Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 15, 2022

Terahertz subwavelength sensing with bio-functionalized germanium fano-resonators

  • Carlos Alvarado Chavarin , Elena Hardt , Oliver Skibitzki , Thomas Voss , Mohammed Eissa , Davide Spirito , Giovanni Capellini , Leonetta Baldassarre , Julia Flesch , Jacob Piehler , Changjiang You ORCID logo , Sönke Grüssing , Friedhard Römer and Bernd Witzigmann ORCID logo EMAIL logo
From the journal Frequenz

Abstract

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) based on highly doped semiconductors microstructures, such as antennas, can be engineered to exhibit resonant features at THz frequencies. In this work, we demonstrate plasmonic antennas with increased quality factor LSPRs from Fano coupling to dark modes. We also discuss the advances in the biofunctionalization of n-doped Ge antennas for specific protein immobilization and cell interfacing. Finally, albumin biolayers with a thickness of a few hundred nanometers are used to demonstrate the performance of the fano-coupled n-Ge antennas as sensors. A resonant change of over 10% in transmission, due to the presence of the biolayer, can be detected within a bandwidth of only 20 GHz.


Corresponding author: Bernd Witzigmann, Department of Electrical-Electronic-Communication Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, E-mail:

Award Identifier / Grant number: ESSENCE 272553338

Acknowledgment

The work presented has been funded in part by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the project ESSENCE (Electromagnetic Sensors for the Life Sciences).

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: Funder Name: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Funder Id: 10.13039/501100001659, Grant Number: ESSENCE Program 272553338.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

[1] Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology, New York, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[2] N. Rothbart, O. Holz, R. Koczulla, K. Schmalz, and H.-W. Hübers, “Analysis of human breath by millimeter-wave/terahertz spectroscopy,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 2719, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122719.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[3] M. Danciu, T. Alexa-Stratulat, C. Stefanescu, et al.., “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging: a cutting-edge method for diagnosing digestive cancers,” Materials, vol. 12, no. 1519, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091519.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[4] M. Naftaly, N. Vieweg, and A. Deninger, “Industrial applications of terahertz sensing: state of play,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 4203, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194203.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[5] A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, “THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 3797–3805, 2002, https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/47/21/318.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] K. Schmalz, N. Rothbart, M. H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger, and H.-W. Hübers, “Transmitters and receivers in SiGe BiCMOS technology for sensitive gas spectroscopy at 222 - 270 GHz,” AIP Adv., vol. 9, no. 1, 2019, Art no. 015213, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5066261.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Z. Hu, M. Kaynak, and R. Han, “High-power radiation at 1 THz in silicon: a fully scalable array using a multi-functional radiating mesh structure,” IEEE J. Solid State Circ., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1313–1327, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/jssc.2017.2786682.Search in Google Scholar

[8] P. Hillger, M. van Delden, U. S. M. Thanthrige, et al.., “Toward mobile integrated electronic systems at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared, Millim. Terahertz Waves, vol. 41, pp. 846–869, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10762-020-00699-x.Search in Google Scholar

[9] S. Enoch, Plasmonics: From Basics to Advanced Topics, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012.10.1007/978-3-642-28079-5Search in Google Scholar

[10] M. Bettenhausen, F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, et al.., “Germanium plasmon enhanced resonators for label-free terahertz protein sensing,” Frequenz, vol. 72, nos. 3–4, pp. 113–122, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1515/freq-2018-0009.Search in Google Scholar

[11] M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, et al.., “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 123, no. 17, 2018, Art no. 175305, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5022532.Search in Google Scholar

[12] E. Mauriz, “Recent progress in plasmonic biosensing schemes for virus detection,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 17, 2020, https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174745.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[13] S. Gruessing, B. Witzigmann, F. Roemer, et al.., Modeling of Plasmonic Semiconductor THz antennas in Square and Hexagonal Array Arrangements, San FranciscoUnited States, SPIE OPTO, California, 2020.10.1117/12.2543553Search in Google Scholar

[14] C. A. Chavarin, E. Hardt, S. Gruessing, et al.., “n-type Ge/Si antennas for THz sensing,” Opt Express, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 7680–7689, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.418382.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] M. F. Limonov, “Fano resonance for applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 703–771, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1364/aop.420731.Search in Google Scholar

[16] U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev., vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1866–1878, 1961, https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.124.1866.Search in Google Scholar

[17] R. Xu, Z. Zhang, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Terahertz Fano resonances induced by combining metamaterial modes of the same symmetry,” Opt. Express, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 3932–3941, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.383713.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Q. Xie, G. Dong, B. Wang, and W. Huang, “High-Q fano resonance in terahertz frequency based on an asymmetric metamaterial resonator,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., vol. 13, no. 294, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2677-0.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[19] R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt Express, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 6312–6319, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.19.006312.Search in Google Scholar

[20] B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun., p. 5082, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6082.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] F. Gambino, M. Giaquinto, A. Ricciardi, and A. Cusano, “A review on dielectric resonant gratings: mitigation of finite size and Gaussian beam size effects,” Results Opt., vol. 6, no. 100210, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rio.2021.100210.Search in Google Scholar

[22] T. Wedeking, S. Löchte, O. Birkholz, et al.., “Spatiotemporally controlled reorganization of signaling complexes in the plasma membrane of living cells,” Small, vol. 11, pp. 5912–5918, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201502132.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] H. Gotzke and M. Kilisch, M. Martínez-Carranza, et al.., “The ALFA-tag is a highly versatile tool for nanobody-based bioscience applications,” Nat. Commun., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 4403, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12301-7.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[24] C. You and J. Piehler, “Multivalent chelators for spatially and temporally controlled protein functionalization,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 406, no. 14, pp. 3345–3357, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7803-y.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[25] J. Flesch, M. Bettenhausen, M. Kazmierczak, et al., “Three-dimensional interfacing of cells with hierarchical silicon nano/microstructures for midinfrared interrogation of in situ captured proteins,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, pp. 8049–8059, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22421.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] L. Roufegarinejad, A. Jahanban-Esfahlan, S. Sajed-Amin, and M. V. Panahi-Azar, “Molecular interactions of thymol with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic and molecular docking studies,” J. Mol. Recogn., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/jmr.2704.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] S. Ge, J. Lu, M. Yan, F. Yu, J. Yu, and X. Sun, “Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor between quantum dot donors and neutral red acceptors and its detection of BSA in micelles,” Dyes Pigments, pp. 304–308, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2011.05.013.Search in Google Scholar

[28] S. Balendhran, S. Walia, M. Alsaif, et al.., “Field effect biosensing platform based on 2D α-MoO3,” ACS Nano, pp. 9753–9760, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1021/nn403241f.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[29] S. Schintke and E. Frau, “Modulated 3D cross-correlation dynamic light scattering applications for optical biosensing and time-dependent monitoring of nanoparticle-biofluid interactions,” Appl. Sci, vol. 10, no. 24, p. 8969, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248969.Search in Google Scholar

[30] H. Arwin, “Optical properties of thin layers of bovine serum albumin, γ-globulin, and hemoglobin,” Appl. Spectrosc, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 313–318, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702864509204.Search in Google Scholar

[31] E. J. Cohn, W. L. Hughes, and J. H. Weare, “Preparation and properties of serum and plasma proteins. XIII. Crystallization of serum albumins from ethanol-water mixtures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., pp. 1753–1761, 1947, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01199a051.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[32] M. Corti, J. Guralnik, M. Salive, and J. Sorkin, “Serum albumin level and physical disability as predictors of mortality in older persons,” JAMA, vol. 272, no. 13, pp. 1036–1042, 1994, https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520130074036.Search in Google Scholar

[33] T. Wedeking, S. Löchte, C. P. Richter, M. Bhagawati, J. Piehler, and C. You, “Single cell GFP-trap reveals stoichiometry and dynamics of cytosolic protein complexes,” Nano Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 3610–3615, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01153.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] S. Löchte, S. Waichman, O. Beutel, C. You, and J. Piehler, “Live cell micropatterning reveals the dynamics of signaling complexes at the plasma membrane,” JCB (J. Cell Biol.), vol. 207, no. 3, pp. 407–418, 2014.10.1083/jcb.201406032Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[35] G. Collins, D. Aureau, J. D. Holmes, A. Etcheberry, and C. O’Dwyer, “Germanium oxide removal by citric acid and thiol passivation from citric acid-terminated Ge(100),” Langmuir, vol. 30, no. 47, pp. 14123–14127, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1021/la503819z.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[36] S. Wilmes, M. Staufenbiel, D. Liße, et al.., “Triple-color super-resolution imaging of live cells: resolving submicroscopic receptor organization in the plasma membrane,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., vol. 51, pp. 4868–4871, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201200853.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2022-04-12
Accepted: 2022-08-01
Published Online: 2022-08-15
Published in Print: 2022-12-16

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 22.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/freq-2022-0078/html
Scroll to top button