Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 4, 2020

The economic research potentials of the German Socio-Economic Panel study

Carsten Schröder ORCID logo, Johannes König, Alexandra Fedorets ORCID logo, Jan Goebel, Markus M. Grabka, Holger Lüthen, Maria Metzing, Felicitas Schikora and Stefan Liebig
From the journal German Economic Review

Abstract

We provide a concise introduction to a household-panel data infrastructure that provides the international research community with longitudinal data of private households in Germany since 1984: the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We demonstrate the comparative strength of the SOEP data in answering economically-relevant questions by highlighting its diverse and impactful applications throughout the field.

JEL Classification: C2; C3; C5; C8; D04; D1; D3; D6; D7; D9; I00; J1; J2; J3; J6

Funding statement: SOEP is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the state governments under the umbrella of the Leibniz Association.

Acknowledgment

We thank Florian Griese, Uta Rahmann, and Paul Brockmann for their support and Adam Lederer for editing.

References

Adsera, A., and B. R. Chiswick. 2007. “Are There Gender and Country of Origin Differences in Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes Across European Destinations?” Journal of Population Economics 20(3): 495–526. Search in Google Scholar

Akerlof, G. A., and J. L. Yellen. 1990. “The Fair Wage-effort Hypothesis and Unemployment.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 105(2): 255–283. Search in Google Scholar

Akay, A., O. Bargain, and K. F. Zimmermann. 2017. “Macroeconomic Conditions in Home Countries and the Well-Being of Migrants.” Journal of Human Resources 52(2): 351–373. Search in Google Scholar

Aldashev, A., J. Gernandt, and S. L. Thomsen. 2012. “The Immigrant-native Wage Gap in Germany.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 232(5): 490–517. Search in Google Scholar

Andersen, H. H., M. M. Grabka, and J. Schwarze. 2007. “Beitragssatz, Kassenwettbewerb und Gesundheitsreform/Premium Rates, Competition Among Health Insurance Funds and the Health Care Reform 2007.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 227(5–6): 429–450. Search in Google Scholar

Anger, S., G. Camehl, and F. Peter. 2017. “Involuntary Job Loss and Changes in Personality Traits.” Journal of Economic Psychology 60:71–91. Search in Google Scholar

Ayala, L., J. Martín-Román, and J. Vicente. 2020. “The Contribution of the Spatial Dimension to Inequality: A Counterfactual Analysis for OECD Countries.” Papers in Regional Science. Search in Google Scholar

Baltagi, B. H. 2013. Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, 5th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Search in Google Scholar

Barasinska, N., D. Schäfer, and A. Stephan. 2012. “Individual Risk Attitudes and the Composition of Financial Portfolios: Evidence from German Household Portfolios.” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 52(1): 1–14. Search in Google Scholar

Bartels, C., H. Nachtigall, and A. Göth. 2019. SOEP-Core V34: Codebook for the EU-SILC-like Panel for Germany Based on the SOEP. SOEP Survey Papers Series D – Variable Descriptions and Coding, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Basilio, L., T. K. Bauer, and A. Kramer. 2017. “Transferability of Human Capital and Immigrant Assimilation: An Analysis for Germany.” Labour 31(3): 245–264. 10.1111/labr.12096. Search in Google Scholar

Basilio, L., T. K. Bauer, and M. Sinning. 2009. “Analyzing the Labor Market Activity of Immigrant Families in Germany.” Labour Economics 16(5): 510–520. Search in Google Scholar

Bauer, T. K., and M. G. Sinning. 2011. “The Savings Behavior of Temporary and Permanent Migrants in Germany.” Journal of Population Economics 24(2): 421–449. Search in Google Scholar

Beaudry, P., and D. A. Green. 2003. “Wages and Employment in the United States and Germany: What Explains the Differences?” American Economic Review 93(3): 573–602. Search in Google Scholar

Baumert, A., C. Beierlein, M. Schmitt, C. J. Kemper, A. Kovaleva, S. Liebig, and B. Rammstedt. 2014. “Measuring Four Perspectives of Justice Sensitivity With Two Items Each.” Journal of Personality Assessment 96(3): 380–390. Search in Google Scholar

Becker, S. O., and L. Woessmann. 2009. “Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(2): 531–596. Search in Google Scholar

Biewen, M. 1999. “Inequality Trends in the German Income Distribution.” Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung 68(2): 275–283. Search in Google Scholar

Biewen, M. 2000. “Income Inequality in Germany During the 1980s and 1990s.” Review of Income and Wealth 46(1): 1–19. Search in Google Scholar

Blömer, M., L. Dörr, C. Fuest, M. Mosler, and A. Peichl. 2019. Was bei einer Reform des Solidaritätszuschlags zu Beachten ist (Vol. 72), München. Search in Google Scholar

Bönke, T., G. Corneo, and H. Lüthen. 2015. “Lifetime Earnings Inequality in Germany.” Journal of Labor Economics 33(1): 171–208. Search in Google Scholar

Bönke, T., M. M. Grabka, C. Schröder, E. N. Wolff, and L. Zyska. 2019. “The Joint Distribution of Net Worth and Pension Wealth in Germany.” Review of Income and Wealth 65(4): 834–871. Search in Google Scholar

Bönke, T., M. M. Grabka, C. Schröder, and E. N. Wolff. 2020. “A Head-to-Head Comparison of Augmented Wealth in Germany and the United States.” Scand. J. of Economics. Online First. 10.1111/sjoe.12364. Search in Google Scholar

Bratberg, E., J. Davis, B. Mazumder, M. Nybom, D. D. Schnitzlein, and K. Vaage. 2017. “A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics 119(1): 72–101. Search in Google Scholar

Breunig, C., S. Huck, T. Schmidt, and G. Weizsäcker. 2019. “The Standard Portfolio Choice Problem in Germany.” Rationality and Competition Discussion Paper 171. Search in Google Scholar

Burauel, P., M. Caliendo, M. M. Grabka, C. Obst, M. Preuss, and C. Schröder. 2020. “The Impact of the Minimum Wage on Working Hours.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 240(2–3): 233–267. Search in Google Scholar

Brücker, H., A. Hauptmann, E. J. Jahn, and R. Upward. 2014. “Migration and Imperfect Labor Markets: Theory and Cross-country Evidence from Denmark, Germany and the UK.” European Economic Review 66:205–225. Search in Google Scholar

Büchel, F., and J. R. Frick. 2004. “Immigrants in the UK and in West Germany – Relative Income Position, Income Portfolio, and Redistribution Effects.” Journal of Population Economics 17(3): 553–581. Search in Google Scholar

Caliendo, M., D. A. Cobb-Clark, and A. Uhlendorff. 2015. “Locus of Control and Job Search Strategies.” Review of Economics and Statistics 97(1): 88–103. Search in Google Scholar

Caliendo, M., A. Fedorets, L. Wittbrodt, M. Preuss, and C. Schröder. 2017. “The Short-Term Distributional Effects of the German Minimum Wage Reform.” IZA Institute of Labor Economics, 11246. Search in Google Scholar

Caliendo, M., A. Fedorets, M. Preuss, C. Schröder, and L. Wittbrodt. 2018. “The Short-run Employment Effects of the German Minimum Wage Reform.” Labour Economics 53:46–62. Search in Google Scholar

Caliendo, M., F. Fossen, and A. S. Kritikos. 2014. “Personality Characteristics and the Decisions to Become and Stay Self-employed.” Small Business Economics 42(4): 787–814. Search in Google Scholar

Caliendo, M., C. Schröder, and L. Wittbrodt. 2019. “The Causal Effects of the Minimum Wage Introduction in Germany: An Overview.” German Economic Review 20(3): 257–292. Search in Google Scholar

Card, D., J. Heining, and P. Kline. 2013. “Workplace Heterogeneity and the Rise of West German Wage Inequality.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(3): 967–1015. Search in Google Scholar

Cawley, J. H.,M. M. Grabka, and D. R. Lillard. 2005. “A Comparison of the Relationship Between Obesity and Earnings in the U.S. and Germany.” Schmollers Jahrbuch 125(1): 119–129. Search in Google Scholar

Chang, B. H., Y. Chang, and S. B. Kim. 2018. “Pareto Weights in Practice: A Quantitative Analysis Across 32 OECD Countries.” Review of Economic Dynamics 28:181–204. Search in Google Scholar

Clark, A. E., C. d’Ambrosio, and S. Ghislandi. 2016. “Adaptation to Poverty in Long-run Panel Data.” Review of Economics and Statistics 98(3): 591–600. Search in Google Scholar

Cornelissen, T., O. Himmler, and T. Koenig. 2011a. “Perceived Unfairness in CEO Compensation and Work Morale.” Economics Letters 110(1): 45–48. Search in Google Scholar

Cornelissen, T., J. S. Heywood, and U. Jirjahn. 2011b. “Performance Pay, Risk Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.” Labour Economics 18(2): 229–239. Search in Google Scholar

d’Ambrosio, C., A. E. Clark, and M. Barazzetta. 2018. “Unfairness at Work: Well-being and Quits.” Labour Economics 51:307–316. Search in Google Scholar

Deaton, A. 2015. “Nobel Prize Lecture by Angus Deaton.” Stockholm: nobelprize.org. Retrieved from https://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/?id=2585. Search in Google Scholar

De Nardi, M., and G. Fella. 2017. “Saving and Wealth Inequality.” Review of Economic Dynamics 26:280–300. Search in Google Scholar

Deole, S. S. 2019. “Justice Delayed is Assimilation Denied: Right-wing Terror and Immigrants’ Assimilation in Germany.” Labour Economics 59(October 2018): 69–78. Search in Google Scholar

Diener, E., R. E. Lucas, and C. N. Scollon. 2006. “Beyond the Hedonic Treadmill: Revising the Adaptation Theory of Well-being.” American Psychologist 61(4): 305–314. Search in Google Scholar

Dohmen, T., A. Falk, D. Huffman, U. Sunde, J. Schupp, and G. G. Wagner. 2011. “Individual Risk Attitudes: Measurement, Determinants, and Behavioral Consequences.” Journal of the European Economic Association 9(3): 522–550. Search in Google Scholar

Dohmen, T., A. Falk, D. Huffman, and U. Sunde. 2012. “The Intergenerational Transmission of Risk and Trust Attitudes.” The Review of Economic Studies 79(2): 645–677. Search in Google Scholar

Drahs, S., L. Haywood, and A. Schiprowski. 2018. “Job Search with Subjective Wage Expectations.” DIW Berlin Discussion Paper 1725. Search in Google Scholar

Dustmann, C., and A. Van Soest. 2001. “Language Fluency and Earnings: Estimation with Misclassified Language Indicators.” Review of Economics and Statistics 83(4): 663–674. Search in Google Scholar

Dustmann, C., J. Ludsteck, and U. Schönberg. 2009. “Revisiting the German Wage Structure.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(2): 843–881. Search in Google Scholar

Eisnecker, P. S., and M. Kroh. 2017. “The Informed Consent to Record Linkage in Panel Studies: Optimal Starting Wave, Consent Refusals, and Subsequent Panel Attrition.” Public Opinion Quarterly 81(1): 131–143. Search in Google Scholar

Engel, C., A. Fedorets, and O. Gorelkina. 2018. “How Do Households Allocate Risk?” SOEPpaper 1000. Search in Google Scholar

Everding, J., and J. Marcus. 2020. “The Effect of Unemployment on the Smoking Behavior of Couples.” Health Economics 29(2): 154–170. Search in Google Scholar

Falck, O., R. Gold, and S. Heblich. 2014. “E-lections: Voting Behavior and the Internet.” American Economic Review 104(7): 2238–2265. Search in Google Scholar

Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. 2017. “Lebenslagen in Deutschland: Fünfter Armuts-und Reichtumsbericht der Bundesregierung.” BT-Drs 18, 11980. Search in Google Scholar

Fedorets, A., A. Filatov, and C. Shupe. 2018. “Great Expectations: Reservation Wages and the Minimum Wage Reform.” SOEP Survey Papers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 968. Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. 2005. “Income and Well-being: an Empirical Analysis of the Comparison Income Effect.” Journal of Public Economics 89(5–6): 997–1019. Search in Google Scholar

Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., and B. M. Van Praag. 2003. “Income Satisfaction Inequality and Its Causes.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 1(2): 107–127. Search in Google Scholar

Fitzenberger, B., K. Sommerfeld, and S. Steffes. 2013. “Causal Effects on Employment After First Birth – A Dynamic Treatment Approach.” Labour Economics 25:49–62. Search in Google Scholar

Fossen, F. M., L. Neyse, M. Johannesson, and A. Dreber Almenberg. 2019. “2D:4D and Self-Employment Using SOEP Data: A Replication Study.” OSFhome. https://osf.io/t94fv/. Search in Google Scholar

Franz, W., N. Guertzgen, S. Schubert, and M. Clauss. 2012. “Assessing the Employment Effects of the German Welfare Reform – an Integrated CGE-microsimulation Approach.” Applied Economics 44(19): 2403–2421. Search in Google Scholar

Frémeaux, N., and M. Leturcq. 2020. “Inequalities and the Individualization of Wealth.” Journal of Public Economics 184:1–18. Search in Google Scholar

Frijters, P., J. P. Haisken-DeNew, and M. A. Shields. 2004. “Money Does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany Following Reunification.” American Economic Review 94(3): 730–740. Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs-Schündeln, N. 2008. “The Response of Household Saving to the Large Shock of German Reunification.” American Economic Review 98(5): 1798–1828. Search in Google Scholar

German Federal Government. 2017. Government report on wellbeing in Germany. Search in Google Scholar

German Federal Statistical Office. 2016. GENESIS-Online Datenbank: Bevölkerung. Search in Google Scholar

Geyer, J., and T. Korfhage. 2015. “Long-term Care Insurance and Carers’ Labor Supply – A Structural Model.” Health Economics 24(9): 1178–1191. Search in Google Scholar

Geyer, J., and C. Welteke. 2019. “Closing Routes to Retirement for Women: How Do They Respond?” Journal of Human Resources. Online First. 10.3368/jhr.56.1.0717-8947R2. Search in Google Scholar

Goebel, J., C. Krekel, T. Tiefenbach, and N. R. Ziebarth. 2015. “How Natural Disasters Can Affect Environmental Concerns, Risk Aversion, and Even Politics: Evidence from Fukushima and Three European Countries.” Journal of Population Economics 28(4): 1137–1180. Search in Google Scholar

Goebel, J., and B. Pauer. 2014. “Datenschutzkonzept zur Nutzung von SOEPgeo im Forschungsdatenzentrum SOEP am DIW Berlin.” Zeitschrift für Amtliche Statistik 3:42–47. Search in Google Scholar

Goebel, J., M. M. Grabka, S. Liebig, M. Kroh, D. Richter, C. Schröder, and J. Schupp. 2019. “The German Socio-economic Panel (soep).” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 239(2): 345–360. Search in Google Scholar

Goerke, L., and M. Pannenberg. 2015. “Direct Evidence for Income Comparisons and Subjective Well-being Across Reference Groups.” Economics Letters 137:95–101. Search in Google Scholar

Goldschmidt, D., and J. F. Schmieder. 2017. “The Rise of Domestic Outsourcing and the Evolution of the German Wage Structure.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 132(3): 1165–1217. Search in Google Scholar

Goldstein, J. R., C. Koulovatianos, J. Li, and C. Schröder. 2019. “Evaluating How Child Allowances and Daycare Subsidies Affect Fertility.” CFS Working Paper Series 568. Frankfurt a.M. Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/155334/1/880726970.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Grabka, M. M., J. Marcus, and E. Sierminska. 2015. “Wealth Distribution Within Couples.” Review of Economics of the Household 13(3): 459–486. 10.1007/s11150-013-9229-2. Search in Google Scholar

Guichard, L. 2020. “Self-selection of asylum seekers: Evidence from Germany.” Demography (forthcoming). 10.1007/s13524-020-00873-9. Search in Google Scholar

Guillaud, E., M. Olckers, and M. Zemmour. 2020. “Four Levers of Redistribution: The Impact of Tax and Transfer Systems on Inequality Reduction.” Review of Income and Wealth. Online First. 10.1111/roiw.12408. Search in Google Scholar

Gülal, F., and A. Ayaita. 2018. “SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research The Impact of Minimum Wages on Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment in Germany.” SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 969. Search in Google Scholar

Hainbach, N., C. Halbmeier, T. Schmid, and C. Schröder. 2019. “A Practical Guide for the Computation of Domain-level Estimates with the Socio-Economic Panel (and Other Household Surveys).” SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1055. Search in Google Scholar

Haan, P., and V. Prowse. 2014. “Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior and Pension Reform.” Journal of Econometrics 178(P3): 582–601. Search in Google Scholar

Haan, P., and K. Wrohlich. 2011. “Can Child Care Policy Encourage Employment and Fertility?: Evidence from a Structural Model.” Labour Economics 18(4): 498–512. Search in Google Scholar

Haan, P., D. Kemptner, and H. Lüthen. 2019. “The Rising Longevity Gap by Lifetime Earnings–Distributional Implications for the Pension System.” The Journal of the Economics of Ageing. Online First. 10.1016/j.jeoa.2019.100199. Search in Google Scholar

Heineck, G., and S. Anger. 2010. “The Returns to Cognitive Abilities and Personality Traits in Germany.” Labour Economics 17(3): 535–546. Search in Google Scholar

Hetschko, C., A. Knabe, and R. Schöb. 2014. “Changing Identity: Retiring from Unemployment.” The Economic Journal 124(575): 149–166. Search in Google Scholar

Jacobebbinghaus, P., and V. Steiner. 2003. “Dokumentation des Steuer-Transfer-Mikrosimulationsmodells STSM.” ZEW-Dokumentation 03-06. Mannheim. Search in Google Scholar

Jacobsen, J., M. Kroh, S. Kühne, J. A. Scheible, R. Siegers, and M. Siegert. 2019. “Supplementary of the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Survey of Refugees in Germany (M5) 2017.” SOEP Survey Papers 605: Series C – Data Documentation. Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Jaeger, D. A., T. Dohmen, A. Falk, D. Huffman, U. Sunde, and H. Bonin. 2010. “Direct Evidence on Risk Attitudes and Migration.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 92(3): 684–689. Search in Google Scholar

Jasso, G. 1978. “On the Justice of Earnings: A New Specification of the Justice Evaluation Function.” American Journal of Sociology 83(6): 1398–1419. Search in Google Scholar

Jenkins, S. P., and C. Schluter. 2003. “Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective.” Journal of Human Resources 38(2): 441–465. Search in Google Scholar

Jessen, R., D. Rostam-Afschar, and V. Steiner. 2017. “Getting the Poor to Work: Three Welfare-Increasing Reforms for a Busy Germany.” FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis 73(1): 1–41. Search in Google Scholar

Jessen, R., M. Metzing, and D. Rostam-Afschar. 2018a. “Optimal Taxation Under Different Concepts of Justness.” Ruhr Economics Papers 762. Search in Google Scholar

Jessen, R., D. Rostam-Afschar, and S. Schmitz. 2018b. “How Important is Precautionary Labour Supply?” Oxford Economic Papers 70(3): 868–891. Search in Google Scholar

Jessen, R. 2019. “Why Has Income Inequality in Germany Increased from 2002 to 2011? A Behavioral Microsimulation Decomposition.” Review of Income and Wealth 65(3): 540–560. Search in Google Scholar

Kaltenborn, B. 1998. SIMTRANS – Mikrosimulation des Deutschen Steuer-Transfer-Systems und Alternativer Reformvarianten. Mainz. Search in Google Scholar

Kattenbach, R., J. Lücke, M. Schlese, and F. Schramm. 2011. “Same Same but Different – Changing Career Expectations in Germany?” German Journal of Human Resource Management 25(4): 292–312. Search in Google Scholar

Kemptner, D. 2019. “Health-related Life Cycle Risks and Public Insurance.” Journal of Health Economics 65:227–245. Search in Google Scholar

Knabe, A., and S. Rätzel. 2010. “Better an Insecure Job than No Job at All? Unemployment, Job Insecurity and Subjective Wellbeing.” Economics Bulletin 30(3): 2486–2494. Search in Google Scholar

Knabe, A., S. Rätzel, R. Schöb, and J. Weimann. 2010. “Dissatisfied with Life but Having a Good Day: Time-use and Well-being of the Unemployed.” The Economic Journal 120(547): 867–889. Search in Google Scholar

Koenig, J., L. Neyse, and C. Schroeder. 2019. “Fair Enough? Minimum Wage Effects on Fair Wages.” SSRN Electronic Journal 1–53. Search in Google Scholar

Kottwitz, A., A. Oppermann, and C. K. Spiess. 2016. “Parental Leave Benefits and Breastfeeding in Germany: Effects of the 2007 Reform.” Review of Economics of the Household 14(4): 859–890. Search in Google Scholar

Krieger, M. 2019. “Tied and Troubled: Revisiting Tied Migration and Subsequent Employment.” Journal of Marriage and Family. 10.1111/jomf.12620. Search in Google Scholar

Kroh, M., S. Kühne, R. Siegers, and V. Belcheva. 2018. “SOEP-Core – Documentation of Sample Sizes and Panel Attrition (1984 Until 2016).” SOEP Survey Papers 480: SOEP Survey Papers 480: Series C. Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Kroh, M., M. Spiess, R. Pischner, and G. G. Wagner. 2008. “On the Treatment of Non-Original Sample Members in the German Household Panel Study (SOEP) – Tracing, Weighting, and Frequencies.” Methoden, Daten, Analysen. Zeitschrift für Empirische Sozialforschung 2:179–198. Search in Google Scholar

Liebig, S., and J. Schupp. 2005. “Unjust Divergence in Earnings in Germany?” DIW Berlin Weekly Report 3/2005, 51–56. Search in Google Scholar

Loeffler, M., A. Peichl, N. Pestel, S. Siegloch, and E. Sommer. 2014. “Documentation IZAΨ MOD v3. 0: The IZA Policy Simulation Model.” Institute of Labor Economics (IZA) 8553. Search in Google Scholar

Lüthen, H. 2016. “Rates of Return and Early Retirement Disincentives: Evidence from a German Pension Reform.” German Economic Review 17(2): 206–233. Search in Google Scholar

Maasoumi, E., and M. Trede. 2001. “Comparing Income Mobility in Germany and the United States Using Generalized Entropy Mobility Measures.” Review of Economics and Statistics 83(3): 551–559. Search in Google Scholar

Metzing, M. 2018. “Do Justice Perceptions Support the Concept of Equal Sacrifice? Evidence from Germany.” SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1002. Search in Google Scholar

Modigliani, F., and R. Brumberg. 1954. “Utility Analysis and the Consumption Function: An Interpretation of Cross-section Data.” In Post Keynsian Economics, edited by K. K. Kurihara, 388–436. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Olney, W. W. 2015. “Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration.” Journal of Human Resources 50(3): 694–727. Search in Google Scholar

Pfeifer, C. 2014. “Determinants of Fair own Wage Perceptions: the Moderating Effect of Works Councils and Performance Evaluations.” Applied Economics Letters 21(1): 47–50. Search in Google Scholar

Pfeifer, C., and S. Schneck. 2017. “Do Unfair Perceived own Pay and Top Managers’ Pay Erode Satisfaction with Democracy?” Applied Economics Letters 24(17): 1263–1266. Search in Google Scholar

Pfeifer, C., and G. Stephan. 2019. “Why Women do Not Ask: Gender Differences in Fairness Perceptions of own Wages and Subsequent Wage Growth.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 43(2): 295–310. Search in Google Scholar

Pinger, P. R. 2017. “Predicting Experimental Choice Behavior and Life Outcomes from a Survey Measure of Present Bias.” Economics Bulletin 37(3): 2162–2172. Search in Google Scholar

Piper, A. T. 2019. “Optimism, Pessimism and Life Satisfaction: an Empirical Investigation.” SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1027. Search in Google Scholar

Pouwels, B., J. Siegers, and J. D. Vlasblom. 2008. “Income, Working Hours, and Happiness.” Economics letters 99(1): 72–74. Search in Google Scholar

Rainer, H., and T. Siedler. 2008. “Subjective Income and Employment Expectations and Preferences for Redistribution.” Economics Letters 99(3): 449–453. Search in Google Scholar

Rendtel, U. 1995. Lebenslagen im Wandel: Panelausfälle und Panelrepräsentativität, 1st ed. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag. Search in Google Scholar

Richter, D., and J. Schupp. 2015. “The SOEP Innovation Sample (SOEP IS).” Schmollers Jahrbuch 135(3): 389–399. Search in Google Scholar

Richter, D., J. Rohrer, M. Metzing, W. Nestler, M. Weinhardt, and J. Schupp. 2017. “SOEP Scales Manual (updated for SOEP-Core V32.1).” SOEP Survey Papers 423. DIW, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Schmitz, H. 2011. “Why Are the Unemployed in Worse Health? The Causal Effect of Unemployment on Health.” Labour Economics 18(1): 71–78. Search in Google Scholar

Schonlau, M., M. Kroh, and N. Watson. 2013. “The Implementation of Cross-sectional Weights in Household Panel Surveys.” Statistics Surveys 7(March): 37–57. Search in Google Scholar

Schreyögg, J., and M. M. Grabka. 2010. “Copayments for Ambulatory Care in Germany: A Natural Experiment Using a Difference-in-Difference Approach.” The European Journal of Health Economics 11:331–341. Search in Google Scholar

Schröder, C., and S. Yitzhaki. 2017. “Revisiting the Evidence for Cardinal Treatment of Ordinal Variables.” European Economic Review 92:337–358. Search in Google Scholar

Schröder, C., C. Bartels, M. M. Grabka, J. König, M. Kroh, and R. Siegers. 2019. “A Novel Sampling Strategy for Surveying High Net-Worth Individuals – A Pretest Application Using the Socio-Economic Panel.” Review of Income and Wealth. Online First. 10.1111/roiw.12452. Search in Google Scholar

Schwarze, J. 1995. “Simulating German Income and Social Security Tax Payments Using the GSOEP.” Cross-National Studies in Aging, Program Project Paper 19(19). Search in Google Scholar

Siedler, T. 2011. “Parental Unemployment and Young People’s Extreme Right-wing Party Affinity: Evidence from Panel Data.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 174:737–758. Search in Google Scholar

Siegers, R., V. Belcheva, and T. Silbermann. 2020. “SOEP-Core V35 – Documentation of Sample Sizes and Panel Attrition in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) (1984 until 2018).” SOEP Survey Papers 826. Search in Google Scholar

Sierminska, E., J. R. Frick, and M. M. Grabka. 2010. “Examining the Gender Wealth Gap.” Oxford Economic Papers 62(4): 669–690. Search in Google Scholar

Steiner, V., K. Wrohlich, P. Haan, and J. Geyer. 2012. “Documentation of the Tax-Benefit Microsimulation Model STSM.” DIW Berlin Data Documentation. Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Steinhardt, M. F. 2018. “The Impact of Xenophobic Violence on the Integration of Immigrants The Impact of Xenophobic Violence on the Integration of Immigrants.” IZA DP Series 11781. Search in Google Scholar

Stiglitz, J. E., A. Sen, and J. P. Fitoussi. 2009. Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Search in Google Scholar

Von Werder, M. 2018. “Intergenerational Transfers: How do They Shape the German Wealth Distribution?” Diskussionsbeiträge FU Berlin 2018/15. Search in Google Scholar

Weinhardt, M., A. Meyermann, S. Liebig, and J. Schupp. 2017. “The Linked Employer-Employee Study of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP-LEE): Content, Design and Research Potential.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 237(5): 457–467. Search in Google Scholar

Welsch, H., and P. Biermann. 2019. “Poverty is a Public Bad: Panel Evidence From Subjective Well-Being Data.” Review of Income and Wealth 65(1): 187–200. Search in Google Scholar

Westermeier, C., and M. Grabka. 2015. “Große Statistische Unsicherheit beim Anteil der Top-Vermögenden in Deutschland.” DIW-Wochenbericht 82(7): 123–133. Search in Google Scholar

Wrohlich, K., and V. Steiner. 2008. “Introducing Family Tax Splitting in Germany: How Would It Affect the Income Distribution, Work Incentives, and Household Welfare?” FinanzArchiv 64(1): 115. Search in Google Scholar

Zucman, G. 2019. “Global Wealth Inequality.” Annual Review of Economics 11(1): 109–138. 10.1146/annurev-economics. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2020-06-04
Published in Print: 2020-09-26

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston