This paper presents a beyond state-of-the-art, sweeping microwave asphalt radar mounted on a small radio controlled four-wheel-drive rover. The quasi-monostatic, remote-controllable radar operates at Ku-band and has an output power of +10 dBm. Detection follows the zero intermediate frequency principle. The sweep width allows for a depth resolution better than 10 mm. With its four microprocessors and laptop computer processing, the radar system can provide pavement permittivity data with an uncertainty close to 0.1. This is a considerable advancement when applying electromagnetic measurement techniques for applications where near surface or thin surface layer measurements are needed.
Authors wish to thank the Finnish Transport Agency and Pavement Engineer Katri Eskola for the support in this research. This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 “Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar”.
 T. Saarenketo and T. Scullion, “Road evaluation with ground penetrating radar,” J. Appl. Geophys., vol. 43, pp. 119–138, 2000.Search in Google Scholar
 N. Diamanti and D. Redman, “Field observations and numerical models of GPR response from vertical pavement cracks,” J. Appl. Geophys., vol. 81, pp. 106–116, 2012.Search in Google Scholar
 D. J.Daniels, Ed., Ground Penetrating Radar. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2004.Search in Google Scholar
 M.-K. Olkkonen, P. Eskelinen, E. Huuskonen-Snicker, T. Pellinen, and P. Olmos Martinez, “An evaluation of the permittivity of two different rock types using microwave resonator and waveguide cutoff principles,” Frequenz, vol. 69, pp. 75–82, 2014.Search in Google Scholar
 M. -K. Olkkonen, P. Eskelinen, E. Huuskonen-Snicker, T. Pellinen, and P. Olmos Martinez, A New Microwave Asphalt Radar. RADAR 2014 (International Radar Conference 2014), Lille, France, Oct. 13–17, 2014.Search in Google Scholar
 F. Terman, Electronic and Radio Engineering. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1955, pp. 1015–1040.Search in Google Scholar
 S. Ramo and J. Whinnery, Fields and Waves in Modern Radio. New York, NY: John Wiley and sons, 1960, pp. 496–557.Search in Google Scholar
 M.Odyniec, Ed., RF and Microwave Oscillator Design. Norwood: Artech House, 2002, pp. 295–299.Search in Google Scholar
 J. Scheer, “Radar reflectivity calibration procedures,” in Techniques of Radar Reflectivity Measurement, N. Currie, Ed. Norwood: Artech House, 1983, pp. 109–132.Search in Google Scholar
 E. Knott, J. Shaeffer and M. Tuley, Radar Cross Section, 2nd ed. Norwood: Artech House, 1993, pp. 225–267.Search in Google Scholar
 M. Zych, Measuring experiment of FMCW ground penetrating radar. In Proc. International Radar Symposium, Leipzig, Germany, Sep. 7–9, 2011. pp. 99–104.Search in Google Scholar
©2015 by De Gruyter