Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 11, 2017

Verification of the elastic material characteristics of Norway spruce and European beech in the field of shear behaviour by means of digital image correlation (DIC) for finite element analysis (FEA)

Jaromír Milch, Martin Brabec, Václav Sebera and Jan Tippner
From the journal Holzforschung


Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) samples were loaded in shear mode aimed at testing their elastic material characteristics applicable in finite element analysis (FEA). More precisely, experimental and numerical analyses of uniaxial tensile test parallel to grain in longitudinal-radial (LR) or longitudinal-tangential (LT) shear of plane are described. The elastic material models in the FEA are based on own experimental data and those of the literature. The verification of material characteristics was performed by 3D numerical models with the same parameters as for the experimental tests. The fully orthotropic elastic material model was applied in the uniaxial tensile tests. The digital image correlation (DIC) method served for verification of the numerical models with proposed elastic material characteristics. Good correlation was found between numerically predicted and experimentally measured data. The minor differences between the two data sets could be mainly attributed to certain natural wood characteristics, which were neglected in the proposed models, i.e. especially variation of earlywood and latewood density. The proposed elastic material models offer general data sets for the evaluation of mechanical response of timber structures and especially in timber connexions.


This paper was created at the Research Centre Josef Ressel in Brno-Utěchov, Mendel University in Brno and was funded by NAKI project “Historical Timber Structures: Typology, Diagnostics and Traditional Wood Working” reg. No, DG16P02M026, provided by the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic.


ANSYS Mechanical APDL, Release 14.5, Help System, ANSYS, Inc. Search in Google Scholar

Arcan, M., Hashin, Z., Voloshin, A. (1978) A method to produce uniform plane-stress states with applications to fiber-reinforced materials. Exp. Mech. 18:141–146. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D143 (2014). Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D2339 (2011). Standard test method for strength properties of adhesives in two-ply wood construction in shear by tension loading. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D2395 (2014). Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Search in Google Scholar

Bonfield, P.W., Ansell, M.P. (1991) Fatigue properties of wood in tension, compression and shear. J. Mater. Sci. 26:4765–4773. Search in Google Scholar

Brabec, M., Tippner, J., Sebera, V., Milch, J., Rademacher, P. (2015) Standard and non-standard deformation behaviour of European beech and Norway spruce during compression. Holzforschung 69:1107–1116. Search in Google Scholar

Brabec, M., Lagaňa, R., Milch, J., Tippner, J., Sebera, V. (2016) Utilization of digital image correlation in determining of both longitudinal shear moduli of wood at single torsion test. Wood Sci. Technol. 51:29–45. Search in Google Scholar

Clouston, P.L., Lam, F. (2002) A stochastic plasticity approach to strength modeling of strand-based wood composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 62:1381–1395. Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, K.B., Malo, K.A. (2009a) Linear shear properties of spruce softwood. Wood Sci. Technol. 43:499–525. Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, K.B., Malo, K.A. (2009b) Nonlinear shear properties of spruce softwood: Numerical analyses of experimental results. Compos. Sci. Technol. 69:2144–2151. Search in Google Scholar

Dumail, J.F., Olofsson, K., Salmén, L. (2000) An analysis of rolling shear of spruce wood by the Iosipescu method. Holzforschung 54:420–426. Search in Google Scholar

EN 302-1. Adhesives for load-bearing timber structures - Test methods - Part 1: Determination of longitudinal tensile shear strength. European Committee for Standardization, Brussel, 2013. Search in Google Scholar

Gupta, R., Heck, L.R., Miller, T.H. (2002) Finite-element analysis of the stress distribution in a torsion test of full-size structural lumber. J. Test Eval. 30:291–302. Search in Google Scholar

Gupta, R., Siller, T.S. (2005) Shear strength of structural composite lumber using torsion tests. J. Test Eval. 33:110–117. Search in Google Scholar

Gupta, R., Sinha, A. (2012) Effect of grain angle on shear strength of Douglas-fir wood. Holzforschung 66:655–658. Search in Google Scholar

Hassaïni, D., Vittecoq, E., Degallaix, G. (1998) Study of monotonic shearing behaviour of unidirectional glass-epoxy composite using new testing device. Plast. Rubber Compos. 27:227–233. Search in Google Scholar

Hering, S., Keunecke, D., Niemz, P. (2012) Moisture-dependent orthotropic elasticity of beech wood. Wood Sci. Technol. 46:927–938. Search in Google Scholar

Hsieh, K. (2007) Numerical modeling and analysis of composite beam structures subjected to torsional loading. Master Thesis, Virginia State University. Search in Google Scholar

Ikeda, M., Masuda, M., Murata, K., Ukyo, S. (2006) Analysis of in-plane shear behaviour of wood based panels by digital image correlation. J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 55:569–575. Search in Google Scholar

Iosipescu, N. (1967) New accurate procedure for single shear testing of metals. J. Mater. 2:537–566. Search in Google Scholar

Kamke, F.A., Nairn, J.A., Muszynski, L., Paris J.L., Schwarzkopf, M., Xiao, X. (2014) Methodology for micromechanical analysis of wood adhesive bonds using x-ray computed tomography and numerical modeling. Wood Fiber Sci. 46:15–28. Search in Google Scholar

Kollmann, F.F., Côte, W.A. (1968) Principles of wood science and technology I. Solid wood. In: Principles of Wood Science and Technology. Springer-Verlag, New York. Search in Google Scholar

Kubojima, Y., Yoshihara, H., Ohsaki, H., Ohta, M. (2000) Accuracy of shear properties of wood obtained by simplified Iosipescu shear test. J. Wood Sci. 46:279–283. Search in Google Scholar

McNatt, J.D. (1969) Rail shear test for evaluating edgewise shear properties of wood-base panel products. Forest Product Laboratory, Madison. Search in Google Scholar

Melin, L.N. (2008) The modified Iosipescu shear test for orthotropic materials. Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. Search in Google Scholar

Melin, L.N., Neumeister, J.M. (2006) Measuring constitutive shear behavior of orthotropic composites and evaluation of the modified Iosipescu test. Compos. Struct. 76:106–115. Search in Google Scholar

Melin, L.G., Neumeister, J.M., Pettersson, K.B., Johansson, H., Asp, L.E. (2000) Evaluation of four composite shear test methods by digital speckle strain mapping and fractographic analysis. J. Compos. Tech. Res. 22:161–172. Search in Google Scholar

Milch, J., Tippner, J., Sebera, V., Brabec, M. (2016a) Determination of the elasto-plastic material characteristics of Norway spruce and European beech wood by experimental and numerical analyses. Holzforschung 70:1081–1092. Search in Google Scholar

Milch, J., Tippner, J., Sebera, V., Kunecký, J., Kloiber, M. (2016b) The numerical assessment of a full-scale historical truss structure reconstructed with use of traditional all-wooden joints. J. Cult. Herit. 21:759–766. Search in Google Scholar

Moses, D.M., Prion, H.G. (2002) Anisotropic plasticity and failure prediction in wood composites. Research Report. University of British Columbia, Canada. pp. 1–22. Search in Google Scholar

Müller, U., Sretenovic, A., Vincenti, A., Gindl, W. (2005) Direct measurement of strain distribution along a wood bond line. Part 1: Shear strain concentration in a lap joint specimen by means of electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Holzforschung 59:300–306. Search in Google Scholar

Müller, U., Ringhofer, A., Brandner, R., Schickhofer, G. (2015) Homogeneous shear stress field of wood in an Arcan shear test configuration measured by means of electronic speckle pattern interferometry: description of the test setup. Wood Sci. Technol. 49:1123–1136. Search in Google Scholar

Niemz, P., Ozyhar, T., Hering, S., Sonderegger, W. (2014) Zur Orthotropie der physikalisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften von Rotbuchenholz. Bautechnik 92:3–8. Search in Google Scholar

Odegard, G., Kumosa, M. (2000) Determination of shear strength of unidirectional composite materials with the Iosipescu and 10° off-axis shear tests. Compos Sci. Technol. 60:2917–2943. Search in Google Scholar

Pierron, F., Vautrin, A. (1994) Accurate comparative determination of the in-plane shear modulus of T300/914 by the Iosipescu and 45° off-axis tests. Compos Sci. Technol. 52:61–72. Search in Google Scholar

Požgaj, A., Chovanec, D., Kurjatko, S., Babiak, M. Štruktúra a vlastnosti dreva. Priroda a.s., Bratislava, 1997. Search in Google Scholar

Prabhakaran, R. (1985) Shear testing of composites. J. Theor. Appl. Mech. 23:607–615. Search in Google Scholar

Sebera, V., Muszyński, L., Tippner, J., Noyel, M., Pisaneschi, T., Sundberg, B. (2013) FE analysis of CLT panel subjected to torsion and verified by DIC. Mater. Struct. 48:451–459. Search in Google Scholar

Serrano, E., Enquist, B. (2005) Contact-free measurement and non-linear finite element analyses of strain distribution along wood adhesive bonds. Holzforschung 59:641–646. Search in Google Scholar

Schwarzkopf, M., Muszyński, L. (2015) Stereomicroscopic optical method for the assessment of load transfer patterns across the wood-adhesive bond interphase. Holzforschung 69:653–660. Search in Google Scholar

Sretenovic, A., Müller, U., Gindl, W., Teischinger, A. (2004) New shear assay for the simultaneous determination of shear strength and shear modulus in solid wood. Wood Fiber. Sci. 36:302–310. Search in Google Scholar

Ukyo, S., Karube, M., Harada, M., Hayashi, T., Murata, K. (2008) Determination of the shear modulus of wood with standard shear block specimen. J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 57:317–321. Search in Google Scholar

Ukyo, S., Ido, H., Nagao, H., Kato, H. (2010) Simultaneous determination of shear strength and shear modulus in glued-laminated timber using a full-scale shear block specimen. J. Wood Sci. 56:262–266. Search in Google Scholar

Xavier, J.C., Oliveira, M., Morais, J.L., Camanho, P.P., Pierron, F. (2003) Measurement of the shear modulus of wood P. pinaster Ait. by the Iosipescu test: numerical aspects. In: VII Congresso Nacional de Mecânica Aplicada e Computacional. Évora, Portugal. Search in Google Scholar

Xavier, J.C., Garrido, N.M., Oliveira, M., Morais, J.L., Camanho, P.P., Pierron, F. (2004) A comparison between the Iosipescu and off-axis shear test methods for the characterization of Pinus Pinaster Ait. Compos. Part A Appl. S. 35:827–840. Search in Google Scholar

Xavier, J.C., Oliveira, M., Morais, J.L., Pinto, T. (2009) Measurement of the shear properties of clear wood by the Arcan test. Holzforschung 63:217–225. Search in Google Scholar

Yoshihara, H. (2012) Shear modulus and shear strength evaluation of solid wood by a modified ISO 15310 square-plate twist method. Drvna Ind. 63:51–55. Search in Google Scholar

Yoshihara, H., Matsumoto, A. (2005) Measurement of the shearing properties of wood by in-plane shear test using a thin specimen. Wood Sci. Technol. 39:141–153. Search in Google Scholar

Yoshihara, H., Ohhata, O. (2003) Method of measuring the shear strength of wood by the asymmetric four-point bending test using a notched beam specimen. J. Test Eval. 31:1–5. Search in Google Scholar

Yoshihara, H., Ohsaki, H., Kubojima, Y., Ohta, M. (1999) Applicability of the Iosipescu shear test on the measurement of the shear properties of wood. J. Wood Sci. 45:24–29. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-10-5
Accepted: 2017-1-7
Published Online: 2017-2-11
Published in Print: 2017-5-1

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston