Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access November 26, 2015

A radiocarbon-dated cave sequence and thePleistocene/Holocene transition in Hungary

  • Pál Sümegi and Katalin Náfrádi
From the journal Open Geosciences


The Petény Cave located on the Hungarian Highlandsyielded one of the most well-documented vertebratefauna of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Hungary. Inaddition to the vertebrate remains, considerable numbersof mollusc shells and charcoals were retrieved from theprofile of the rock shelter. Furthermore, a pollen sequenceclose to the cavewas also evaluated in order to reconstructthe flora of the region. A new radiocarbon analysis of samplesfrom the Petény Cave was used to correlate data ofdifferent methods and to correct the earlier outcomes. Thecave sequence exposes layers from 15.180 cal BP to 483 calBP. Nevertheless, based on our new radiocarbon data, thesequence is incomplete and layers corresponding to thePleistocene/Holocene boundary are missing from the profile.The results of our radiocarbon analysis clearly supportconsiderable amounts of thermo-mesophylous gastropodspecies appearing as early as 15.180 cal BP. The appearanceof deciduous woodlands in the Carpathian Basin alongwith the concomitant mollusc elements is much earlierthan previously assumed, supporting the presence of temperatewoodland refugia in the study area.


[1] Vértes L., Untersuchungen über Höhlensedimenten [Investigationsof cave sediments], Rég. Füz. 1956, 14, 23–35.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Vértes L., Az őskőkor és az átmeneti kőkor emberei MagyarországonSearch in Google Scholar

[The Palaeolithic and the Neolithic people in Hungary],Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1965 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[3] Stieber J., Anthrakotomische Untersuchung Search in Google Scholar

[Anthracotomicalresearch], Fol. Archaeol. 1956, 8, 3–11.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Stieber J., Amagyarországi felsőpleisztocén vegetációtörténeteaz anthrakotómiai eredmények (1957-ig) tükrében Search in Google Scholar

[HungarianUpper Pleistocene vegetation history in the light of anthacotomicalresults until 1957], Földt. Közl. 1967, 97, 308–317 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[5] Jánossy D., A magyarországi pleisztocén tagolása gerincesfaunák alapján Search in Google Scholar

[Subdivision of the Hungarian Pleistocene basedon vertebrata fauna], Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1979 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[6] Jánossy D., Kordos L., Pleistocene-Holocene Mollusc and Vertebratefauna of two caves in Hungary, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. 1976,68, 5–29.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Cushing E.J., Late Wisconsin pollen stratigraphy and the glacialsequence in Minnesota, pp. 59–88. In: Cushing, E.J. - Wright,H.E. eds. Quaternary Palaeoecology, Yale University Press, NewHaven, Connecticut, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

[8] von Post L., Forest tree pollen in south Swedish peat bog deposits,Pollen et Spores 1967, 9, 375–401.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Firbas F., Spät- und nacheiszeitliche Waldgeschichte Mitteleuropasnördlich der Alpen, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 1949.10.1080/11035895009453326Search in Google Scholar

[10] Zólyomi B., Magyarország növénytakarójának fejlődéstörténeteaz utolsó jégkorszaktól, Magy. Tud. Akad.Biol. Oszt. Közl. 1952, 1, 491–544.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Sümegi P., Research Aims. In: Sümegi P., Gulyás S. (Eds.), Thegeohistory of Bátorliget Marshland, Archaeolingua Press, Budapest,2004, 39–43.Search in Google Scholar

[12] Reimer P.J., Bard E., Bayliss A., Beck J.W., Blackwell P.G., BronkRamsey C., Buck C.E., Cheng H., Edwards R.L., Friedrich M.,Grootes P.M., Guilderson T.P., Haflidason H., Hajdas I., HattéC., Heaton T.J., Hogg A.G., Hughen K.A., Kaiser K.F., Kromer B.,Manning S.W., Niu M., Reimer R.W., Richards D.A., Scott E.M.,Southon J.R., Turney C.S.M., van der Plicht J., IntCal13 and MARINE13radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50000 years cal BP, Radiocarbon 2013, 55, 4, 1869–1887.10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947Search in Google Scholar

[13] Rubin M., Taylor D.W., Radiocarbon activity of shells from livingclams and snails, Science 1963, 141, 637.10.1126/science.141.3581.637.aSearch in Google Scholar

[14] Rubin M., Linkins R.C., Berry E.G., On the validity of radiocarbondates from snail shells, J. Geol. 1963, 71, 84–89.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Tamers A.M., Validity of radiocarbon dates on terrestrial snailshells, Am. Antiquity 1970, 35, 94–100.10.2307/278181Search in Google Scholar

[16] Frömming E., Biologie der Mitteleuropäischen Landgastropoden,Deucher et Humboldt, Berlin, 1954.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Grime J.P., Blythe G.M., An investigation of the relationship betweensnails and vegetation at the Winnats Pass, J. Ecol. 1969,57, 45–66.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Preece R.C., Accelerator and radiometric radiocarbon dates on arange of materials from colluvial deposits at Holywell Coombe,Folkstone, Quaternary. Proc. 1991, 1, 45–53.Search in Google Scholar

[19] AlexandrowiczW.P., Molluscan assemblages of Late Glacial andHolocene calcareous tufa in Southern Poland, Fol. Quat. 2004,75, 3–309.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Evans J.G., Land Snails in Archeology, Seminar Press, London,1972.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Horsák M., Juřičkova L., Picka J., Mollusc of the Czech and SlovakRepublics, Kabarek, Zlin, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Kerney M.P., Cameron R.A.D., Jungbluth J.H., Die LandschneckenNord- und Mitteleuropas, Paul Parey Press, Hamburg-Berlin, 1983.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Ložek V., Quartärmollusken der Tschechoslowakei, RozpravyÚstredniho ústavu geologického, 1964, 31, 1–374.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Soós L., A Kárpát-medence Mollusca-faunája, Akadémiai Kiadó,Budapest, 1943.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Welter-Schultes F., European non-marine mollusc, a guide forspecies identification, Planet Poster Edition, Göttingen, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Kiss É., Pintér L., Magyarország recens Clausiliidái. Fol. Hist.Nat. Mus. Matra. 1982–1983, 8, 137–156.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Krolopp E., A magyarországi pleisztocén képződményekmalakológiai tagolása. Kandidátusi Értekezés (kézirat),MagyarÁllami Földtani Intézet, Budapest, 1983.Search in Google Scholar

[28] Preece R.C., The biostratigraphy and dating of a postglacialslope deposit at Gore Cliff, near Blackgang, Isle of Wight, J. Archaeol.Sci. 1980, 7, 255–265.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Burleigh R., Kerney M.P., Some chronological implications ofa fossil molluscan assemblage from a Neolithic site at Brook,Kent, J. Archaeol. Sci. 1982, 9, 29–38.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Goodfriend G.A., Radiocarbon age anomalies in shell carbonateof land snails from semi-arid areas, Radiocarbon 1987, 29, 159–167.10.1017/S0033822200056915Search in Google Scholar

[31] Goodfriend G.A., Stipp J.J., Limestone and the problem of radiocarbondating of land snail shell carbonate, Geology 1983, 11,575–577.10.1130/0091-7613(1983)11<575:LATPOR>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

[32] Brennan R., Quade J., Reliable late-Pleistocene stratigraphicages and shorter groundwater travel times from 14 C in fossilsnails from the southern Great Basin, Quat. Res. 1997, 47, 329–336.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Pigati J.S., Quade J., Shanahan T.M., Haynes Jr. C.V., Radiocarbondating of minute gastropods and new constraints on thetiming of spring-discharge deposits in southern Arizona, USA,Palaeogeogr., Palaeocl. 2004, 204, 33–45.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Preece R.C., Burleigh R., Kerney M.P., Jarzembowski E.A., Radiocarbonage determinations of Fossil Margaritifera auricularia(Spengler) from river Thames in West London, J. Archaeol. Sci.1983, 10, 249–257.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Sümegi P., Hertelendi E., Reconstruction of microenvironmentalchanges in Kopasz Hill loess area at Tokaj (Hungary) between15.000–70.000 BP years, Radiocarbon 1998, 40, 855–863.10.1017/S0033822200018828Search in Google Scholar

[36] Preece R.C., Day S.P., Comparison of Post-glacial molluscanand vegetational successions from radiocarbon-dated tufa sequencein Oxfordshire, J. Biogeogr. 1994, 21, 463–478.Search in Google Scholar

[37] Gulyás S., Sümegi P., Molnár M., New radiocarbon dates fromthe Late Neolithic tell settlement of Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa,SE Hungary, Radiocarbon 2010, 52, 1458–1464.10.1017/S0033822200046543Search in Google Scholar

[38] Pigati J.S., Bright J.E., Shanahan T.M., Mahan S.A., Late PleistocenePaleohydrology Near the Boundary of the Sonoran andChihuahuan Deserts, Southeastern Arizona, USA, Quaternary.Sci. Rev. 2009, 28, 286–300.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Pigati J.S., Rech J.A., Nekola J.C., Radiocarbon dating of smallterrestrial gastropods in North America, Quaternary Geochro.2010, 5, 519–532.Search in Google Scholar

[40] Pigati J.S., McGeehin J.P., Muhs D.R., Bettis III A.E., Radiocarbondating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrialgastropod shells, Quat. Sci. Rev. 2013, 76, 114–128.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Jánossy D., Die Felsnische Tarkő und die Vertebratenfauna ihrerAusfullung Search in Google Scholar

[The rock niche Tarko and the vertebrate fauna oftheir filling], Kar. Barlangkut. Tájékozt. 1962, 4, 3–102.Search in Google Scholar

[42] Kordos L., The Evolution in the past ten thousand years ofthe Vertebrate of the Hungarian Central Mountain Range, Állat.Közl. 1976, 71, 109–117.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Vörös I., Large mammalian faunal changes during the Late UpperPleistocene and Early Holocene times in the CarpathianBasin. In: Pécsi M. (Ed.), Pleistocene environment in Hungary,MTA Földrajzkutató Intézet Kiadványa, Budapest, 1987, 81–101.Search in Google Scholar

[44] Kretzoi M., Wirbeltierfaunistische Aufgaben zur Quarterchronologieder Jankovich-Hohle, Fol. Arch. 1957, 9, 16–21.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Kretzoi M., Vértes L., The role of vertebrata faunae and paleolithicindustries of Hungary in Quaternary stratigraphy andcronology, Acta Geol. Hung. 1965, 9, 125–143.Search in Google Scholar

[46] Kretzoi M., Sketch of the Late Cenozoic (Pliocene and Quaternary)terrestrial stratigraphy of Hungary, Földr. Közl., 1969, 17,179–204.Search in Google Scholar

[47] Pazonyi P., Mammalian ecosystem dynamics in the CarpathianBasin during the last 27,000 years, Palaeog. Palaeocl. 2004,212, 295–314.Search in Google Scholar

[48] Pazonyi P., Kordos L.,Magyari E.,Marinova E., Fűköh L., VenczelM., Pleistocene vertebrate faunas of the Süttő Travertine Complex,Quat. Int. 2014, 319, 50–63.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Roberts N., The Holocene. An Environmental History, BlackwellPress, Massachusetts, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Leesch D., Müller W., Nielsen E., Bullinger J., The MagdalenianinSwitzerland: re-colonization of a newly accessible landscape,Quat. Int. 2012, 272–273, 191–208.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Schoeneich P., Que s’est-il passé pendant la première partie duTardiglaciaire? Indices d’un changement écologiquemajeur dès17–18.000 cal BP, Preist. Alp. 2003, 39, 9–17.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Sümegi P., The quarter-malacological investigation of the brickyardprofile at Lakitelek, Malak. Táj. 1988, 8, 5–7.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Sümegi P., Upper Pleistocene evaluation of Hajdúság regionbased on fine-stratigraphical (sedimentological, paleontological,geochemical) analyses, PhD Dissertation, University of L.Kossuth, Debrecen, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

[54] Sümegi P., Krolopp E., Quartermalacological analyses for modelingof the Upper Weichselian palaeoenvironmental changesin the Carpathian Basin, Quat. Int. 2002, 91, 53–63.Search in Google Scholar

[55] Krolopp E., Sümegi P., Palaeoecological reconstruction of theLate Pleistocene, based on loessmalacofauna in Hungary, Geo-Journal 1995, 26, 213–222.10.1007/BF00813173Search in Google Scholar

[56] Sümegi P., Reconstruction of flora, soil and landscape evolution,and human impact on the Bereg Plain from late-glacial upto the present, based on palaeoecological analysis. In:Hamar J.,Sárkány-Kiss A. (Eds.), The Upper Tisa Valley, Tiscia MonographSeries, Szeged, 1999, 173–204.Search in Google Scholar

[57] Sümegi P., The results of paleoenvironmental reconstructionand comparative geoarcheological analysis for the examinedarea. In: Sümegi P., Gulyás S. (Eds.), The geohistory ofBátorligetMarshland, Archaeolingua Press, Budapest, 2004, 301–348.Search in Google Scholar

[58] Sümegi P., Loess and Upper Paleolithic Environment in Hungary,Grafon Kiadó, Budapest, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

[59] Willis K.J., Braun M., Sümegi P., Tóth A., Does soil change causevegetation change or vice-versa? A temporal perspective fromHungary, Ecology 1997, 78, 740–750.10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[0740:DSCCVC]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

[60] Szabó J., Csuszamlásos folyamatok szerepe a magyarországitájak geomorfológiai fejlődésében Search in Google Scholar

[The role of landslides in thegeomorphological development of Hungarian landscape], Habilitációsdolgozatok, Kossuth Egyetem Kiadó, Debrecen, 1996Search in Google Scholar

[61] Magyari E., Jakab G., Rudner E., Sümegi P., Palynological andplantmacrofossil data on Late Pleistocen short term climatic osscilationsin North-east Hungary, Acta Palaeobot., Supplement,1999, 491–502.Search in Google Scholar

[62] Sümegi P., Juhász I., Magyari E., Jakab G., Rudner E., SzántóZs., Molnár M., A keleméri Mohos-tavak fejlődéstörténete paleobotanikaiadatok alapján. In: Boldogh S., Farkas T. (Eds.),A keleméri Mohos tavak kutatás, kezelés, védelem, AggtelekiNemzeti Park Kiadvány, 2008, 35–58.Search in Google Scholar

[63] Sümegi P., Rudner E., Törőcsik T., Magyarországi pleisztocénvégi és kora-holocén környezeti változások kronológiai, tér ésidőbeli rekonstrukciós problémái. In: Kolozsi B. (Ed.),MOMOSZIV. Őskoros kutatók IV. összejövetelének konferencia kötete.Déri J. Múzeum Régészeti Tárának kiadványa, Debrecen, 2012,279–298.Search in Google Scholar

[64] Bánffy E., The 6th Millennium BC boundary in Western Transdanubiaand its role in the Central European transition (TheSzentgyörgy-Pityerdomb settlement), Varia Archaeologica Hungarica,Budapest, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[65] Kertész R., Sümegi P., Kozák M., Braun M., Félegyházi E., HertelendiE., Archaeological and Palaeoecological study of an EarlyHolocene settlement in the Jászság Area, Acta Geogr. Geol. Meteor.Debr. 1994, 32, 5–49.Search in Google Scholar

[66] Sümegi P.,Magyari E., Dániel P., Molnár M., Törőcsik T., 28,000-year record of environmental change in SE Hungary: terrestrialresponse to Dansgaard-Oeshger cycles and Heinrich-events,Quat. Int. 2013, 278, 34–50.Search in Google Scholar

[67] Ward I.A.K., Fullagar R.L.K., Boer-Mah T., Head L.M., TaconP.S.C.,Mulvaney K., Comparison of Sedimentation and OccupationHistories Inside and Outside Rock Shelter Keep River Region,Northwestern Australia, Geoarcheology 2006, 21, 1–27.10.1002/gea.20087Search in Google Scholar

[68] Vaday A., Chronological Charts. In: Visy Zs. (Ed.), Hungarian Archaeologyat the turn of the Millenium, Ministry of National CulturalHeritage, Budapest, 2004, 483–486.Search in Google Scholar

[69] Gaál I., A Gerecse-hegység egyik legérdekesebb barlangcsoportjaSearch in Google Scholar

[One of the most interesting group of caves in GerecseMountains], Földgömb, 1934, 9, 321–330 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[70] Bánffy E., The boundary in Western Transdanubia: variations ofmigration and adaptation. In: Bailey D., Whittle A., HofmannD. (Eds.), Living well together? Materiality in the Neolithic ofSouth-East and Central Europe: Oxford, Oxbow, 2008, 151–163.Search in Google Scholar

[71] Kalicz N.,Makkay J., Die Linien-bandkeramik in der Grossen UngarischenTiefebene, Studia Archaeologica VII, Budapest, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

[72] Korek J., Patay P., A bükki kultura elterjedése Magyarországon,Régészeti Füzetek, Series II, Budapest, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

[73] Willis K.J., Sümegi P., Braun M., Bennett K.D., Tóth A., Prehistoricland degradation in Hungary: who, how and why? Antiquity,1998, 72, 101–113.10.1017/S0003598X00086312Search in Google Scholar

[74] Sümegi P., Az utolsó 15000 év környezeti változásai és hatásukaz emberi kultúrákra Magyarországon. In: Ilon G. (Ed.),A régésztechnikusok kézikönyve, Szombathely, Savaria Kiadványa,1998, 367–397.Search in Google Scholar

[75] Csengeri P., The Neolithic and the Copper Age in the Sajó-BódvaInterfluve. In: Gál E., Juhász I., Sümegi P. (Eds.), EnvironmentalArchaeology in North-eastern Hungary.Varia ArchaeologicaHungarica 19, Budapest, 2005, 223–235.Search in Google Scholar

[76] Furmánek V., Die Kyjatice-Kultur, Die Umenfelderkulturen Mitteleuropas,Symp. Liblice 1987, 21–25.Search in Google Scholar

[77] Hellebrandt M., A Kyjatice kultúra újabb lelőhelye. HermannOttó Múzeum Évkönyve, 1973, 12, 589–593.Search in Google Scholar

[78] Kemenczei T., A kyjatice kultúra Ézsak_Magyarországon, HermannOttó Múzeum Évkönyve 1970, 9, 17–78.Search in Google Scholar

[79] Willis K.J., Sümegi P., Braun M., Tóth A., The Late Quaternary environmentalhistory of Bátorliget, N.E. Hungary, Palaeogeogr.,Palaeoclim. 1995, 118, 25–47.Search in Google Scholar

[80] Willis K.J., Rudner E., Sümegi P., The full-glacial forests ofcentral and southeastern Europe: Evidence from Hungarianpalaeoecological records, Quat. Res. 2000, 53, 203–213.Search in Google Scholar

[81] Sümegi P., Az ÉK-magyarországi löszterületek összehasonlítóőskörnyezeti és sztratigráfiai értékelése Search in Google Scholar

[Comparativepalaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic evaluation of NE Hungarianloess areas], PhD thesis, Debrecen, 1996 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[82] Sümegi P., Deli T., Results of the quartermalacological analysisof the profiles from the central and marginal areas of Bátorligetmarshland. In: Sümegi P., Gulyás S. (Eds.), The geohistory of BátorligetMarshland,Archaeolingua Press,Budapest, 2004, 183–207.Search in Google Scholar

[83] Sümegi P., Rudner E., In situ charcoal fragments as remains ofnatural wild fires of the Upper Würm in the Carpathian Basin,Quat. Int. 2001, 76/77, 165–176.Search in Google Scholar

[84] Rudner E., Sümegi P., Recurring taiga forest steppe habitats inthe Carpathian Basin in the Upper Weichselian, Quat. Int. 2001,76/77, 177–189.Search in Google Scholar

[85] Rudner E., Sümegi P., Charcoal as a remain of natural andhuman-set fires of Palaeolithic Times - case study from Hungary,Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 2002, 1089, 11–18.Search in Google Scholar

[86] Sólymos P., Fehér Z., Conservation prioritization based on distributionof land snails in Hungary, Conserv. Biol. 2005, 19,1084–1094.Search in Google Scholar

[87] Juřičková L., Horsák M., Horáčková J., Abraham V., Ložek V., Patternsof land-snail succession in Central Europe over the last15,000 years: main changes along environmental, spatial andtemporal gradients, Quat. Sci. Rev. 2014, 93, 155–166.Search in Google Scholar

[88] Sümegi P., Az Északi-középhegység negyedidőszak végiőstörténete: ember és környezet kapcsolata a szubkárpáti(felföldi) régióban Search in Google Scholar

[Environmental history of the North HungarianMountain Range at the end of the Quaternary: humanand environment relationship in the sub-carpahtian region].In: Guba Sz., Tankó K. (Eds.), Régről kell kezdenünk... Studia Archaeologica in honorem Pauli Patay, Gaál István Egyesület,Szécsény, 2010, 295–326 (in Hungarian).Search in Google Scholar

[89] Cameron R.A.D., Pokryszko B.M., Horsák M., Land Snail Faunasin Polish Forests: Patterns of Richness and Composition in aPost-Glacial Landscape, Malacologia 2010, 53, 77–134.10.4002/040.053.0105Search in Google Scholar

[90] Cameron R.A.D., Pokryszko B.M., Horsák M., Sirbu I., Gheoca V.,Forest snail faunas from Transylvania (Romania) and their relationshipto the faunas of Central and Northern Europe, Biol. J.Linn. Soc. 2011, 104, 471–479.Search in Google Scholar

[91] Harl J., Duda M., Kruckenhauser L., Sattmann H., HaringE., In Search of Glacial Refuges of the Land Snail Orculadolium (Pulmonata, Orculidae) - An Integrative Approach UsingDNA Sequence and Fossil Data, 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.009601210.1371/journal.pone.0096012Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[92] Ložek V., Last glacial paleoenvironments of the West Carpathiansin the light of fossil malacofauna, Sborník geol. Věd.Antropozoikum 2005, 26, 73–84.Search in Google Scholar

[93] Horsák M., Novák J., First record of Chondrina clienta (Westerlund,1883) from Bohemia (Czech Republic), Malacol. Bohem.2005, 4, 39–40.Search in Google Scholar

[94] Baur B., Baur A., Habitat related dispersal in the rock-dwelingland snail Chondrina clienta, Ecography 1995, 18, 123–130.10.1111/j.1600-0587.1995.tb00332.xSearch in Google Scholar

[95] Kovács Gy., Tomka G., The Archaeology of the Ottoman Period.In: Visy Zs. (Ed.), Hungarian Archaeology at the Turn of the Millennium,Budapest, 2003, 405–413.Search in Google Scholar

[96] Náfrádi K., Sümegi P., Jakab G., Persaits G., Törőcsik T., Reconstructionof the vegetation and environment during different climaticand sociotechnical conditions of the last 3000 years inSouthwestern Hungary, Am. J. Plant Sci. 2014, 5, 1557–1577.Search in Google Scholar

[97] Sümegi P., Jakab G., Majkut P., Törőcsik T., Zatykó Cs., MiddleAge paleoecological and paleoclimatological reconstruction inthe Carpathian Basin, Időjárás 2009, 113, 265–298.Search in Google Scholar

[98] Meng S., Hofmann M.H., Pupilla loessica LOŽEK 1954 (Gastropoda:Pulmonata: Pupillidae) - „A living Fossil“ in CentralAsia? Eiszeltalter und Gegenwart, Quat. Sci. J. 2009, 58, 55–69.Search in Google Scholar

[99] Horsák M., Chytrý M., Pokryszko B.M., Danihelka J., Ermakov N.,Hájek M., Hájková P., Kintrová K., Kočí M., Kunešová S., LustykP., Otýpková Z., Pelánková B., Valachovič M., Habitats of relictterrestrial snails in southern Siberia: lessons for the reconstructionof palaeoenvironments of full-glacial Europe, J. Biogeogr.2010, 37, 1450–1462.Search in Google Scholar

[100] Feurdean A., Perşoiu A., Stevens T., Tanˆsău I., Magyari E.,Onac B., Marković S., Andrič M., Connor S., Fărcaş S., GałkaM., Guadeny T., Hoek P., Kolaczek P., Kunes P., Lamentowicz M.,Marinova E., Michczyńska D., Perşoiu I., Płóciennik M., SlowinskiM., Stancikaite M., Sümegi P., Svensson A., Tămaş T., TimarA., Tonkov S., Toth M., Veski S.,Willis K., Zernitskaya V., Climatevariability and associated vegetation response throughout Centraland Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka, Quat. Sci.Rev. DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.00310.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.003Search in Google Scholar

[101] Kretzoi M., Varrók S., Adatok a gyöngybagoly táplálkozásánakállatföldrajzi jelentőségéhez, Aquilea 1955, 52–55, 401–403.Search in Google Scholar

[102] Kretzoi M., Bagolyköpet-vizsgálatok, Aquilea 1963, 62–63,47–50.Search in Google Scholar

[103] Schmidt E., Bagolyköpetvizsgálatok, AMadártani Intézet Kiadványa,Budapest, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

[104] Kleiner A., A madarak csiga és kagylótápláléka, Aquilea 1930,36–37, 105–120.Search in Google Scholar

[105] Vasvári M., 1929 Adalékok a bölömbika és pocgém táplálkozásioekológiájához, Aquilea 34–35, 342–374.Search in Google Scholar

[106] Rékási J., Richnovszky A., Angaben zur Frage der Schneckennahrungbei Vögeln, Soosiana 1974, 2, 45–50.Search in Google Scholar

[107] Lawrence R.M., Microtus pennsylvanicus, Mamm. Spec. 1981,159, 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

[108] Verts B.J., Carraway N.L., Microtus canicaudus, Mamm. Spec.1987, 267, 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

[109] Sümegi P., Rudner E., Törőcsik T., Magyarországi pleisztocénvégi és kora-holocén környezeti változások kronológiai, tér ésidőbeli rekonstrukciós problémái. In: Kolozsi B. (Ed.),MOMOSZIV. Őskoros kutatók IV. összejövetelének konferencia kötete,Déri J. Múzeum Régészeti Tárának kiadványa, Debrecen, 2012,279–298.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-04-08
Accepted: 2015-03-14
Published Online: 2015-11-26

©2015 Pál Sümegi, Katalin Náfrádi

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 21.9.2023 from
Scroll to top button