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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 21, 2020

Extra, Extra, Reddit All About it: What Reddit can Teach us About Local Politics

Adam Lê, Emily M. Farris, Jane L. Sumner and Josephine M. Warmka
From the journal The Forum

Abstract

Although local government is a rich, important arena for understanding politics, local politics presents a few challenges for understanding and participating in it. To better explore comparative urban politics, we turn to reddit, a social media, news, and discussion platform. We ask if city subreddits are places of discussion of local politics and what can we learn about the salience of local topics, and about local politics, from the content of these subreddits. Using visualization and text analysis, we find that city subreddits are indeed forums for political discussion, finding that approximately a quarter of the topics on city subreddits are political in nature. We observe that people discuss matters including, but not limited to, taxation, policing and crime, homelessness, and education. We conclude with areas for future study, including, most prominently, the rise of nationalized local politics, such as minimum wage increases and body cameras, increasingly discussed and organized on the national stage.


Corresponding author: Emily M. Farris, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, USA, E-mail:

Appendices
Appendix A

KeywordsLabelPolitical
project, land, construct, airport, fli, floor, flightdevelopment (large-scale)1
school, counti, district, durham, raleigh, fresno, madisoneducation1
gun, fire, kill, shoot, dead, self, armguns1
els, hospit, volunt, sick, doctor, nurs, clinichealthcare1
crime, homeless, drug, mental, test, weed, jailhomelessness and crime1
hous, price, rent, apart, afford, cheaper, landlordhousing1
court, record, camera, depart, sent, suspect, lawyerlaw, crime, and deviance1
support, trump, polit, republican, democrat, presid, impeachnational politics1
mani, peopl, poor, complain, arent, folk, arenpoor people and communities1
line, train, station, bus, class, rail, trackpublic transportation1
racist, logic, racism, argu, argument, impli, insultracism1
stop, turn, sign, across, cross, street, blockstreets and driving1
car, drive, road, traffic, lane, driver, biketraffic1
time, cancel, spectrum, fiber, cabl, atampt, verizonutilities1
vote, win, forget, mayor, council, voter, registvoting: local politics1
money, tax, compani, wage, profit, minimum, financiwages and employment1
dog, door, cat, neighbor, hey, insid, animanimals0
bar, drink, beer, music, breweri, band, chillbars and drinking0
love, nice, enjoy, pictur, beauti, wow, photobeauty0
card, bag, tip, trash, packag, deliveri, delivbuying and selling0
need, gonna, licens, yall, fix, inspect, changcars: driving and repairing0
kid, hard, done, worri, quit, anymor, wouldntchildren, teenagers, and parenting0
san, seattl, portland, oakland, phoenix, bore, franciscocity names0
play, game, late, weekend, team, art, museumevents0
fit, like, youd, type, bit, gym, workoutfitness0
food, eat, pizza, chicken, taco, burger, tastfood0
bet, fort, third, ball, farmer, wayn, fyifun0
day, today, christma, holiday, tomorrow, memori, tonightholidays and celebrations0
town, texa, austin, buffalo, dalla, ohio, omahalocations0
year, old, tulsa, toledo, happi, orlean, newlocations0
citi, chicago, nyc, suburb, urban, detroit, atlantalocations0
park, hill, ave, loop, grove, downtown, westneighborhoods0
guy, wife, ampxb, girl, shes, ladi, brotherrelationships0
store, shop, mall, groceri, santa, cloth, walmartshopping0
friend, meet, mine, date, togeth, hang, metsocializing0
work, leav, stay, alon, dad, comfort, keyvacation and relaxation0
water, snow, winter, lake, weather, trail, summerweather conditions0
yes, piss, holi, shit, aint, well, crapconversation
thank, might, definit, suggest, info, find, nameconversation
get, back, don, can, start, let, soonconversation
thought, guess, didn, didnt, wasnt, knew, sawconversation
post, delet, read, comment, edit, sub, downvotconversation
wonder, hope, kind, appreci, okay, ill, checkconversation
realli, know, damn, pretti, bad, honest, dangconversation
curious, just, fine, bright, shitti, assum, headphonconversation
long, beach, short, bridg, Florida, island, touristconversation
that, lol, sad, haha, probabl, yep, thoughconversation
tell, pleas, news, reddit, rule, concern, contactconversation
awesom, gotta, film, omg, hahaha, congrat, dopeconversation
agre, complet, absolut, total, terribl, couldnt, opinionconversation
dont, think, mean, theyr, understand, bother, anywayconversation
right, now, your, dummi, step, mover, graciousconversation
ask, life, real, answer, quick, welcom, lmaoconversation
never, ive, ever, seen, heard, havent, feltconversation
make, sure, want, sens, differ, doesn, easierconversation
see, come, surpris, crazi, either, glad, unfortunconversation
fuck, yeah, man, hate, dude, suck, stupidconversation
miss, luck, what, fair, good, fell, besidconversation
look, someth, kinda, feel, mayb, odd, seemconversation
one, two, got, least, rememb, shock, trickconversation
still, end, consid, also, imagin, alreadi, actualconversation

