Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 7, 2017

Static and dynamic tensile shear test of glued lap wooden joint with four different types of adhesives

Erik V. Bachtiar, Gaspard Clerc, Andreas J. Brunner, Michael Kaliske and Peter Niemz
From the journal Holzforschung

Abstract

Investigations of quasi-static and fatigue failure in glued wooden joints subjected to tensile shear loading are presented. Lap joints of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) connected with four different types of adhesives, i.e. polyurethane (PUR), melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF), bone glue and fish glue, were experimentally tested until the specimens failed. The average shear strengths obtained from the quasi-static test ranged from 12.2 to 13.4 MPa. These results do not indicate any influence of the different adhesive types. The influence of the adhesives is only visible from the results of the fatigue tests, which were carried out under different stress excitation levels between 45% and 75% of the shear strength. Specimens bound with ductile adhesive (PUR) showed a slightly higher number of cycles to failure (Nf) at low-stress levels and lower Nf at high-stress levels in comparison to more brittle adhesives (MUF, fish glue). In general, the performances of animal glues and MUF were similar in both quasi-static and fatigue loading under dry conditions.

Acknowledgements

Special acknowledgement is attributed to Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, project no. KA 1163/25) and Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF, project no. 14762) for the funding of this study.

References

ASTM-D5266 (2013) Standard practice for estimating the percentage of wood failure in adhesives bonded joints. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Bond, I.P., Ansell, M.P. (1998) Fatigue properties of jointed wood composites. Part I statistical analysis, fatigue master curves and constant life diagrams. J. Mater. Sci. 33:2751–2762.10.1023/A:1017565215274Search in Google Scholar

Bonfield, P.W., Ansell, M.P. (1991) Fatigue properties of wood in tension, compression and shear. J. Mater. Sci. 26:4765–4773.10.1007/BF00612416Search in Google Scholar

Bonfield, P.W., Bond, I.P., Hacker, C.L., Ansell, M.P. (1992) Fatigue testing of wood composited for aerogenerator blades. Part VII, alternative wood species and joints. Mechanical Engineering Publication Ltd., B.R. Clayton, London.Search in Google Scholar

Clauß, S., Joscak, M., Niemz, P. (2011) Thermal stability of glued wood joints measured by shear tests. Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 69:101–111.10.1007/s00107-010-0411-4Search in Google Scholar

Clorius, O.C., Pedersen, U.M., Hoffmeyer, P., Damkilde, L. (2000) Compressive fatigue in wood. Wood Sci. Tech. 34:21–37.10.1007/s002260050005Search in Google Scholar

DIN-EN-302-1 (2000) Adhesives for load-bearing timber structures – Test methods – Part 1: Determination of bond strength in longitudinal tensile shear strength. Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Germany.Search in Google Scholar

Gillwald, W. (1966) Investigations on the fatigue resistance of multiple layer particleboard. Holz Roh- Werkst. 24:445–449.10.1007/BF02612871Search in Google Scholar

Hass, P., Müller, C., Clauss, S., Niemz, P. (2009) Influence of growth ring angle, adhesive system and viscosity on the shear strength of adhesive bonds. Wood Mater. Sci. Eng. 4:140–146.10.1080/17480270903421529Search in Google Scholar

Hass, P., Wittel, F.K., Mendoza, M., Herrmann, H.J., Niemz, P. (2012) Adhesive penetration in beech wood: experiments. Wood Sci. Tech. 46: 243–256.10.1007/s00226-011-0410-6Search in Google Scholar

Hass, P., Kläusler, O., Schlegel, S., Niemz, P. (2014) Effects of mechanical and chemical surface preparation on adhesively bonded wooden joints. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 51:95–102.10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2014.02.014Search in Google Scholar

Jamieson, P. Innovation in Wind Turbine Design. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2011.10.1002/9781119975441Search in Google Scholar

Kläusler, O., Clauss, S., Lübke, L., Trachsel, J., Niemz, P. (2013) Influence of moisture on stress-strain behavior of adhesives used for structural bonding of wood. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 44:57–65.10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2013.01.015Search in Google Scholar

Knight, R.A.G. Adhesives for Wood. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1952.Search in Google Scholar

Kollmann, F., Krech, H. (1961) Fracture range and fatigue resistance of particle board. Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 19:113–118.10.1007/BF02609523Search in Google Scholar

Kollmann, F.F.P., Cote, W.A. Principles of Wood Science and Technology – Solid Wood. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany, 1968.10.1007/978-3-642-87928-9Search in Google Scholar

Konnerth, J., Hahn, G., Gindl, W. (2009) Feasibility of particle board production using bone glue. Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 67:243–245.10.1007/s00107-009-0307-3Search in Google Scholar

Kyanka, G.H. (1980) Fatigue properties of wood and wood composites. Int. J. Fract. 16:609–616.10.1007/BF02265220Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, W.C. (1960) Design consideration of fatigue in timber structures. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 86:15–23.Search in Google Scholar

Li, J., Hunt, J.F., Gong, S., Cai, Z. (2016) Fatigue behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panel (ESCP). Holzforschung 70:567–575.10.1515/hf-2015-0091Search in Google Scholar

Li, L., Gong, M., Smith, I., Li, D. (2012) Exploratory study on fatigue behavior of laterally loaded, nailed timber joints, based on dissipated energy criterion. Holzforschung 66:863–869.10.1515/hf-2011-0077Search in Google Scholar

Nakano, T. (1997) Fatigue and heating in the non-linear region for wood. Holzforschung 51:309–315.10.1515/hfsg.1997.51.4.309Search in Google Scholar

Olson, W.Z., Bensend, D.W., Bruce, H.D. Resistance of Several Types of Glue in Wood Joints to Fatigue Stressing. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, WI, 1955.Search in Google Scholar

Ritchie, R.O. (1999) Mehcanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids. Int. J. Fract. 100:55–83.10.1023/A:1018655917051Search in Google Scholar

Schellmann, N. (2009) Animal glues – their adhesive properties, longevity and suggested use for repairing taxidermy specimens. Natur. Sci. Collect. Assoc. News 7:36–40.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, I., Landis, E., Gong, M. Fracture and Fatigue in Wood. Wiley, Chichester, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

Sweatt, H.B. (1946) The properties of animal glue. J. Chem. Educ. 23:192–194.10.1021/ed023p192Search in Google Scholar

Tsai, K.T., Ansell, M.P. (1990) The fatigue properties of wood in flexure. J. Mater. Sci. 25:865–878.10.1007/BF03372174Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-9-16
Accepted: 2017-1-5
Published Online: 2017-2-7
Published in Print: 2017-5-1

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston