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Silent conversation through Brushtalk (筆談): The use of Sinitic as a scripta franca in early modern East Asia

以筆談作緘默交談──漢字於近世東亞作爲交際文字之運用
  • David C. S. Li

    David C.S. Li has published in ‘Hongkong English’, ‘China English’, bilingual interaction and code-switching/translanguaging, multilingualism in Greater China, Chinese EFL errors and correction strategies, South Asian Hongkongers’ needs for Cantonese and written Chinese. He speaks Cantonese, English and Putonghua/Mandarin fluently, is conversant in German and French, and is learning Korean.

    李楚成的著作及研究範圍包括「香港英語」,中國英語,雙語對話及語碼轉換,大中華地區的多語狀況,華人學習英語時所面對的困難,常犯的英語文法錯處該如何糾正,以及南亞裔學生對廣東話及中文書面語的需要等。除了廣東話﹑英語和普通話之外,他能以純熟的法語和德語作口語及書面語的交流,並正在學習韓語。

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    , Reijiro Aoyama

    Reijiro Aoyama’s research has focused on Japanese studies, transnationalism and Japanese migrant communities in China and East Asia. His research interests include economic anthropology, writing technology and education, and the relationship between language and commodification. He has conducted several long-term ethnographies of the Japanese presence in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and has published on Japanese language education and Japanese diaspora in this region.

    青山玲二郎的研究主要是涉及中國和東亞地區的日本研究、跨國主義及日本移民社區。他的研究興趣包括經濟人類學、寫作技術和教育、語言和商品化的關係等。他曾在上海、廣州和香港進行過數次長期民族誌,並發表了該地區關於日語教育和日本僑民的研究。

    und Tak-sum Wong

    Tak-sum Wong is a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He received his BEng in Computer Science from HKUST in 2004 and his PhD in Linguistics from City University of Hong Kong in 2018. He has built a treebank of the Tripiṭaka Koreana during his doctoral studies and has been working on the quantitative study of historical syntax. His research interest covers Chinese historical linguistics, Cantonese linguistics, corpus linguistics, computer-assisted language learning, Chinese dialectology and Chinese paleography.

    黃得森於香港理工大學中文及雙語學系任職博士後研究員。其於二零零四年在香港科技大學獲得計算機科學工學士,並於二零一八年在香港城市大學獲頒授語言學哲學博士。黃得森之博士研究以《高麗藏》為題,為其建構樹庫,並進行計量歷史語法學之研究。其研究興趣包括漢語歷史語言學、粵語語言學、語料庫、電腦輔助語言學習、漢語方言學和漢語文字學。

Aus der Zeitschrift Global Chinese

Abstract

Literary Sinitic (written Chinese, hereafter Sinitic) functioned as a ‘scripta franca’ in sinographic East Asia, which broadly comprises China, Japan, South Korea and North Korea, and Vietnam today. It was widely used by East Asian literati to facilitate cross-border communication interactively face-to-face. This lingua-cultural practice is generally known as bĭtán 筆談, literally ‘brushtalk’ or ‘brush conversation’. While brushtalk as a substitute for speech to conduct ‘silent conversation’ has been reported since the Sui dynasty (581–619), in this paper brushtalk data will be drawn from sources involving transcultural, cross-border communication from late Ming dynasty (1368–1644) until the 1900s. Brushtalk occurred in four recurrent contexts, comprising both interactional and transactional communication: official brushtalk (公務筆談), poetic brushtalk (詩文筆談), travelogue brushtalk (遊歷筆談), and drifting brushtalk (漂流筆談). For want of space, we will exemplify brushtalk using selected examples drawn from the first three contexts. The use of Sinitic as a ‘scripta franca’ seems to be sui generis and under-researched linguistically and sociolinguistically. More research is needed to unveil the script-specific characteristics of Sinitic in cross-border communication.

摘要

漢字往昔於東亞文化圈起交際文字之作用,東亞文人恆以之作面對面的跨國界互動交流,中國、朝鮮、日本及越南皆如是。這旣是語言習慣,亦是文化習慣,一般稱之為「筆談」。以筆談替代口語作緘默交談之記錄,已早見於隋代,而本文之筆談則取材自明清時期記載跨越文化和國界交流之語料。筆談現象可分爲問訊型及互動型兩種,並反覆出現於四類語境:公務筆談、詩文筆談、遊歷筆談及漂流筆談。篇幅所限之故,此文舉例說明首三種語境下所產生之筆談。運用漢字作書面交際語似自成一格,而涉及語言學及社會語言學方面的討論亦不多。漢字於跨國界溝通用途上的文字特質,更是有待探討。

About the authors

David C. S. Li

David C.S. Li has published in ‘Hongkong English’, ‘China English’, bilingual interaction and code-switching/translanguaging, multilingualism in Greater China, Chinese EFL errors and correction strategies, South Asian Hongkongers’ needs for Cantonese and written Chinese. He speaks Cantonese, English and Putonghua/Mandarin fluently, is conversant in German and French, and is learning Korean.

李楚成的著作及研究範圍包括「香港英語」,中國英語,雙語對話及語碼轉換,大中華地區的多語狀況,華人學習英語時所面對的困難,常犯的英語文法錯處該如何糾正,以及南亞裔學生對廣東話及中文書面語的需要等。除了廣東話﹑英語和普通話之外,他能以純熟的法語和德語作口語及書面語的交流,並正在學習韓語。

Reijiro Aoyama

Reijiro Aoyama’s research has focused on Japanese studies, transnationalism and Japanese migrant communities in China and East Asia. His research interests include economic anthropology, writing technology and education, and the relationship between language and commodification. He has conducted several long-term ethnographies of the Japanese presence in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and has published on Japanese language education and Japanese diaspora in this region.

青山玲二郎的研究主要是涉及中國和東亞地區的日本研究、跨國主義及日本移民社區。他的研究興趣包括經濟人類學、寫作技術和教育、語言和商品化的關係等。他曾在上海、廣州和香港進行過數次長期民族誌,並發表了該地區關於日語教育和日本僑民的研究。

Tak-sum Wong

Tak-sum Wong is a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He received his BEng in Computer Science from HKUST in 2004 and his PhD in Linguistics from City University of Hong Kong in 2018. He has built a treebank of the Tripiṭaka Koreana during his doctoral studies and has been working on the quantitative study of historical syntax. His research interest covers Chinese historical linguistics, Cantonese linguistics, corpus linguistics, computer-assisted language learning, Chinese dialectology and Chinese paleography.

黃得森於香港理工大學中文及雙語學系任職博士後研究員。其於二零零四年在香港科技大學獲得計算機科學工學士,並於二零一八年在香港城市大學獲頒授語言學哲學博士。黃得森之博士研究以《高麗藏》為題,為其建構樹庫,並進行計量歷史語法學之研究。其研究興趣包括漢語歷史語言學、粵語語言學、語料庫、電腦輔助語言學習、漢語方言學和漢語文字學。

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Published Online: 2020-02-06
Published in Print: 2020-04-28

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Heruntergeladen am 29.2.2024 von https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/glochi-2019-0027/html?lang=de
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