Appendix B

KeywordsLabels
new, hous, build, apart, develop, unit, Yorkdevelopment
sure, prett, .train, statio, subway, track, platformpublic transit
said, video, told, write, mail, detail, sentconversation
water, cold, snow, winter, beach, weather, airweather
guy, tell, fuck, dude, reddit, ass, threadconversation
nice, wow, weekend, seat, tree, fli, windowconversation
think, dont, someth, theyr, agre, might, honestconversation
your, white, racist, race, color, jew, racismracism
thing, realli, bad, hard, sad, huh, boreconversation
back, got, thought, damn, glad, rememb, wentconversation
that, noth, absolut, crazi, terribl, close, dickconversation
vote, support, trump, polit, power, republican, democratnational politics
nyc, manhattan, cuItur, tourist, brooklyn, queen, bronxlocations
store, shop, bag, packag, bought, groceri,itemshopping
kid, school, famili, parent, learn, student, youngeducation
dog, eat, pizza, hot, favorit, smell, stylefood
thank, yes, well, wonder, idea, hey, tipconversation
know, don, feel, anyon, didn, anyth, letconversation
get, away, need, youll, take, sick, anywayconversation
crime, ktll, murder, victim, violent, commit, prisonlaw, crime, and deviance
chang, believ, miss, God, simpl, truli, perhapconversation
chicago, south, loop, suburb, move, Florida, coastlocations
job, work, doesn, save, wast, hire, insteadJobs
way, either, better, wors, life, real, aheadconversation
mayb, figur, aren, mine, theyll, jump, bareconversation
sound, order, boomer, flu, nowher, circl, vlbeconversation
legal, weed, licens, dispensari, medic, illeg, drugdrugs
now, old, leav, imagin, what, sleep, drunkconversation
squar, crowd, corner, Lincoln, ave, ice, loganlocations
polic, gun, protect, secur, enforc, cpd, physicpolicing
except, argument, import, cours, local, hospit, datahealthcare
make, doesnt, sens, possibl, differ, mistak, decisconversation
yeah, lol, man, guess, hell, sorri, stupidconversation
put, littl, bit, trash, throw, neighbor, tinitrash
car, drive, driver, bus, ride, bike, laneroads and driving
line, turn, light, red, second, blue, cameratransit
one, never, ive, delet, ever, seen, heardconversation
lot, there, area, depend, especi, oak, etcrealty
just, fine, joke, saw, ask, today, literconversation
everyon, homeless, els, problem, want, mental, shelterhomelessness
world, look, angel, citi, los, seem, partlocations
remov, opinion, refer, downvot, gave, awar, purposconversation
case, happen, evid, clear, fact, court, lawyerlegal issues
love, christma, enjoy, wish, photo, beauti, seecelebrations
tax, cost, increas, rate, per, incom, dollartaxes
time, day, ago, last, week, hour, nexttime
find, hope, can, definit, luck, good, soonconversation
shit, give, straight, piss, wild, holi.supposconversation
night, bar, restaur, drink, game, music, beerbars and drinking
check, ill, name, googl, santa, date, freeconversation
like, cool, alway, kinda, pictur, yup, superconversation
post, read, articl, question, full, pleas, mentionconversation
probabl, come, cant, enough, though, wilshir, leastconversation

Appendix C

Exploring Cities: Dallas and Fort Worth

We choose to focus on Dallas and Fort Worth because it allows us to compare two nearby cities that are, nonetheless, different cities with separate subreddits. In this section, we model how one could use visualization and topic modeling simultaneously to draw out different aspects of discussion. Specifically, the visualization is especially good at understanding emphasis, how words fit together, and how topics fit together, while the STM is useful for understanding which discrete topics exist and for statistical modeling. In this section, we show how we can use that strategy to paint a picture of politics in Dallas and Fort Worth.

As before, we can use the word networks to identify topics in each city and compare and contrast those topics. Unlike before, we ran the STM strictly on data from the Dallas and Fort Worth subreddits (r/Dallas and r/fortworth) to identify topics strictly within those two. The STM found an average of 49 topics within the subreddits, and so we present the results from a model with that number of topics. About half of those topics (24) are topics related to conversations – swearing, thanking people, asking for recommendations, and so forth. Of the remaining 25 substantive topics, we identify 11 of them as political (44% of substantive topics, 22% of all topics). The substantive topics are listed in the table and the complete list of topics is at the end of this appendix.

keywordsLabelpolitical
School, design, budget, student, class, fund, lowereducation1
gun, kill, shoot, murder, arm, death, firearmgun violence/policing1
homeless, background, owner, properti, hundr, remov, senthomelessness1
vote, trump, polit, republican, democrat, impeach, presidnational politics1
park, trail, bike, garag, lake, hike, westpublic spaces1
pay, tax, spend, plan, gas, price, costtaxes and fees1
lane, driver, speed, car, drive, traffic, slowtraffic1
wast, recycl, whatev, money, build, counti, issutrash and recycling1
dart, commut, work, rout, rail, transit, trippublic transit1
group, white, interest, enough, fair, problem, settlementrace1
charg, number, fee, depart, code, ntta, accountfees1
camera, curious, stolen, wash, risk, site, swimbeaches0
dog, kid, anim, adult, sometim, child, youngchildren0
dalla, houston, dfw, austin, citi, big, livecities0
water, cold, weather, milk, air, heat, keepcold weather0
art, music, oak, coffe, magnolia, uptown, coolcool neighborhoods0
now, christma, back, gone, month, move, stressDecember0
burger, fri, chicken, taco, tast, mexican, delicifood0
store, market, local, groceri, box, rent, sellgroceries0
wife, place, bowi, gotta, husband, amp, heymarriage and relationships0
neighborhood, free, yard, hous, bought, craft, roomreal estate0
comment, find, messag, facebook, remind, page, threadsocial media0
game, arlington, locat, sport, stadium, irv, cowboysports0
worth, fort, pictur, great, pic, enjoy, suggestsuggestions0
miss, summer, airport, whole, snow, point, dentonvacations0

Just as we found before, the visualizations and the STM provide us with roughly similar information. The visualizations indicate that discussion in Dallas predominantly revolves around topics of public transportation, traffic, sales tax, and law enforcement. Fort Worth however extends beyond these and includes topics dealing with education, taxes in general, and crime and violence. Both cities contain word groups around the topic of taxes. In Dallas this is sales and property tax, with slightly more emphasis on sales. In Fort Worth the discussion is income and property tax, with more weight on income taxes. Beyond property tax, there is very little discussion of housing matters in either city. There is no mention (excluding property tax) in Dallas and only a small relationship in Fort Worth on “real estate” and “home own”. This would suggest that housing matters (such as regulation or rent control) are not so important in these cities. (This is in very strong contrast to LA where discussion is almost exclusively on housing matters and not on law enforcement and violence).

The STM largely confirms this: taxes and fees emerge in two separate topics, public transit and traffic have one topic each, as does education. Yet the STM also turns up topics in the data that do not emerge in the visualization. For instance, the STM finds an interesting discussion of the costs of recycling and trash collection in the wake of a Chinese ban on tax imports (Zalani 2018). There is also a topic discussing homelessness.

The topic of law enforcement occurs in the visualizations of reddit data in both Dallas and Fort Worth, but the way the topic is discussed suggests the conversation may be at least partially unrelated to the murders. Although the phrases “law enforcement”, “police officer”, and “background check” are common, as is the word “gun”, the topics are neither especially common, nor necessarily connected, and, unlike most discussion of the murders, there is no mention of or connection to race. Instead, the visualizations tell a story about personal protection and gun control. In Dallas, the word “gun” occurs most frequently around the words “bad” and “guy” suggesting that the discussion around guns in Dallas may focus more on the right to have them to protect oneself rather than a conversation on their use following the murder. Similarly, in Fort Worth, the word “gun” is frequently associated with “law enforcement”, “gun law”, “gun control”. This suggests even more strongly that discussion around guns is more likely to be a policy issue of the second amendment for local government in Fort Worth. This is supported by the word pairs “self-defense” and “mass shootings” in Fort Worth, further suggesting that in both cities, conversation about guns is about both policy and personal protection, not officer-involved shootings.

In the STM table below, there is a single topic that brings together all of these words, and the frequent and exclusive (FREX) keywords associated with this topic – gun,kill,shoot,murder,arm,death,firearm – seem to indicate less of a discussion of bad guys and personal protection, and more of a discussion of murder and death. (Other word types associated with this category include “cop” and the stem “polic”, indicating police or policing.)

KeywordsLabelPolitical
school, design, budget, student, class, fund, lowereducation1
gun, kill, shoot, murder, arm, death, firearmgun violence/policing1
homeless, background, owner, properti, hundr, remov, senthomelessness1
vote, trump, polit, republican, democrat, impeach, presidnational politics1
park, trail, bike, garag, lake, hike, westpublic spaces1
pay, tax, spend, plan, gas, price, costtaxes and fees1
lane, driver, speed, car, drive, traffic, slowtraffic1
wast, recycl, whatev, money, build, counti, issutrash and recycling1
dart, commut, work, rout, rail, transit, trippublic transit1
group, white, interest, enough, fair, problem, settlementrace1
charg, number, fee, depart, code, ntta, accountfees1
camera, curious, stolen, wash, risk, site, swimbeaches0
dog, kid, anim, adult, sometim, child, youngchildren0
dalla, houston, dfw, austin, citi, big, livecities0
water, cold, weather, milk, air, heat, keepcold weather0
art, music, oak, coffe, magnolia, uptown, coolcool neighborhoods0
now, christma, back, gone, month, move, stressDecember0
burger, fri, chicken, taco, tast, mexican, delicifood0
store, market, local, groceri, box, rent, sellgroceries0
wife, place, bowi, gotta, husband, amp, heymarriage and relationships0
neighborhood, free, yard, hous, bought, craft, roomreal estate0
comment, find, messag, facebook, remind, page, threadsocial media0
game, arlington, locat, sport, stadium, irv, cowboysports0
worth, fort, pictur, great, pic, enjoy, suggestsuggestions0
miss, summer, airport, whole, snow, point, dentonvacations0
got, thought, wonder, glad, door, took, knewconversation
day, last, year, week, ago, time, happiconversation
say, sign, read, serious, articl, titl, eitherconversation
see, get, ticket, wait, imagin, cant, insurconversation
still, need, guess, theyr, run, happen, dudeconversation
pretti, realli, good, luck, though, damn, stuffconversation
like, mayb, felt, kinda, dad, youd, randomconversation
tri, watch, video, super, photo, movi, lasconversation
yes, question, reddit, hell, rather, answer, apartconversation
that, your, dont, crazi, well, quit, saidconversation
idea, googl, use, bad, app, map, madeconversation
sorri, probabl, suppos, consid, less, trash, normalconversation
thank, lol, know, ill, post, definit, infoconversation
one, there, anoth, isn, least, wish, yeaconversation
kind, don, can, home, folk, real, paperconversation
thing, differ, famili, alreadi, weird, end, noticconversation
look, someth, might, alway, sound, better, feelconversation
mean, exact, doesn, doesnt, sure, dumb, entirconversation
hope, make, sub, downvot, haha, wasnt, fineconversation
ice, tell, forgot, joke, weed, isnt, idkconversation
didn, anyth, didnt, even, talk, yep, botherconversation
fuck, yeah, shit, man, lmao, gonna, hardconversation
ive, seen, heard, rememb, went, never, yesterdayconversation
just, York, think, frustrat, remain, taught, describconversation

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Published Online: 2020-09-21

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