partisan Political Party Control of State Government.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 70: 951–973.10.1111/j.1536-7150.2011.00794.xSearch in Google Scholar

Meier, Kenneth J. 1992. The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Meier, Kenneth J., and Deborah R. McFarlane. 1992. “State Policies on Funding of Abortions: A Pooled Time Series Analysis.” Social Science Quarterly 73: 690–698.Search in Google Scholar

Mohamed, Heather Silber. 2018. “Embryonic Politics: Attitudes about Abortion, Stem Cell Research, and IVF.” Politics and Religion 11: 1–39.Search in Google Scholar

Mooney, Christopher Z. 2000. “The Decline of Federalism and the Rise of Morality-Policy Conflict in the United States.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 30: 171–188.10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubjof.a030059Search in Google Scholar

Mooney, Christopher Z., ed. 2001. The Public Clash of Private Values: The Politics of Morality Policy. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mooney, Christopher Z., and Mei-Hsien Lee. 1995. “Legislative Morality in the American States: The Case of Pre-Roe Abortion Regulation Reform.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 599–627.10.2307/2111646Search in Google Scholar

Mooney, Christopher Z., and Mei-Hsien Lee. 2000. “The Influence of Values on Consensus and Contentious Morality Policy: US Death Penalty Reform, 1956–82.” Journal of Politics 62: 223–239.10.1111/0022-3816.00011Search in Google Scholar

Mooney, Christopher Z., and Richard G. Schuldt. 2008. “Does Morality Policy Exist? Testing a Basic Assumption.” Policy Studies Journal 36: 199–218.10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00262.xSearch in Google Scholar

Morone, James A. 2004. Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mouw, Ted, and Michael E. Sobel. 2001. “Culture Wars and Opinion Polarization: The Case of Abortion.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 913–943.10.1086/320294Search in Google Scholar

Mucciaroni, Gary. 2011. “Are Debates about “Morality Policy” Really about Morality? Framing Opposition to Gay and Lesbian Rights.” Policy Studies Journal 39: 187–216.10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00404.xSearch in Google Scholar

Mucciaroni, Gary, Kathleen Ferraiolo, and Meghan E. Rubado. 2018. “Framing Morality Policy Issues: State Legislative Debates on Abortion Restrictions.” Policy Sciences 52 (2): 1–19.10.1007/s11077-018-9336-2Search in Google Scholar

Mulligan, Kenneth, Tobin Grant, and Daniel Bennett. 2012. “The Dynamics of Public Opinion on Cultural Policy Issues in the U.S., 1972–2010.” Political Behavior 35 (4): 807–82910.1007/s11109-012-9209-xSearch in Google Scholar

NCSL. 2019. “State Medical Marijuana Laws.” NCSL, June 5. in Google Scholar

Norrander, Barbara. 2000. “The Multi-Layered Impact of Public Opinion on Capital Punishment Implementation in the American States.” Political Research Quarterly 53: 771–793.10.1177/106591290005300405Search in Google Scholar

Ormandy, Elisabeth H., and Catherine A. Schuppli. 2014. “Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review.” Animals 4 (3): 391–408.10.3390/ani4030391Search in Google Scholar

Pacheco, Julianna. 2014. “Measuring and Evaluating Changes in State Opinion across Eight Issues.” American Politics Research 42: 986–1009.10.1177/1532673X14524819Search in Google Scholar

Pacheco, Julianna, and Rebecca Kreitzer. 2015. “Adolescent Determinants of Abortion Attitudes: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.” Public Opinion Quarterly 80: 66–89.10.1093/poq/nfv050Search in Google Scholar

Patton, Dana. 2007. “The Supreme Court and Morality Policy Adoption in the American States: The Impact of Constitutional Context.” Political Research Quarterly 60: 468–488.10.1177/1065912907303844Search in Google Scholar

Persily, Nathaniel, Jack Citrin, and Patrick J. Egan. 2008. Public Opinion and Constitutional Controversy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329414.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Person, Christian, Steffen Hurka, and Christoph Knill. 2016. “Opposite Trends in the Regulation of Pornography? Policy Differentiation and Policy Convergence across 26 Countries Between 1960 and 2010.” The Journal of Sex Research 53: 860–872.10.1080/00224499.2015.1100701Search in Google Scholar

Pierce, Patrick A., and Donald E. Miller. 1999. “Variations in the Diffusion of State Lottery Adoptions: How Revenue Dedication Changes Morality Politics.” Policy Studies Journal 27: 696–706.10.1111/j.1541-0072.1999.tb01997.xSearch in Google Scholar

Post, Robert, and Reva Siegel. 2007. “Roe Rage: Democratic Constitutionalism and Backlash.” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 42: 373.Search in Google Scholar

Radelet, Michael L., and Marian J. Borg. 2000. “The Changing Nature of Death Penalty Debates.” Annual Review of Sciology 26: 43–61.10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.43Search in Google Scholar

Rapp, Carolin, Richard Traunmüller, Markus Freitag, and Adrian Vatter. 2014. “Moral Politics: The Religious Factor in Referenda Voting.” Politics and Religion 7: 418–443.10.1017/S1755048314000303Search in Google Scholar

Rodriguez, Nathian Shae, and Lindsey Blumell. 2014. “What a Year! The Framing of Marriage Equality Through Media’s Selected Sources in 2013.” Journal of Communication Inquiry 38: 341–359.10.1177/0196859914551767Search in Google Scholar

Rose, Melody. 2007. Safe, Legal, and Unavailable? Abortion Politics in the United States. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Search in Google Scholar

Rovner, Julie. 2006. “‘Partial-Birth Abortion’: Separating Fact from Spin.” National Public Radio, February 21. in Google Scholar

Ryan, Timothy J. 2014. “Reconsidering Moral Issues in Politics.” The Journal of Politics 76: 380–397.10.1017/S0022381613001357Search in Google Scholar

Ryan, Timothy J. 2017. “No Compromise: Political Consequences of Moralized Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 61: 409–423.10.1111/ajps.12248Search in Google Scholar

SAM. 2018. Smart Approaches to Marijuana. Accessed January 21, 2019. in Google Scholar

Schneider, Anne, and Helen Ingram. 1993. “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy.” American Political Science Review 87: 334–347.10.2307/2939044Search in Google Scholar

Smith, Kevin B. 1999. “Clean Thoughts and Dirty Minds; The Politics of Porn.” Policy Studies Journal 27: 723–734.10.1111/j.1541-0072.1999.tb01999.xSearch in Google Scholar

Soss, Joe, and Sanford F. Schram. 2007. “A Public Transformed? Welfare Reform as Policy Feedback.” American Political Science Review 101: 111–127.10.1017/S0003055407070049Search in Google Scholar

Studlar, Donley T., and Gordon J. Burns. 2015. “Toward the Permissive Society? Morality Policy Agendas and Policy Directions in Western Democracies.” Policy Sciences 48: 273–291.10.1007/s11077-015-9218-9Search in Google Scholar

Studlar, Donley T., Alessandro Cagossi, and Robert D. Duval. 2013. “Is Morality Policy Different? Institutional Explanations for Post-War Western Europe.” Journal of European Public Policy 20: 353–371.10.4324/9781315091051-4Search in Google Scholar

Tatalovich, Raymond, Byron W. Daynes, and Theodore J. Lowi, eds. 2014. Moral Controversies in American Politics. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.10.4324/9781315702292Search in Google Scholar

Tucker-Worgs, Tamelyn, and Donn C. Worgs. 2014. “Black Morality Politics: Preachers, Politicians, and Voters in the Battle Over Same-Sex Marriage in Maryland.” Journal of Black Studies 45: 338–362.10.1177/0021934714530157Search in Google Scholar

Ura, Joseph D. 2014. “Backlash and legitimation: Macro political responses to Supreme Court decisions.” American Journal of Political Science, 58: 110–126.10.1111/ajps.12048Search in Google Scholar

Wetstein, Matthew E. 1996. Abortion Rates in the United States: The Influence of Opinion and Policy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wlezien, Christopher. 1995. “The Public as Thermostat: Dynamics of Preferences for Spending.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 981–1000.10.2307/2111666Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2019-06-28

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 30.1.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow