Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 12, 2017

Tannin-boron complex as a preservative for 3-ply beech plywoods designed for humid conditions

  • Davood Efhamisisi EMAIL logo , Marie-France Thevenon , Yahya Hamzeh , Antonio Pizzi , Ali Karimi and Kambiz Pourtahmasi
From the journal Holzforschung


Boric acid (BA) effectively controls wood-rotting fungi and termite attack but is readily leached out in outdoor exposure. A newly developed tannin-boron (TB) complex has been investigated to reduce BA leaching and to preserve beech plywood from biological attack. Wood veneers were impregnated with different TB solutions and then bonded with a melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) adhesive for bond class 2 applications. The formation of a solid hydrophobic TB network on the veneer surfaces partially decreased the tensile shear strength of plywood but the prepared panels met the requirements for bond class 2. The plywood samples made from veneers treated with only BA solutions showed fair resistance against white rot fungus and termite attack, but the durability decreased even after mild leaching tests. The panels made of treated veneers with TB formulations showed instead a high resistance against biological attack after mild leaching and to some extent after severe leaching tests. This depended on the concentration of tannin and BA in the solutions. Favorable results were obtained with 20% tannin in the formulation. The results of the termites feeding choice test were more positive than those obtained by a forced feeding test. The control samples were attacked faster and showed higher weight loss when alternative samples included TB formulations.


The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial contribution of the French embassy in Iran.


Ahmed, B.M., French, J.R., Vinden, P. (2004) Evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatives to control subterranean termites in Australia. Holzforschung 58:1–9.10.1515/HF.2004.068Search in Google Scholar

Afnor standard (2014) NFX 41 569. Wood preservatives – Laboratory method for obtaining samples for analysis to measure losses by leaching into water or synthetic sea water.Search in Google Scholar

Anttila, A.-K., Pirttilä, A.M., Häggman, H., Harju, A., Venäläinen, M., Haapala, A., Holmbom, B., Julkunen-Tiitto, R. (2013) Condensed conifer tannins as antifungal agents in liquid culture. Holzforschung 67:825–832.10.1515/hf-2012-0154Search in Google Scholar

Bridaux, V., Charrier, B., Fauroux, N., Charrier, F., Goncalez, J. (2001) Addition of boron based compound in the lvl glueline: effect on the mechanical properties and the leaching of boron. Holzforschung 55:559–562.10.1515/HF.2001.090Search in Google Scholar

Caldeira, F. (2010) Boron in wood preservation–a review in its physico-chemical aspects. Silva Lusit. 18:179–196.Search in Google Scholar

Colakoglu, G., Colak, S., Aydin, I., Yildiz, U.C., Yildiz, S. (2003) Effect of boric acid treatment on mechanical properties of laminated beech veneer lumber. Silva Fenn. 37:505–510.10.14214/sf.488Search in Google Scholar

Drysdale, J.A. (1994) Boron treatments for the preservation of wood: a review of efficacy data for fungi and termites. In: International Research Group on wood preservation. IRGWP-94-30037.Search in Google Scholar

Efhamisisi, D., Thevenon, M.-F., Hamzeh, Y., Karimi, A.-N., Pizzi, A., Pourtahmasi, K. (2016) Induced tannin adhesive by boric acid addition and its effect on bonding quality and biological performance of poplar plywood. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 4:2734–2740.10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00230Search in Google Scholar

European standard (1993) EN 314-2. Plywood -Bonding quality – Part 2: requirements.Search in Google Scholar

European standard (1993) EN 323. Wood-based panels. Determination of density.Search in Google Scholar

European standard (1997) EN 84. Wood preservatives – accelerated ageing of treated wood prior to biological testing. Leaching procedure.Search in Google Scholar

European standard (2003) ENV 12038. Durability of wood and wood-based products – wood-based panels – method of test for determining the resistance against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes.Search in Google Scholar

European standard (2004) EN 314-1. Plywood – Bonding quality -Part 1: test methods.Search in Google Scholar

European standard (2013) EN 117. Wood preservatives – Determination of toxic values against Reticulitermes species (European termites) (Laboratory method).Search in Google Scholar

Freeman, M.H., Mcintyre, C.R., Jackson, D. (2009) A critical and comprehensive review of boron in wood preservation. In: Proceedings of the American Wood Protection Association-AWPA, 105. pp. 279–294.Search in Google Scholar

ISO 3696. (1995) Water for analytical laboratory use – Specification and test methods.Search in Google Scholar

Jebrane, M., Heinmaa, I. (2016) Covalent fixation of boron in wood through transesterification with vinyl ester of carboxyphenylboronic acid. Holzforschung 70:577–583.10.1515/hf-2015-0118Search in Google Scholar

Kartal, S.N. (2006) Combined effect of boron compounds and heat treatments on wood properties: Boron release and decay and termite resistance. Holzforschung 60:455–458.10.1515/HF.2006.072Search in Google Scholar

Kirker, G.T., Blodgett, A.B., Arango, R.A., Lebow, P.K., Clausen, C.A. (2013) The role of extractives in naturally durable wood species. Int. biodeterior. Biodegrad. 82:53–58.10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.03.007Search in Google Scholar

Laks, P.E., McKaig, A. (1988) Flavonoid Biocides: Wood preservatives based on condensed tannins. Holzforschung 42:299–306.10.1515/hfsg.1988.42.5.299Search in Google Scholar

Lesar, B., Ugovsek, A., Kariz, M., Sernek, M. (2011) Influence of boron compounds in adhesives on the bonding quality and fungicidal properties of wood. Wood Res. 56:385–392.Search in Google Scholar

Li, Q., Lin, J., Liu, J. (2013) Decay resistance of wood treated with extracts of cinnamomum camphora xylem. Bioresource. 8:4208–4217.10.15376/biores.8.3.4208-4217Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd, J.D. (1997) International status of borate perservative systems. In: The seconed international conference on wood protection with diffusible preservatives and pesticidesed. Forests Products Society, Alabama, 45–54.Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd, J.D., Schoeman, M.W., Stanley, R. (1998) Remedial timber treatment with borates. In: 3rd international conference on urban pests. Eds. Robinson, W.H., Rettich, F., Rambo, G.W. Czech Republic, 415–423.Search in Google Scholar

Namyslo, J.C., Kaufmann, D.E. (2009) Chemical improvement of surfaces. Part 1: novel functional modification of wood with covalently bound organoboron compounds. Holzforschung 63:627–632.10.1515/HF.2009.112Search in Google Scholar

Pizzi, A. (2006) Recent developments in eco-efficient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: opportunities and issues. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 20:829–846.10.1163/156856106777638635Search in Google Scholar

Pizzi, A., Baecker, A. (1996) A new boron fixation mechanism for environment friendly wood preservatives. Holzforschung 50:507–510.10.1515/hfsg.1996.50.6.507Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt, O. Wood and Tree Fungi– Biology, Damage, Protection, and Use (p. 334). Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Schoeman, M.W., Lloyd, J.D. (1998) International standardisation: a hypothetical case study with stand-alone borate wood preservatives. In: International Research Group on Wood Preservation IRG/WP 98-20147. Stockholm Sweden.Search in Google Scholar

Singh, T., Singh, A.P. (2012) A review on natural products as wood protectant. Wood Sci. Technol. 46:851–870.10.1007/s00226-011-0448-5Search in Google Scholar

Syofuna, A., Banana, A.Y., Nakabonge, G. (2012) Efficiency of natural wood extractives as wood preservatives against termite attack. Maderas. Cienc. y Tecnol. 14:155–163.10.4067/S0718-221X2012000200003Search in Google Scholar

Tascioglu, C., Yalcin, M., de Troya, T., Sivrikaya, H. (2012) Termiticidal properties of some wood and bark extracts used as wood preservatives. Bioresource. 7:2960–2969.Search in Google Scholar

Thevenon, M.-F., Pizzi, A., Haluk, J. (1997) Non-toxic albumin and soja protein borates as ground-contact wood preservatives. Holz als Roh-und Werkst. 55:293–296.10.1007/s001070050231Search in Google Scholar

Thevenon, M.-F., Tondi, G., Pizzi, A. (2009) High performance tannin resin-boron wood preservatives for outdoor end-uses. Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 67:89–93.10.1007/s00107-008-0290-0Search in Google Scholar

Thevenon, M.-F., Tondi, G., Pizzi, A. (2010) Friendly wood preservative system based on polymerized tannin resin-boric acid for outdoor applications. Maderas. Cienc. y Tecnol. 12:253–257.10.4067/S0718-221X2010000300009Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Wieland, S., Lemenager, N., Petutschnigg, A., Pizzi, A., Thevenon, M.-F. (2012a) Efficacy of tannin in fixing boron in wood fungal and termite resistance. BioResources. 7:1238–1252.10.15376/biores.7.4.5138-5151Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Wieland, S., Wimmer, T., Thevenon, M.-F., Pizzi, A., Petutschnigg, A. (2012b) Tannin-boron preservatives for wood buildings: mechanical and fire properties. Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 70:689–696.10.1007/s00107-012-0603-1Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Palanti, S., Wieland, S., Thevenon, M.-F., Petutschnigg, A., Schnabel, T. (2012c) Durability of tannin-boron-treated timber. BioResources. 7:5138–5151.10.15376/biores.7.4.5138-5151Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Schnabel, T., Wieland, S., Petutschnigg, A. (2013a) Surface properties of tannin treated wood during natural and artificial weathering. Int. Wood Prod. J. 4:150–157.10.1179/2042645313Y.0000000047Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Thevenon, M. -F., Mies, B., Standfest, G., Petutschnigg, A., Wieland, S. (2013b) Impregnation of Scots pine and beech with tannin solutions: effect of viscosity and wood anatomy in wood infiltration. Wood Sci. Technol. 47:615–626.10.1007/s00226-012-0524-5Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Tondi, G., Haurie, L., Wieland, S., Petutschnigg, A., Lacasta, A., Monton, J. (2014) Comparison of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate-based and tannin-boron-based formulations as fire retardant for wood structures. Fire Mater. 38:381–390.10.1002/fam.2186Search in Google Scholar

Tondi, G., Hu, J., Thevenon, M.-F. (2015) Advanced tannin based wood preservatives. Forest Prod. J. 65:526–532.Search in Google Scholar

Tsunoda, K. (2001) Preservative properties of vapor-boron- treated wood and wood-based composites. J. Wood Sci. 47:149–153.10.1007/BF00780565Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-8-22
Accepted: 2016-11-29
Published Online: 2017-1-12
Published in Print: 2017-3-1

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 8.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button