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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 28, 2013

Spruce fiber properties after high-temperature thermomechanical pulping (HT-TMP)

  • Iina Solala EMAIL logo , Toni Antikainen , Mehedi Reza , Leena-Sisko Johansson , Mark Hughes and Tapani Vuorinen
From the journal Holzforschung


Spruce was submitted to high-temperature (150°C–170°C) refining for 2 or 5 min to produce thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers with decreased electrical energy consumption. The pulp was characterized in terms of specific energy consumption as well as tensile and surface properties. The fibers from high-temperature TMP contained more surface lignin even if all sample types usually broke at the S1–S2 cell wall region. They also produced significantly weaker paper sheets, whereas their dry zero-span strength did not suffer substantial losses, indicating decreased fiber-fiber bonding. Tensile strength properties were also determined of a bisphenol-A-epichlorohydrin-based epoxy resin mixed with 5% fiber as a test for fiber-matrix compatibility in composite applications. Based on these preliminary results, high-temperature TMP shows potential for composite reinforcement due to its lower tendency to aggregate and its better compatibility with the tested matrix material.

Corresponding author: Iina Solala, Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, 00076 Espoo, Finland, e-mail:

The authors gratefully acknowledge Multidisciplinary Institute of Digitalisation and Energy for financial support and are thankful for UPM for providing the spruce chips. Furthermore, we thank Joseph Campbell for skillful XPS analysis, Benozir Ahmed for participating in the refining and paper testing, and Rita Hatakka for performing the HPAEC-PAD measurements.


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Received: 2013-5-10
Accepted: 2013-8-2
Published Online: 2013-08-28
Published in Print: 2014-02-01

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston

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