Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 15, 2017

Biological and topochemical studies on the resistance of excavated oak piles (Quercus sp.) from a historical bridge in Bavaria

  • Gerald Koch EMAIL logo , Eckhard Melcher , Marie-Therese Lenz and Josef Bauch
From the journal Holzforschung

Abstract

Archaeological wood of 13 excavated oak piles from five historical bridge generations in Bavaria, dated from 1447 to 1787, was investigated by means of light microscopy (LM) and cellular UV-microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to study the ageing and natural resistance of the excavated wood. Furthermore, the mineral content of the ancient wood was determined to evaluate the impact of mineral inclusions on microbial resistance, tested using a mini block fungal test. The LM and UMSP analyses revealed well preserved cell wall structures and no significant modification of the lignin composition and distribution in predominant parts of the piles. Slight microbial decay caused by soft rot and erosion bacteria was only detectable at the outermost millimetres of individual piles. The fungal mini block tests yielded mass losses of ancient oak samples between 15% and 30%, independent of their analysed mineral content. The results provided evidence that the fungal resistance of the investigated ancient wood is mainly determined from the special soil with its high mineral content.

References

Almkvist, G., Norbakhsh, S., Bjurhager, I., Varmuza, K. (2016) Prediction of tensile strength in iron-contaminated archaeological wood by FT-IR spectroscopy – a study of degradation in recent oak and Vasa oak. Holzforschung 70:855–865.10.1515/hf-2015-0223Search in Google Scholar

Andersons, B., Noldt, G., Koch, G., Andersone, I., Meija-Feldmane, A., Biziks, V., Grinins, J. (2016) Scanning UV microspectrophotometry as a tool to study the changes of lignin in hydrothermally modified wood. Holzforschung 70:215–221.10.1515/hf-2015-0027Search in Google Scholar

Bauch, J., Eissing, T., Bauch, H., Rehm, H. (2012/2013) Dendrochronologische Untersuchung von Eichenpfählen historischer Brücken in Dollnstein/Altmühl. Jahrbuch Bayerischen Denkmalpflege Band 66/67:27–36.Search in Google Scholar

Bianchi, S., Koch, G., Janzon, R., Mayer, I., Saake, B., Pichelin, F. (2016) Hot water extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]) bark: analyses of the influence of bark aging and process parameters on the extract composition. Holzforschung 70:619–631.10.1515/hf-2015-0160Search in Google Scholar

Björdal, C.G., Daniel, G., Nilsson, T. (2000) Depth of burial, an important factor in controlling bacterial decay of waterlogged archaeological poles. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 45:15–26.10.1016/S0964-8305(00)00035-4Search in Google Scholar

Björdal, C.G., Nilsson, T., Daniel, G. (1999) Microbial decay of waterlogged archaeological wood found in Sweden applicable to archaeology and conservation. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 43:63–73.10.1016/S0964-8305(98)00070-5Search in Google Scholar

Björdal, C.G., Nilsson, T., Bardage, S. (2005) Three-dimensional visualisation of bacterial decay in individual tracheids of Pinus sylvestris. Holzforschung 59:178–182.10.1515/HF.2005.028Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A. (2000) A review of microbial deterioration found in archaeological wood from different environments. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 46:189–204.10.1016/S0964-8305(00)00077-9Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A., Iiyama, K., Abad, A.R., Cease, K.R. (1991) Ultrastructure of ancient buried wood from Japan. Holzforschung 45:161–168.10.1515/hfsg.1991.45.3.161Search in Google Scholar

Blanchette, R.A., Nilsson, T., Daniel, G.F., Abad, A. (1990) Biological degradation of wood. In: Archaeological Wood – Properties, Chemistry and Preservation. Eds. Rowell, R.M., Barbour, R.J. American Chemical Society, Washington DC. pp. 147–174.Search in Google Scholar

Bravery, A.F. (1978) A miniaturised wood-block test for the rapid evaluation of wood preservative fungicides. In: Screening Techniques for Potential Wood Preservatives IRG/WP/2113. Eds. Bravery, A.F., Dickinson, D.J. International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Stockholm. pp. 55–64.Search in Google Scholar

CEN 2005, TS 15083-1. Durability of wood and wood-based products – determination of the natural durability of solid wood against wood-destroying fungi, test methods. Part 1: Basidiomycetes. CEN (European Committee for Standardization), Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

CEN 2016, EN 350. Durability of wood and wood-based products – testing and classification of the durability to biological agents of wood and wood-based materials. CEN (European Committee for Standardization), Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

Čufar, K., Gricar, J., Zupancic, M., Koch, G., Schmitt, U. (2008) Anatomy, cell wall structure and topochemistry of water-logged archaeological wood aged 5,200 and 4,500 years. IAWA J. 29:55–68.10.1163/22941932-90000170Search in Google Scholar

Diaz-Vaz, J.E., Schmitt, U., Ruetze, M., Dillehay, T., Bremer, J., Faix, O. (1991) Microscopy and analytical pyrolysis of paleowood from Nothofagus dombeyi and Amomyrtus luma. Holzforschung 45:407–414.10.1515/hfsg.1991.45.6.407Search in Google Scholar

Donaldson, L.A. (1993) Distribution of inorganic elements in sub-fossil totara wood. Holzforschung 47:451–457.10.1515/hfsg.1993.47.6.451Search in Google Scholar

Fergus, B.J., Goring, D.A.I. (1970) The distribution of lignin in birch wood as determined by ultraviolet microscopy. Holzforschung 24:118–124.10.1515/hfsg.1970.24.4.118Search in Google Scholar

Fukazawa, K. (1992) Ultraviolet microscopy. In: Methods in Lignin Chemistry. Eds. Lin, S.Y., Dence C.W. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 110–121.10.1007/978-3-642-74065-7_8Search in Google Scholar

Goldschmid, O. (1971) Ultraviolet spectra. In: Lignins. Occurrence, Formation, Structure and Reactions. Eds. Sarkanen, K.V., Ludwig, C.H. Wiley-Interscience, New York. pp. 241–266.Search in Google Scholar

Hoffmann, P. (2013) Conservation of Archaeological Ships and Boats. Archetype Publications, London.Search in Google Scholar

Hoffmann, P., Singh, A., Kim, Y., Wi, S., Kim, I., Schmitt, U. (2004) The Bremen Cog of 1380 – an electron microscopic study of its degraded wood before and after stabilization with PEG. Holzforschung 58:211–218.10.1515/HF.2004.033Search in Google Scholar

Iiyama, K., Kasuya, N., Tuyet, L.T.B., Nakano, J., Sakaguchi, H. (1988) Chemical characterization of ancient buried wood. Holzforschung, 42(1):5-10.10.1515/hfsg.1988.42.1.5Search in Google Scholar

Kim, Y.S., Singh, A. (1994) Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on a submerged ancient wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40:554–562.Search in Google Scholar

Kim, Y.S., Singh, A.P. (2000) Micromorphological characteristics of wood biodegradation in wet environments: a review. IAWA J. 21:135–155.10.1163/22941932-90000241Search in Google Scholar

Klaassen, R.K.W.M. (2008) Bacterial decay in wooden foundation piles – patterns and causes: a study of historical pile foundations in the Netherlands. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 61:45–60.10.1016/j.ibiod.2007.07.006Search in Google Scholar

Kleist, G., Schmitt, U. (1999) Evidence of accessory compounds in vessel walls of Sapelli heartwood (Entandrophragma cylindricum) obtained by transmission electron microscopy. Holz Roh- Werkst. 57:93–95.10.1007/PL00002633Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Bauch, J., Puls, J. (2003) Topochemical characterisation of phenolic extractives in discoloured beechwood (Fagus sylvatica L.). Holzforschung 57:339–345.10.1515/HF.2003.051Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Grünwald, C. (2004) Application of UV microspectrophotometry for the topochemical detection of lignin and phenolic extractives in wood fibre cell walls. In: Wood Fibre Cell Walls: Methods to Study Their Formation, Structure and Properties. Eds. U. Schmitt, P. Ander, J.R. Barnett, A.M.C. Emons, G. Jeronimidis, P. Saranpää, S. Tschegg. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. pp. 119–130.Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Kleist, G. (2001) Application of scanning UV microspectrophotometry to localise lignins and phenolic extractives in plant cell walls. Holzforschung 55:563–567.10.1515/HF.2001.091Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Richter, H-G., Schmitt, U. (2006) Topochemical investigation on phenolic deposits in the vessels of afzelia (Afzelia spp.) and merbau (Intsia spp.) heartwood. Holzforschung 60:583–588.10.1515/HF.2006.099Search in Google Scholar

Koch, G., Schmitt, U. (2013): Topochemical and electron microscopic analyses on the lignification of individual cell wall layers during wood formation and secondary changes. In: Cellular Aspects of Wood Formation, Plant Cell Monographs 20. Eds. Fromm, J. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. pp. 41–69.10.1007/978-3-642-36491-4_2Search in Google Scholar

Matsuo, M., Yokoyama, M., Umemura, K., Sugiyama, J., Kawai, S., Gril, J., Kubodera, S., Mitsutani, T., Ozaki, H., Sakamoto, M., Imamura, M. (2011) Aging of wood: analysis of color changes during natural aging and heat treatment. Holzforschung 65:361–368.10.1515/hf.2011.040Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, L., Brischke, C., Melcher, E., Brandt, K., Lenz, M-T., Soetbeer, A. (2014): Durability of English oak (Quercus robur L.) - comparison of decay progress and resistance under various laboratory and field conditions. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 86:79–85.10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.06.025Search in Google Scholar

Musha, Y., Goring, D.A.I. (1975) Distribution of syringyl and guaiacyl moieties in hardwoods as indicated by ultraviolet microscopy. Wood Sci. Technol. 9:45–58.10.1007/BF00351914Search in Google Scholar

Narita, H., Sugiyama, J., Kuga, S. (2012) Chemotaxonomical identification of Holocenic bogwood recovered after 2007 Niigataken Chuestsu-oki Earthquake. Holzforschung 66:951–957.10.1515/hf-2011-0149Search in Google Scholar

Nelson, B.C., Goñi, M.A., Hedges, J.I., Blanchette, R.A. (1995) Soft-rot fungal degradation of lignin in 2700 year old archaeological woods. Holzforschung 49:1–10.10.1515/hfsg.1995.49.1.1Search in Google Scholar

Nilsson, T., Holt, D. (1983) Bacterial attack occurring in the S2 layer of wood fibres. Holzforschung 37:107–108.Search in Google Scholar

Pedersen, N. B. Microscopic and Spectroscopic Characterisation of Waterlogged Softwood from Anoxic Environments. University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Pedersen, N.B., Björdal, C.G., Jensen, P., Felby, C. (2013) Bacterial degradation of archaeological wood in anoxic waterlogged environments. In: Stability of Complex Carbohydrate Structures – Biofuel, Foods, Vaccines and Shipwrecks. Eds. Harding, S.E. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. pp. 160–187.Search in Google Scholar

Pedersen, N.B., Schmitt, U., Koch, G., Felby, C., Thygesen, L.G. (2014) Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria. Holzforschung 68:791–798.10.1515/hf-2013-0228Search in Google Scholar

Rehbein, M., Koch, G., Schmitt, U., Huckfeldt, T. (2013) Topochemical and transmission electron microscopic studies of bacterial decay in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) harbour foundation piles. Micron. 44:150–158.10.1016/j.micron.2012.05.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Schmidt, O., Liese, W. (1994) Occurrence and significance of bacteria in wood. Holzforschung 48:271–277.10.1515/hfsg.1994.48.4.271Search in Google Scholar

Schmitt, U., Hoffmann, P. (1998) Zur Zellwandstruktur von 1600 Jahre altem, wassergesättigtem Eichenholz. Eur. J. Wood. Wood. Prod. 56:211–212.10.1007/s001070050300Search in Google Scholar

Singh, A.P., Butcher, A.J. (1991) Bacterial degradation of wood cell walls: a review of degradation patterns. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 12:143–157.Search in Google Scholar

Spurr, A.R. (1969) A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31–43.10.1016/S0022-5320(69)90033-1Search in Google Scholar

Svedström, K., Bjurhager, I., Kallonen, A., Peura, M., Serimaa, R. (2012) Structure of oak wood from the Swedish warship Vasa revealed by X-ray scattering and microtomography. Holzforschung 66:355–363.10.1515/hf.2011.157Search in Google Scholar

Takabe, K., Miyauchi, S., Tsunoda, R., Fukazawa, K. (1992) Distribution of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in Japanese beech (Fagus crenata): variation within an annual ring. IAWA J. 13:105–112.10.1163/22941932-90000561Search in Google Scholar

Terashima, N., Fukushima, K., Takabe, K. (1986) Heterogeneity in formation of lignin. VIII. An autoradiographic study on the formation of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in Magnolia kobus DC. Holzforschung 40:101–105.Search in Google Scholar

Vorobyev, A., Arnould, O., Laux, D., Longo, R., van Dijk, N.P., Gamstedt, E.K. (2016) Characterisation of cubic oak specimens from the Vasa ship and recent wood by means of quasi-static loading and resonance ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). Holzforschung 70:457–465.10.1515/hf-2015-0073Search in Google Scholar

Vorobyev, A., Almkvist, G., van Dijk, N. P., Gamstedt, E.K. (2017) Relations of density, polyethylene glycol treatment and moisture content with stiffness properties of Vasa oak samples Holzforschung 71:327–335.10.1515/hf-2016-0202Search in Google Scholar

Welling, J., Schwarz, T., Bauch, J. (2017) Biological, chemical and technological characteristics of waterlogged archaeological piles (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. of a medieval bridge foundation in Bavaria. Eur. J. Wood Prod. (accepted for publication).10.1007/s00107-018-1299-7Search in Google Scholar

Zimmer, K., Melcher, E. (2017) A screening study on extractive content and composition of Scots pine heartwood of three stands with close proximity and their resistance against basidiomycetes. Int. Wood Prod. J. 8:45–49.10.1080/20426445.2016.1271091Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-6-26
Accepted: 2017-8-18
Published Online: 2017-9-15
Published in Print: 2018-1-26

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 3.3.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/hf-2017-0105/html
Scroll to top button