A continuous flow microwave system based on a transmission line short-circuited waveguide reactor concept is described. The continuous flow reactor is capable of operating in a genuine high-temperature/high-pressure process window (310°C/60 bar), applying a microwave transparent and chemical resistant cylindrical γ-Al2O3 tube as reaction zone. The system can be operated in an extremely energy efficient manner, utilizing 0.6–6 kW microwave power (2.45 GHz). The application of the reactor for processing four chemical transformations in a high-temperature/high-pressure regime with a throughout of 3.5–6.0 l/h is demonstrated.
About the authors
Roman Morschhäuser is a corporate project manager and member of the application development team in Clariant’s detergent business. He studied polymer chemistry at the Johannes-Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany and received his doctoral degree in 1997 on the anionic polymerization of aminofunctionalized Isprene derivates. After joining the Höchst AG in 1997, he was transferred to Clariant GmbH and worked in several positions within research and development and production technology. Since 2004, he coordinates all microwave related activities within the Clariant group and is currently responsible for further development of this technology. Roman Morschhäuser has several patents in different disciplines like personal care, oil field applications, crop protection and microwave-assisted organic synthesis. In 2007, his team was awarded “Best Innovation Contributor 2007” from Henkel Kg for the development of special laundry additives.
Matthias Krull manages Innovation and Patents in the Business Line Refinery Services at Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany. He received his diploma and doctoral degree in bioorganic chemistry (1989) from the Free University in Berlin, Germany, where he worked on the synthesis of surface active compounds and their characterization in surface monolayers and lipid membranes. In 1990, he started his professional career at Hoechst AG in Frankfurt, Germany as a research chemist in the development of oilfield chemicals. In different R&D positions at Hoechst and later Clariant, his main research interest was the application-oriented design of monomeric as well as polymeric chemicals and their scale-up to commercial scale. He is a named (co-)inventor of numerous patent applications. Since 2002, he focuses on strategies for IP protection and innovation for the oilfield business and for microwave technology.
Christoph Kayser is head of application development for well service additives for Oil and Mining Services at Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany. His group develops application solutions for oil and natural gas well drilling, cementing and stimulation. He studied chemistry at the Johannes-Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA. He received his diploma and doctoral degree (1999) from the Johannes-Gutenberg University in Mainz, where he worked on the synthesis and phase behavior of soluble graphene-based materials. In 1998, Kayser joined Clariant as a research chemist in polymer chemistry. His main research interest was in the field of functional water soluble polymers for the oilfield industry, the synthesis of macro-monomers, surfactants and microwave-assisted chemistry. He worked on the design of polymer plants for specialty polymers and the design of microwave reaction systems. Since 2008, Kayser heads application development for well service additives.
Cornelia Boberski is a project management advisor focused on developing new businesses within the chemical industry. She works on developing breakthrough ideas and positioning the business concepts with customers and suppliers and accompanying these projects to their final implementation with the customers. Cornelia Boberski received her doctoral degree in Experimental Petrology in high pressure synthesis of inorganic compounds (1986) from the Institute of Mineralogy of Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Following positions at university, she was a researcher with IBM Research Laboratories, Yorktown Heights, New York, USA (1987) and then spent a total of 25 years as a manager in the chemical industry. There, she worked closely with customers across the automotive, raw materials and electronics industries in research and development, marketing and sales and as a business manager for Hoechst and Clariant in Frankfurt, Germany. Cornelia Boberski has patents in material science and has published numerous scientific papers. In 2005, she founded and leads the company Innoturn®, which provides project management advice and implementation of innovation to the industry.
Ralf Bierbaum received his diploma in process engineering from the Technical University (TU) Clausthal (2001) and his doctoral degree in process engineering from the TU Bergakademie Freiberg (2005). Since beginning at Clariant in 2005, he has participated in research of microwave-assisted reaction control. Currently, he is working as an assistant plant manager. He also teaches chemical reaction technology at the University of Applied Science Darmstadt. Other research and development interests include thermal and mechanical separation technology as well as safety technology and plant planning.
Mr. Peter Püschner is the owner of Püschner GmbH +Co. KG. The company was founded in 1970 by his father, who was involved in the development of the first industrial magnetrons at Philips. Peter Püschner studied electrical engineering with a focus on telecommunication and microwaves. After getting his diploma, Peter Püschner worked 7 years for Draeger Medical in R&D for pediatric incubators and ventilators and as a product manager. In 1996, he took over the family business from his father. Currently, Pueschner Microwaves has approximately 20 employees and operates from its headquarters in the north of Germany near Bremen. Pueschner Microwaves is developing and producing industrial microwave machines for the pharmaceutical, medical, chemical, ceramic and food industries. Most applications are developed in close cooperation with the clients. Peter Püschner has patents in microwave technology and has published numerous scientific papers. Pueschner Microwaves is known to be a highly specialized engineering company capable of developing advanced process technology for new industrial microwave applications.
Toma N. Glasnov perused his PhD studies in the group of Prof. C. Oliver Kappe at Karl-Franzens-University in Graz, Austra during the period 2003–2007. After obtaining his PhD, he continued as a research fellow at the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry at the same university. His current research interests are in the areas of synthetic preparation/scaffold decoration of biologically active heterocycles, transition metal-catalyzed reactions and microwave and continuous-flow chemistry.
C. Oliver Kappe received his doctoral degree from the Karl-Franzens-University in Graz, Austria where he worked with Professor Gert Kollenz on cycloaddition and rearrangement reactions of acylketenes. After periods of postdoctoral research work with Professor Curt Wentrup at the University of Queens\xadland, Australia, and with Professor Albert Padwa at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, he moved back to the University of Graz where he obtained his “Habilitation” in 1998 and currently holds the position of professor for Organic Synthesis Technology. In 2006, he was appointed director of the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry at the University of Graz. His main current research interests include process intensification using microwave and continuous flow technology. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of Flow Chemistry.
©2012 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston
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