Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 31, 2017

Phylogenetic analysis of wood-inhabiting molds and assessment of soft-rot wood deterioration. Part 5. Genus Aureobasidium

Young Min Lee , Hanbyul Lee , Young Mok Heo , Joo-Hyun Hong , Seokyoon Jang , Kyu-Young Kang and Jae-Jin Kim EMAIL logo
From the journal Holzforschung


The genus Aureobasidium is wellknown as a wood-staining mold and as a black yeast-like fungi, which produces mainly dark spores or pigmented hyphae within the wood cell lumens. Nevertheless, few studies are dedicated to wood-colonizing Aureobasidium species and little is known about the wood degradation patterns of this genus. In the present study, four Aureobasidium species, including Aureobasidium melanogenum, Aureobasidium leucospermi, Aureobasidium pullulans, and an unknown Aureobasidium sp., were isolated and identified based on phylogenetic analysis. A. melanogenum and A. leucospermi were observed for the first time in Korea. The degradation pattern of Douglas-fir by Aureobasidium was observed for the first time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All tested Aureobasidium species except an unknown Aureobasidium sp. revealed soft-rot Type ΙΙ (erosion) in sapwood pine.


This study was supported by a Korea University Grant.


Arzanlou, M. (2014) Molecular Characterization of Aureobasidium species in Iran. Res. Mol. Med. 2:28–33.10.18869/acadpub.rmm.2.2.28Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A. (2000) A review of microbial deterioration found in archaeological wood from different environments. Int. Biodeterioration Biodegrad. 46:189–204.10.1016/S0964-8305(00)00077-9Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A. Deterioration in Historic and Archaeological Woods from Terrestrial Sites. Art, Biology, and Conservation: Biodeterioration of Works of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, pp. 328–347, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A., Held, B.W., Jurgens, J.A., McNew, D.L., Harrington, T.C., Duncan, S.M., Farrell, R.L. (2004) Wood-destroying soft rot fungi in the historic expedition huts of Antarctica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:1328–1335.10.1128/AEM.70.3.1328-1335.2004Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Chan, G.F., Puad, M.S.A., Chin, C.F., Rashid, N.A.A. (2011) Emergence of Aureobasidium pullulans as human fungal pathogen and molecular assay for future medical diagnosis. Folia Microbiol. 56:459–467.10.1007/s12223-011-0070-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed

de Hoog, G.S., Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G. (1998) Molecular diagnostics of clinical strains of filamentous Basidiomycetes. Mycoses 41:183–189.10.1111/j.1439-0507.1998.tb00321.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

de Hoog, G.S., Yurlova, N.A. (1994) Conidiogenesis, nutritional physiology and taxonomy of Aureobasidium and Hormonema. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 65:41–54.10.1007/BF00878278Search in Google Scholar PubMed

de Hoog, G.S., Zalar, P., Urzi, C., De Leo, F., Yurlova, N.A., Sterflinger, K. (1999) Relationships of dothideaceous black yeasts and meristematic fungi based on 5.8 S and ITS2 rDNA sequence comparison. Stud. Mycol. 43:31–37.Search in Google Scholar

Eaton, R.A., Hale, M.D. (1993) Wood: Decay, Pests and Protection. Chapman and Hall Ltd, New York, pp. 546.Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, K.E. (1981) Fungal degradation of wood components. Pure Appl. Chem. 53:33–43.10.1351/pac198153010033Search in Google Scholar

Frankland, J.C. (1969) Fungal decomposition of bracken petioles. J. Ecol. 57:25–36.10.2307/2258205Search in Google Scholar

Gostinčar, C., Ohm, R.A., Kogej, T., Sonjak, S., Turk, M., Zajc, J., Zalar, P., Grube, M., Sun, H., Han, J., Sharma, A., Chiniquy, J., Nagan, C.Y., Lipzen, A., Barry, K., Grigoriev, I.V., Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2014) Genome sequencing of four Aureobasidium pullulans varieties: biotechnological potential, stress tolerance, and description of new species. BMC Genomics 15:1–28.10.1186/1471-2164-15-549Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hale, M.D., Eaton, R.A. (1985) The ultrastructure of soft rot fungi. I. Fine hyphae in wood cell walls. Mycologia 77:447–463.10.2307/3793202Search in Google Scholar

Hamed, S.A.M. (2013) In-vitro studies on wood degradation in soil by soft-rot fungi: Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 78:98–102.10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.12.013Search in Google Scholar

Hermanides-Nijhof, E.J. (1977) Aureobasidium and allied genera. Stud. Mycol. 15:141–177.Search in Google Scholar

Hernandez, V.A., Evans, P.D. (2015) Technical note: melanization of the wood-staining fungus Aureobasidium pullulans in response to UV radiation. Wood Fiber Sci. 47:120–124.Search in Google Scholar

Hoffmeyer, P. (1976) Mechanical properties of soft-rot-decayed Scots pine with special reference to wooden poles. In: Soft-Rot in Utility Ples Salt-Treated in the Years. 1940–1954. Swedish Wood Preservation Institute, Number 117, Stockholm, pp. 2.1–2.55.Search in Google Scholar

Horvath, R.S., Brent, M.M., Cropper, D.G. (1976) Paint deterioration as a result of the growth of Aureobasidium pullulans on wood. Appl. Environ. Microb. 32:505–507.10.1128/aem.32.4.505-507.1976Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Huh, N., Jang, Y., Lee, J., Kim, G.-H., Kim, J.-J. (2011) Phylogenetic analysis of major molds inhabiting woods and their discoloration characteristics. Part 1. Genus Trichoderma. Holzforschung 65:257–263.10.1515/hf.2011.018Search in Google Scholar

Humar, M., Vek, V., Bučar, B. (2008) Properties of blue-stained wood. Wood Industry/Drvna Industrija, 59:75–79.Search in Google Scholar

Kang, S.M. Fungal colonization of Douglas-fir sapwood. Master’s of Science thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 1998, USA.10.1080/00275514.2000.12061201Search in Google Scholar

Kim, Y.S., Singh, A.P. (2000) Micromorphological characteristics of wood biodegradation in wet environments: a review. IAWA J. 21:135–155.10.1163/22941932-90000241Search in Google Scholar

Kornerup, A., Wanscher, J.H. Methuen Handbook of Color. 3rd ed. Hastings House, New York, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, Y.M., Jang, Y., Kim, G.H., Kim, J.J. (2012) Phylogenetic analysis and discoloration characteristics of major molds inhabiting woods. Part 3. Genus Cladosporium. Holzforschung 66:537–541.10.1515/hf.2011.184Search in Google Scholar

Lee, Y.S. (1997) The biology of xylariaceous fungi and their role in wood decay. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, Y. S. (2000) Observation of soft-rot wood degradation caused by higher ascomyceteous fungi. Mycobiology 28:47–50.10.1080/12298093.2000.12015721Search in Google Scholar

Manitchotpisit, P., Leathers, T.D., Peterson, S.W., Kurtzman, C.P., Li, X.L., Eveleigh, D.E., Lotrakul, P., Prasongsuk, S., Dunlap, C.A., Vermillion, K.E., Punnapayak, H. (2009) Multilocus phylogenetic analyses, pullulan production and xylanase activity of tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans. Mycol. Res. 113:1107–1120.10.1016/j.mycres.2009.07.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Masclaux, F., Guého, E., De Hoog, G. S., Christen, R. (1995) Phylogenetic relationships of human-pathogenic Cladosporium (Xylohypha) species inferred from partial LS rRNA sequences. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 33:327–338.10.1080/02681219580000651Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Nilsson, T. (1973) Studies on wood degradation and cellulolytic activity of microfungi (No. 104).Search in Google Scholar

Nilsson, T., Daniel, G., Kirk, T.K., Obst, J.R. (1989) Chemistry and microscopy of wood decay by some higher ascomycetes. Holzforschung 43:11–18.10.1515/hfsg.1989.43.1.11Search in Google Scholar

Olajuyigbe, F.M., Ogunyewo, O.A. (2016) Comparative evaluation of neglected biomass for efficient and economically viable production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from selected white and soft rot fungi. Curr. Biotechnol. 5:71–80.10.2174/2211550105666151211195836Search in Google Scholar

Schoch, C.L., Seifert, K.A., Huhndorf, S., Robert, V., Souge, J.L., Levesque, C.A., Chen, W., Fungal Barcoding Consortium (2012) Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 109:6241–6246.10.1073/pnas.1117018109Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

van Nieuwenhuijzen, E.J., Sailer, M.F., Gobakken, L.R., Adan, O.C., Punt, P.J., Samson, R.A. (2015) Detection of outdoor mould staining as biofinish on oil treated wood. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 105:215–227.10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.09.001Search in Google Scholar

van Nieuwenhuijzen, E.J., Houbraken, J.A., Meijer, M., Adan, O.C., Samson, R.A. (2016) Aureobasidium melanogenum: a native of dark biofinishes on oil treated wood. A Van Lueew 109:661–683.10.1007/s10482-016-0668-7Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Yanwisetpakdee, B., Lotrakul, P., Prasongsuk, S., Seelanan, T., White Jr, J.F., Eveleigh, D.E., Kim, S.W., Punnapayak, H. (2016) Associations among halotolerance, osmotolerance and exopolysaccharide production of Aureobasidium melanogenum strains from habitats under salt stress. Pak. J. Bot. 48:1229–1239.Search in Google Scholar

Zabel, R.A., Morrell, J.J. Wood Microbiology: Decay and its Prevention. Academic Press, California, USA. 1992.Search in Google Scholar

Zalar, P., Gostinčar, C., De Hoog, G.S., Uršič, V., Sudhadham, M., Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2008) Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties. Stud. Mycol. 61:21–38.10.3114/sim.2008.61.02Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2016-9-27
Accepted: 2017-1-5
Published Online: 2017-1-31
Published in Print: 2017-5-1

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 1.2.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow