The present study was focused on the assessment of genetic diversity in twenty-three populations of Orobanche cumana parasitizing on sunflower in Bulgaria, Turkey, Moldova and Romania using 13 ISSR markers. The obtained results on the genetic diversity parameters showed that the broomrape populations were characterised by a significant level of the intrapopulation diversity. In addition, descriptive population genetic statistics revealed that Turkish populations had a higher level of genetic diversity indices than populations from several areas of the northeast and east of the Balkan Peninsula included in Eastern Europe. The analysis of molecular variance showed that 38 % of the genetic variability was due to differences within populations, 34 % was due to differences among populations and the lowest molecular variation was among countries (28 %). According to clustering and PCA methods, Moldavian, Bulgarian and Romanian broomrapes shared more genetic traits with each other than with Turkish populations within a main gene pool. As a whole, all results of this study showed that there is a high intrapopulation diversity of the O. cumana gene pool in the Black Sea basin. From the clustering and PCA analyses, it can be concluded that the grouping of broomrape populations is partly determined by their geographical origin, as well as by the genetic differences and similarities accumulated over time, and is not related to virulence. The information obtained from this study may be highly relevant in contributing to the development of sustainable control strategies of the pathogen and breeding programmes for sunflower resistance to broomrape.
Funding source: National Agency for Research and Development, Republic of Moldova.
Award Identifier / Grant number: 20.80009.5107.01
The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Yalcin Kaya (Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey), Dr. Valentina Encheva (Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo, Bulgaria), Dr. Maria Joiţa-Păcureanu (National Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Fundulea, Romania) for kindly providing the broomrape seeds used in this research.
Research ethics: The local Institutional Review Board deemed the study exempt from review.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Research funding: This study was supported by the National Agency for Research and Development of the Republic of Moldova, project 20.80009.5107.01 “Genetico-molecular and biotechnological studies of the sunflower in the context of sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems”.
Data availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author, [Bivol Ina].
Benharrat, H., Veronesi, C., Theodet, C., and Thalouarn, P. (2002). Orobanche species and population discrimination using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR). Weed Res. 42: 470–475, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3180.2002.00305.x.Search in Google Scholar
Bilgen, B.B., Barut, A.K., and Demirbaş, S. (2019). Genetic characterization of Orobanche cumana populations from the Thrace region of Turkey using microsatellite markers. Turk. J. Bot. 43: 38–47, https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1807-71.Search in Google Scholar
Calderón-González, A. (2021). Breeding strategies for resistance to sunflower broomrape: new sources of resistance and markers for resistance and avirulence genes, Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Córdoba. UCOPress, Spain, p. 226.Search in Google Scholar
Calderón-González, Á., Pouilly, N., Muños, S., Grand, X., Coque, M., Velasco, L., and Pérez-Vich, B. (2019). An SSR-SNP linkage map of the parasitic weed Orobanche cumana Wallr. including a gene for plant pigmentation. Front. Plant Sci. 10: 10p, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00797.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Ciuca, M., Pacureanu, M., and Iuoras, M. (2004). RAPD markers for polymorphism identification in parasitic weed Orobanche cumana Wallr. Rom. Agric. Res. 21: 29–32.Search in Google Scholar
Clapco, S., Martea, R., and Duca, M. (2020). Relaţia dintre distanţa genetică şi distanţa geografică la unele populaţii de Orobanche cumana Wallr. din Republica Moldova. S. A. 1: 73–80, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3893057.Search in Google Scholar
Cvejić, S., Radanović, A., Dedić, B., Jocković, M., Jocić, S., and Miladinović, D. (2020). Genetic and genomic tools in sunflower breeding for broomrape resistance. Genes 11: 152: 17p, https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020152.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Duca, M., Bivol, I., Mutu, A., Clapco, S., and Wang, C. (2021). Variabilitatea unor populatii de lupoaie originare din China. Genotiparea și determinarea polimofismului genetic (II). Academos 61: 61–69, https://doi.org/10.52673/18570461.21.2-61.04.Search in Google Scholar
Duca, M., Joiţa-Păcureanu, M., Port, A., Martea, R., Boicu, A., Rîşnoveanu, L., and Clapco, S. (2019). Genetic diversity analysis of sunflower broomrape populations from Republic of Moldova using ISSR markers. Rom. Agric. Res. 37: 3–11, https://doi.org/10.59665/rar3712.Search in Google Scholar
Duca, M., Port, A., and Boicu, A. (2017). Molecular characterisation of broomrape populations from Republic of Moldova using SSR markers. Helia 40: 47–60, https://doi.org/10.1515/helia-2017-0003.Search in Google Scholar
Fernández-Martínez, J.M., Domínguez, J., and Pérez-Vich, B. (2008). Update on breeding for resistance to sunflower broomrape. Helia 31: 73–84, https://doi.org/10.2298/hel0848073f.Search in Google Scholar
Guchetl, S.Z., Antonova, T.S., and Tchelustnikova, T.A. (2014a). Genetic similarity and differences between the Orobanche cumana Wallr. populations from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Romania revealed using the markers of simple sequence repeat. Russ. Agric. Sci. 40: 326–330, https://doi.org/10.3103/s1068367414050103.Search in Google Scholar
Guchetl, S.Z., Antonova, T.S., and Tchelustnikova, T.A. (2014b). Interpopulation genetic differentiation Orobanche cumana Wallr. from Russia, Kazakhstan and Romania using molecular genetic markers. Helia 37: 181–191, https://doi.org/10.1515/helia-2014-0020.Search in Google Scholar
Ivanović, Ž., Marisavljević, D., Marinković, R., Mitrović, P., Blagojević, J., Nikolić, I., and Pavlović, D. (2021). Genetic diversity of Orobanche cumana populations in Serbia. Plant Pathol. J. 37: 512–520, https://doi.org/10.5423/ppj.oa.04.2021.0066.Search in Google Scholar
Jebri, M., Ben Khalifa, M., Fakhfakh, H., Pérez-Vich, B., and Velasco, L. (2017). Genetic diversity and race composition of sunflower broomrape populations from Tunisia. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 56: 421–430, https://doi.org/10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-20839.Search in Google Scholar
Kaya, Y. and Evci, G. (2009). The recent developments of chemical control and resistance breeding to broomrape in sunflower. In: Proceedings of the 10th world Congress on Parasitic Plants. Kusadasi, Turkey, 08-12 June, 2009, p. 129.Search in Google Scholar
Molinero-Ruiz, L., Delavault, Ph., Pérez-Vich, B., Pacureanu-Joita, M., Bulos, M., Altieri, E., and Domínguez, J. (2015). History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: a review. Span. J. Agric. Res. 13: 1–19, https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015134-8080.Search in Google Scholar
Pineda-Martos, R., Velasco, L., Fernandez-Escobar, J., Fernandez-Martinez, J.M., and Perez-Vich, B. (2013). Genetic diversity of Orobanche cumana populations from Spain assessed using SSR markers. Weed Res. 53: 279–289, https://doi.org/10.1111/wre.12022.Search in Google Scholar
Pineda-Martos, R., Velasco, L., Pujadas-Salvà, A.J., Fernández-Martínez, J.M., and Pérez-Vich, B. (2014a). Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. cernua L. (Orobanchaceae) populations in the Iberian Peninsula. Helia 37: 161–171, https://doi.org/10.1515/helia-2014-0036.Search in Google Scholar
Pineda-Martos, R., Pujadas-Salvà, A.J., Fernández-Martínez, J.M., Stoyanov, K., Velasco, L., and Pérez-Vich, B. (2014b). The genetic structure of wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) populations in eastern Bulgaria reflects introgressions from weedy populations. Sci. World J. 2014: 15p, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/150432.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Sambrook, J. and Russell, D. (2001). Molecular cloning. A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, Vol. I–III, pp. 1885.Search in Google Scholar
Stockwell, C.A., Hendry, A.P., and Kinnison, M.T. (2003). Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 94–101, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-5347(02)00044-7.Search in Google Scholar
Wright, S. (1978). Evolution and the genetic of population, variability within and among natural populations. Variability within and among natural populations, Vol. 4. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 590.Search in Google Scholar
Yang, Q., Fu, Y., Wang, Y.Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, W.H., Li, X.Y., Reng, Y.Q., and Zhang, J. (2014). Genetic diversity and differentiation in the critically endangered orchid (Amitostigma hemipilioides): implications for conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 300: 871–879, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-013-0926-3.Search in Google Scholar
© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston