Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 28, 2018

The effect of high voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) treatment on bonding interphase characteristics among different wood sections of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)

  • Qian He , Tianyi Zhan , Haiyang Zhang , Zehui Ju , Chunping Dai and Xiaoning Lu EMAIL logo
From the journal Holzforschung


High voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) treatment has been investigated as an optimization method for enhancing the bonding performance of wood via increasing its polarization degree and improvement of the penetration of phenol formaldehyde (PF) adhesive. As the wood surfaces from cross cut (C), radial cut (R) and tangential cut (T) behave differently, five cut combinations formed the samples to be tested, namely C-C, R-R, R-T, T-T (always parallel to grain) and T-T, where the grains were perpendicular to each other. The gluing and HVEF treatments were performed simultaneously. The sample surfaces were characterized by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle (CAdyn) measurements, X-ray densitometry, fluorescence microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and measurements of compression shear bonding strength (CSBS). An increased surface energy led to decreased CAdynS in the following order: cross section<tangential section<radial section. Obviously, the triggered free electrons of the HVEF treatments changed the wood surfaces. The penetration depth of PF into wood cell decreased significantly and the maximal density increased after the HVEF treatment. The lower CAdyns also contributed to the better reaction of the wood surface with the PF resin. The CSBS of the five sample combinations was enhanced owing to a better performance of adhesive aggregation, which was increased by 18% (C-C), 24% (T-T), 26% (T-T), 31% (R-T) and 42% (R-R), respectively. Pore size and pore size distribution contributed a lot to the bonding properties of HVEF-treated wood sections.


The authors acknowledge the funding support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0703501) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20170926 and BK20150878). The study was also supported by the Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of the Nanjing Forestry University. All authors contributed equally to this work.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.


Altgen, D., Avramidis, G., Viöl, W., Mai, C. (2016) The effect of air plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure on thermally modified wood surfaces. Wood Sci. Technol. 50:1–15.10.1007/s00226-016-0856-7Search in Google Scholar

Arun, N., Sharma, A., Shenoy, V.B., Narayan, K.S. (2006) Electric-field-controlled surface instabilities in soft elastic films. Adv. Mater. 18:660–663.10.1002/adma.200502199Search in Google Scholar

Atayde, C.M., Gonçalez, J.C., Camargos, J.A. (2011) Colorimetric characteristics of different anatomical sections of muirapiranga (Brosimum sp.) wood. Cerne 17:231–235.10.1590/S0104-77602011000200011Search in Google Scholar

Bachtiar, E.V., Clerc, G., Brunner, A.J., Kaliske, M., Niemz, P. (2017) Static and dynamic tensile shear test of glued lap wooden joint with four different types of adhesives. Holzforschung 71:391–396.10.1515/hf-2016-0154Search in Google Scholar

Bao, F., Zhao, Y., Zhao, Y., Lv, J. (2003) Relationship between permeability and fine structure of common Chinese fir and Masson pine wood. J. B. Forestry Univ. 2:1–5.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, M., Zhang, R., Tang, L., Zhou, X., Li, Y., Yang, X. (2016) Development of an industrial applicable dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment for improving bondability of poplar veneer. Holzforschung 70:683–690.10.1515/hf-2015-0122Search in Google Scholar

Cross, J. Electrostatics: Principles, Problems and Applications. Adam Hilger, London, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

Ding, C.J., Liang, Y.Z., Yang, J. (2004) The transport character of water molecule on high voltage electric field in liquid bio-materials. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Applied Electrostatics, Shanghai, P.R. China, 299–306.10.1016/B978-008044584-7.50077-3Search in Google Scholar

Dong, Y., Yan, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Li, J. (2016) Combined treatment for conversion of fast-growing poplar wood to magnetic wood with high dimensional stability. Wood Sci. Technol. 50:503–517.10.1007/s00226-015-0789-6Search in Google Scholar

Dzubiella, J., Allen, R.J., Hansen, J.P. (2003) Electric field-controlled water permeation coupled to ion transport through a nanopore. J. Chem. Phys. 120:5001–5004.10.1063/1.1665656Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Edalat, H., Faezipour, M., Thole, V., Kamke, F.A. (2014) A new quantitative method for evaluation of adhesive penetration pattern in particulate wood-based composites: elemental counting method. Wood Sci. Technol. 48:703–712.10.1007/s00226-014-0635-2Search in Google Scholar

Fengel, D. (2009) Structure and function of the membrane in softwood bordered pits. Holzforschung 26:221–229.10.1515/hfsg.1972.26.1.1Search in Google Scholar

Frihart, C.R. Handbook of Wood Chemistry & Wood Composites. CRC Press, Florida, USA, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

Fyie, J.A., Henckel, D.J., Peters, T.E. (1980) Electrostatic orientation for efficiency and engineering composition panel properties [Wood particle boards]. Washington State University International Symposium on Particleboard, Pullman, Washington, USA, 14:261–280.Search in Google Scholar

Geffert, A., Výbohová, E., Geffertová, J. (2017) Characterization of the changes of colour and some wood components on the surface of steamed beech wood. Acta Facultatis Xylologiae 59:49–57.Search in Google Scholar

Ghazian, O., Adamiak, K., Castle, G.S.P., Higashiyama, Y. (2014) Oscillation, pseudo-rotation and coalescence of sessile droplets in a rotating electric field. Colloids Surf. A 441:346–353.10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.09.017Search in Google Scholar

Harper, D. (2008) Adhesive penetration of wood cell walls investigated by scanning thermal microscopy (SThM). Holzforschung 62:91–98.10.1515/HF.2008.014Search in Google Scholar

Hass, P., Wittel, F.K., Mendoza, M., Herrmann, H.J., Niemz, P. (2012) Adhesive penetration in beech wood: experiments. Wood Sci. Technol. 46:243–256.10.1007/s00226-011-0410-6Search in Google Scholar

Kang, H.Y., Lee, W.H., Jang, S.S., Kang, C.W. (2017) Polyethylene glycol treatment of Han-ok round wood components to prevent surface checking. BioResources 12:4229–4238.10.15376/biores.12.2.4229-4238Search in Google Scholar

Kemp, B.A., Nikolayev, I., Sheppard, C.J. (2016) Coupled electrostatic and material surface stresses yield anomalous particle interactions and deformation. J. Appl. Phys. 119:145105.10.1063/1.4946034Search in Google Scholar

Kilic, A., Shim, E., Pourdeyhimi, B. (2015) Measuring electrostatic properties of fibrous materials: a review and a modified surface potential decay technique. J. Electrostatics 74:21–26.10.1016/j.elstat.2014.12.007Search in Google Scholar

Konnerth, J., Weigl, M., Gindl-Altmutter, W., Avramidis, G., Wolkenhauer, A., Viöl, W., Gilge, M., Obersriebnig, M. (2014) Effect of plasma treatment on cell-wall adhesion of urea-formaldehyde resin revealed by nanoindentation. Holzforschung 68:707–712.10.1515/hf-2013-0130Search in Google Scholar

Kurowska, A., Kozakiewicz, P., Borysiuk, P. (2010) An attempt at the use of laboratory density analyzer for determination of solid wood cross section density distribution. Forest. Wood Technol. 71:435–439.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, N.H., Li, C., Choi, J.H., Hwang, U.D. (2004) Comparison of moisture distribution along radial direction in a log cross section of heartwood and mixed sapwood and heartwood during radio-frequency/vacuum drying. J. Wood Sci. 50:484–489.10.1007/s10086-003-0605-zSearch in Google Scholar

Lekobou, W.P., Englund, K.R., Laborie, M.-P., Pedrow, P.D. (2016) Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatments on the surface properties of ligno-cellulosic substrates. Holzforschung 70:55–61.10.1515/hf-2014-0211Search in Google Scholar

Li, X., Geng, Y., