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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2014

The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

  • Anti Rohumaa EMAIL logo , Christopher G. Hunt , Charles R. Frihart , Pekka Saranpää , Martin Ohlmeyer and Mark Hughes
From the journal Holzforschung


Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly, veneers produced from logs felled in autumn were dried at 103°C for 24 h and subsequently half of these veneers were heat-treated at 180°C for 3 h. In addition, veneers produced from logs felled in all three seasons were dried at 160°C for 3.5 min to simulate industrial drying. The wettability of veneers was evaluated goniometrically, and bonding strength was evaluated with an automated bonding evaluation system (ABES). The results show that soaking birch logs at 70°C rather than at 20°C before peeling, or harvesting trees in the spring rather than in the autumn or winter, gives rise to veneers with enhanced wettability and higher bond strengths with a phenol-formaldehyde adhesive. Changes in the preparation and history of a veneer surface may have a profound effect on the development of adhesive bonds.

Corresponding author: Anti Rohumaa, Wood Material Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 16400, 00076 Aalto, Finland, e-mail:


The authors acknowledge the financial assistance provided by the European Commission by way of a Short Term Scientific Mission to the University of Hamburg under the auspices of COST Action E49. This work formed part of a larger project funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) and industry. Financial support from these sources is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to Philip E. Humphrey of Adhesive Evaluation Systems Incorporated and to staff at the University of Hamburg and US Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory in Madison for helpful discussions.


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Received: 2013-8-30
Accepted: 2014-3-6
Published Online: 2014-4-2
Published in Print: 2014-12-1

©2014 by De Gruyter

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