Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 21, 2020

How Katrina Shaped Trust and Efficacy in New Orleans

Mirya R. Holman ORCID logo and J. Celeste Lay ORCID logo
From the journal The Forum

Abstract

In 2005, Hurricane Katrina led to substantial demographic changes in New Orleans. The city lost large numbers of its African American population and became more diverse with the arrival of more Latino migrants and more highly educated, affluent white newcomers. Demographic change has the potential to depress political trust, efficacy, and trust in others. In this essay, we show that more than 10 years after Katrina, neither white nor Black New Orleanians trust local or national government. Black residents, particularly Black women, are generally more distrustful of their neighbors, whites, Latinos, and newcomers in the city. White newcomers are more efficacious and trusting than pre-Katrina white residents. These findings provide more evidence for the thesis that race and place shape trust and that Katrina continues to have an impact on New Orleans in distinctly racialized ways.


Corresponding author: Mirya R. Holman, Associate Professor of Political Science, Tulane University, New Orleans, USA, E-mail:

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the Lavin Bernick Faculty Grants at Tulane University.

References

Acharya, A., M. Blackwell, and M. Sen. 2018. Deep Roots: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Aldrich, D. P. 2012. Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Alesina, A., and E. La Ferrara. 2000. “Participation in Heterogeneous Communities.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (3): 847–904, https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300554935.Search in Google Scholar

Alesina, A., and E. La Ferrara. 2002. “Who Trusts Others?.” Journal of Public Economics 85 (2): 207–34, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0047-2727(01)00084-6.Search in Google Scholar

Alesina, A., R. Baqir, and W. Easterly. 1999. “Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (4): 1243–84, https://doi.org/10.1162/003355399556269.Search in Google Scholar

Birkland, T., and S. Waterman. 2008. “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38 (4): 692–714, https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjn020.Search in Google Scholar

Blodorn, A., L. T. O’Brien, S. Cheryan, and S. Brooke Vick. 2016. “Understanding Perceptions of Racism in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: The Roles of System and Group Justification.” Social Justice Research 29 (2): 139–58, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-016-0259-9.Search in Google Scholar

Brown, N. E., and S. A. Gershon, eds. 2016. Distinct Identities: Minority Women in U.S. Politics. New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Burns, P. F., and M. O. Thomas. 2004. “Governors and the Development Regime in New Orleans.” Urban Affairs Review 39 (6): 791–812, https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087404264918.Search in Google Scholar

Burns, P. F., and M. O. Thomas. 2006. “The Failure of the Nonregime.” Urban Affairs Review 41 (4): 517–27, https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087405284888.Search in Google Scholar

Burns, P. F., and M. O. Thomas. 2015. Reforming New Orleans: The Contentious Politics of Change in the Big Easy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Carr, S. 2014. Hope Against Hope: Three Schools, One City, and the Struggle to Educate America’s Children: Bloomsbury Press.Search in Google Scholar

Casselman, B. 2015. Katrina Washed Away New Orleans’s Black Middle Class: FiveThirtyEight (blog). August 24, 2015. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/katrina-washed-away-new-orleanss-black-middle-class/.Search in Google Scholar

Cassese, E. C., T. Barnes, and R. Branton. 2015. “Racializing Gender: Public Opinion at the Intersection.” Politics & Gender 11 (1): 1–26.Search in Google Scholar

Citrin, J., D. P. Green, C Muste, and C. D. Wong. 1997. “Public Opinion toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” The Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858–81, https://doi.org/10.2307/2998640.Search in Google Scholar

Coffé, H., and B. Geys. 2006. “Community Heterogeneity: A Burden for the Creation of Social Capital?.” Social Science Quarterly 87 (5): 1053–72, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00415.x.Search in Google Scholar

Donato, K. M., N. Trujillo-Pagan, C. L. BankstonIII, and A. Singer. 2007. “Reconstructing New Orleans after Katrina: The Emergence of an Immigrant Labor Market.” In The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, 217–34, edited by Brunsma, D. L., D. Overfelt, and J. S. Picou. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Search in Google Scholar

Dynes, R. 2006. “Social Capital: Dealing with Community Emergencies.” Homeland Security Affairs 2 (2): 1–27.Search in Google Scholar

Ehrenfeucht, R., and M. Nelson. 2013. “Young Professionals as Ambivalent Change Agents in New Orleans after the 2005 Hurricanes.” Urban Studies 50 (4): 825–41, https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098012452323.Search in Google Scholar

Farris, E. M., and M. R. Holman. 2014. “Social Capital and Solving the Puzzle of Black Women’s Political Participation.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 3 (2): 331–49, https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2014.925813.Search in Google Scholar

Fieldhouse, E., and D. Cutts. 2010. “Does Diversity Damage Social Capital? A Comparative Study of Neighbourhood Diversity and Social Capital in the US and Britain.” Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 43 (2): 289–318, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0008423910000065.Search in Google Scholar

Finch, C., C. T. Emrich, and S. L. Cutter. 2010. “Disaster Disparities and Differential Recovery in New Orleans.” Population and Environment 31 (4): 179–202, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-009-0099-8.Search in Google Scholar

Fussell, E. 2014. “Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy in the United States.” Annual Review of Sociology 40: 479–98, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043325.Search in Google Scholar

Fussell, E., N. Sastry, and M. VanLandingham. 2010. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Return Migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.” Population and Environment 31 (1–3): 20–42, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-009-0092-2.Search in Google Scholar

Gladstone, D., and J. Préau. 2008. “Gentrification in Tourist Cities: Evidence from New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina.” Housing Policy Debate 19 (1): 137–75, https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2008.9521629.Search in Google Scholar

Gotham, K. F. 2005. “Tourism Gentrification: The Case of New Orleans’ Vieux Carre (French Quarter).” Urban Studies 42 (7): 1099–121, https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980500120881.Search in Google Scholar

Gotham, K. F., and M. Greenberg. 2014. Crisis Cities: Disaster and Redevelopment in New York and New Orleans: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Green, D. P, D. Z. Strolovitch, and J. Wong. 1998. “Defended Neighborhoods, Integration, and Racially Motivated Crime.” American Journal of Sociology 104 (2): 372–403, https://doi.org/10.1086/210042.Search in Google Scholar

Groen, J. A., and A. E. Polivka. 2010. “Going Home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of Return Migration and Changes in Affected Areas.” Demography 47 (4): 821–44, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03214587.Search in Google Scholar

Heldman, C., and M. Israel-Trummel. 2012. “The Double-Edged Sword of Disaster Volunteerism: A Study of New Orleans Rebirth Movement Participants.” Journal of Political Science Education 8 (4): 311–32, https://doi.org/10.1080/15512169.2012.729444.Search in Google Scholar

Hetherington, M. J. 1998. “The Political Relevance of Political Trust.” American Political Science Review 92 (04): 791–808, https://doi.org/10.2307/2586304.Search in Google Scholar

Hetherington, M. J. 2005. Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of American Liberalism: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Holman, M. R. 2016. “The Differential Effect of Resources on Political Participation across Gender and Racial Groups.” In Distinct Identities: Minority Women in U.S. Politics, edited by N. E Brown, and S. A. Gershon. New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Holman, M. R., and J. C. Lay. 2020. Are You Picking Up What I’m Laying Down? Ideology in Low-Information Elections: Urban Affairs Review Forthcoming.Search in Google Scholar

Holman, M. R., and M. C. Schneider. 2018. “Gender, Race, and Political Ambition.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 6 (2): 264–80, https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2016.1208105.Search in Google Scholar

Holman, M. R., and C. Schwanz. 2016. The Status of Women in New Orleans since Katrina. New Orleans, LA: Newcomb College Institute, Tulane University. https://www2.tulane.edu/newcomb/upload/8-24-16-Status-of-Women-Report.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Kalmoe, N. P., and S. Piston. 2013. “Is Implicit Prejudice against Blacks Politically Consequential? Evidence from the AMP.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (1): 305–22, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfs051.Search in Google Scholar

Kesler, C., and I. Bloemraad. 2010. “Does Immigration Erode Social Capital? The Conditional Effects of Immigration-Generated Diversity on Trust, Membership, and Participation across 19 Countries, 1981–2000.” Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 43 (2): 319–47, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0008423910000077.Search in Google Scholar

Key, V. O. 1949. Southern Politics. New York: Knopf.Search in Google Scholar

Laska, S., and B. H. Morrow. 2006. “Social Vulnerabilities and Hurricane Katrina: An Unnatural Disaster in New Orleans.” Marine Technology Society Journal 40 (4): 12–26. https://doi.org/10.4031/002533206787353123.Search in Google Scholar

Lay, J. C. 2009. “Race, Retrospective Voting, and Disasters The Re-Election of C. Ray Nagin after Hurricane Katrina.” Urban Affairs Review 44 (5): 645–62, https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087408326900.Search in Google Scholar

Lin, N. 1999. “Building a Network Theory of Social Capital.” Connections 22 (1): 28–51.Search in Google Scholar

Luttmer, E. F. P. 2001. “Group Loyalty and the Taste for Redistribution.” Journal of Political Economy 109 (3): 500–28, https://doi.org/10.1086/321019.Search in Google Scholar

Malhotra, N., and A. G. Kuo. 2008. “Attributing Blame: The Public’s Response to Hurricane Katrina.” The Journal of Politics 70 (1): 120–35, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022381607080097.Search in Google Scholar

Marschall, M. J., and D. Stolle. 2004. “Race and the City: Neighborhood Context and the Development of Generalized Trust.” Political Behavior 26 (2): 125–53, https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pobe.0000035960.73204.64.Search in Google Scholar

Ondercin, H. L., and D. Jones-White. 2011. “Gender Jeopardy: What Is the Impact of Gender Differences in Political Knowledge on Political Participation?*.” Social Science Quarterly 92 (3): 675–94, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00787.x.Search in Google Scholar

Piston, S. 2010. “How Explicit Racial Prejudice Hurt Obama in the 2008 Election.” Political Behavior 32 (4): 431–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-010-9108-y.Search in Google Scholar

Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. New York: Simon & Schuster.Search in Google Scholar

Reinhardt, G. Y. 2015. “Race, Trust, and Return Migration the Political Drivers of Post-Disaster Resettlement.” Political Research Quarterly 68 (2): 350–62, https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912915575790.Search in Google Scholar

Reinhardt, G. Y. 2019. “The Intersectionality of Disasters’ Effects on Trust in Public Officials.” Social Science Quarterly 100 (7): 2567–80, https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12727.Search in Google Scholar

Rittenhouse, D. R., L. A. Schmidt, K. J. Wu, and J. Wiley. 2012. “The Post-Katrina Conversion of Clinics in New Orleans to Medical Homes Shows Change is Possible, but Hard to Sustain.” Health Affairs 31 (8): 1729–38, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0402.Search in Google Scholar

Sears, D. O., C. P. Hensler, and L. K. Speer. 1979. “Whites’ Opposition to“ Busing”: Self-Interest or Symbolic Politics?.” The American Political Science Review 73 (2): 369–84, https://doi.org/10.2307/1954885.Search in Google Scholar

Sharkey, P. 2007. “Survival and Death in New Orleans: An Empirical Look at the Human Impact of Katrina.” Journal of Black Studies 37 (4): 482–501, https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934706296188.Search in Google Scholar

Silva, A., and C. Skulley. 2019. “Always Running: Candidate Emergence among Women of Color over Time.” Political Research Quarterly 72 (2): 342–59, https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912918789289.Search in Google Scholar

Stivers, C. 2007. “‘So Poor and So Black’: Hurricane Katrina, Public Administration, and the Issue of Race.” Public Administration Review 67 (s1): 48–56, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00812.x.Search in Google Scholar

Wickes, R., R. Zahnow, G. White, and L. Mazerolle. 2014. “Ethnic Diversity and Its Impact on Community Social Cohesion and Neighborly Exchange.” Journal of Urban Affairs 36 (1): 51–78, https://doi.org/10.1111/juaf.12015.Search in Google Scholar

Wolak, J. 2018. “Feelings of Political Efficacy in the Fifty States.” Political Behavior 40 (3): 763–84, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-017-9421-9.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2020-09-21

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston