Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access February 13, 2015

2D and 3D seismic measurements to evaluate thecollapse risk of an important prehistoric cave insoft carbonate rock

  • Giovanni Leucci EMAIL logo and Lara De Giorgi
From the journal Open Geosciences


The southern part of the Apulia region (theSalento peninsula) has been the site of at least fifteen collapseevents due to sinkholes in the last twenty years. Themajority of these occurred in "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites).Man–made and/or natural cavities are sometimesassets of historical and archaeological significance.This paper provides a methodology for the evaluation ofsinkhole hazard in "soft" carbonate rocks, combining seismicand mine engineering methods.Acase study of a naturalcavity which is called Grotta delle Veneri is illustrated.For this example the approach was: i) 2D and 3D seismicmethods to study the physical-mechanical characteristicsof the rock mass that constitutes the roof of the cave; andii) scaled span empirical analysis in order to evaluate theinstability of the crown pillar’s caves.


Search in Google Scholar

[1] Cremonesi G., La passione per l’origine, Giliano Cremonesi e lapassione preistorica nel salento, 1987, 213–245.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Leucci G., De Giorgi L., Integrated geophysical surveys to assessthe structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance,Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 5, 2005,17-22.10.5194/nhess-5-17-2005Search in Google Scholar

[3] Catani F., Fanti R., Moreti S., Geomorphologic risk assessment forcultural heritage conservation, in: Allison R.J. (Ed.), Applied Geomorphology:theory and practice, John Wiley & Sons, LTD, WestSussex, England, 2002, 480.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Sánchez M. A., Foyo A., Tomillo C., Iriarte E., Geological risk assessmentof the area surrounding Altamira Cave: A proposed NaturalRisk Index and Safety Factor for protection of prehistoriccaves Engineering Geology 94, 2007, 180–200.10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.08.004Search in Google Scholar

[5] Veni G., A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmentalimpact assessments in karst areas, Geomorphology 31,1999, 151-180.10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00077-XSearch in Google Scholar

[6] Lin Z., Hatherly P., Vozoff K., Engels O. G., Smith G. H., Joint applicationof seismic and electromagnetic methods to coal characterisationat west cliff colliery, New South Wales, Experiment inGeophysics 27(4), 1996, 205–215.10.1071/EG996205Search in Google Scholar

[7] Dobroka M., Gyulai A., Ormos T., Csokas J., Dresen L., 1991. Joininversion algorithm of seismic and geoelectric data recorded inan underground coal mine. Geophysical Prospecting 39(5), 1991,643–666.10.1111/j.1365-2478.1991.tb00334.xSearch in Google Scholar

[8] Heikkinen E.J., Saksa P.J., Integrating geophysical data intobedrock model in site characterization for nuclear waste disposal.60th Mtg. Eur. Assoc. Expl Geophys., Expanded Abstracts,vol. I. EAGE, The Netherlands, 1998, Session 4–49.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Santarato G., Nasser A., Chiara P., Prospezioni geofisiche in areaurbana, Geologia Tecnica e Ambiente 4/98, 1998, 43–52.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Cardarelli E., Marrone C., Orlando L., Evaluation of tunnel stabilityusing integrated geophysical methods, Journal of AppliedGeophysics 52, 2003, 93–102.10.1016/S0926-9851(02)00242-2Search in Google Scholar

[11] Leucci G., De Giorgi L., Microgravimetric and ground penetratingradar geophysical methods to map the shallow karstic cavitiesnetwork in a coastal area (marina di capilungo, lecce –italy),Exploration Geophysics 41, 2010, 178-188.10.1071/EG09029Search in Google Scholar

[12] Crampin S., McGonigle R., Bamford D., Estimatine crack parametersfrom observation of P-wave velocity anisotropy, Geophysics45, 1980, 361–375.10.1190/1.1441086Search in Google Scholar

[13] Boadu F. K., Fractured rock mass characterization parametersand seismic properties: analytical studies, J. Appl. Geophys. 36,1997, 1–19.10.1016/S0926-9851(97)00008-6Search in Google Scholar

[14] Kahraman S., The effects of fracture roughness on P-wave velocity,Eng. Geol. 63, 2002, 347–350.10.1016/S0013-7952(01)00089-8Search in Google Scholar

[15] Leucci G. and De Giorgi L., Experimental studies on the effects offracture on the P and S wave velocity propagation in sedimentaryrock ("Calcarenite del Salento"), Engineering Geology 84, 2006,130–142.10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.12.004Search in Google Scholar

[16] Hutchinson D. J., Phillips C. and Cascante G., Risk considerationsfor crown pillar stability assessment for mine closure planning,Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 20, 2002, 41-63.10.1023/A:1013852722768Search in Google Scholar

[17] Barton N., Some new Q-value correlations to assist in site characterisationand tunnel design, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 39,2002, 185-216.10.1016/S1365-1609(02)00011-4Search in Google Scholar

[18] Carter T. G., A new approach to surface crown pillar design. 16thCanadian Rock Mechanics Symp., Laurentian University, Sudbury,1992, 75-84.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Barton N., Lien R. and Lunde J., Engineering classification ofrockmasses for the design of tunnel support, Rock Mech. 6(4),1974, 189-236.10.1007/BF01239496Search in Google Scholar

[20] Carter T. G. and Miller R. I., Crown pillar risk assessment planningaid for cost-effective mine closure remediation, Trans. Instn.Min. Metall. 104, 1995, A41-A57.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Leucci G., I metodi elettromagnetico impulsivo, elettrico e sismicotomografico a rifrazione per la risoluzione di problematicheambientali: sviluppi metodologici e applicazioni, PhD tesi in Geophysicsfor Environmental and Territory, University of Messina,2004.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Sandmeier K. J., Reflexw 6.0 Manual, Sandmeier Software,Zipser Strabe 1, D-76227 Karlsruhe, Germany, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Gilbert P., Iterative methods for three-dimensional reconstructionof an object from projections, Journal of Theoretical Biology36, 1972, 105-117.10.1016/0022-5193(72)90180-4Search in Google Scholar

[24] Krajewski C., Dresen L., Gelbke C., Ruter H., Iterative tomographicmethods to locate low-velocity anomalies: a modelstudy, Geophysical Prospecting 37, 1989, 717-751.10.1111/j.1365-2478.1989.tb02231.xSearch in Google Scholar

[25] Carrozzo M. T., Leucci G., Margiotta S., Mazzone F., Negri S.,Integrated geophysical and geological investigations applied tosedimentary rock mass characterization Annals of Geophysics51(1), 2008, 191-202.10.4401/ag-3044Search in Google Scholar

[26] Parasnis D. S., Principles of Applied Geophysics, fifth ed., Chapmanand Hall, London, 1997.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Hayashi K., Takahashi T., High resolution seismic refractionmethod using surface and borehole data for site characterizationof rocks, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences38, 2001, 807-813.10.1016/S1365-1609(01)00045-4Search in Google Scholar

[28] Morey D., Schuster G. T., Paleoseismicity of the Oquirrh fault,Utah from shallow seismic tomography, Geophysical Journal International138, 1999, 25-35.10.1046/j.1365-246x.1999.00814.xSearch in Google Scholar

[29] Nemeth T., Normark E., Qin F., Dynamic smoothing in cross-welltraveltime tomography, Geophysics 62, 1997, 168-176.10.1190/1.1444115Search in Google Scholar

[30] Leucci G., Greco F., De Giorgi L., Mauceri R., Three-dimensionalimage of seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivitytomography survey in the castle of Occhiolà (Sicily, Italy), Journalof Archaeological Science 34, 2007, 233-242.10.1016/j.jas.2006.04.010Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-05-29
Accepted: 2014-06-23
Published Online: 2015-02-13

© 2015 Giovanni Leucci, Lara De Giorgi

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 6.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button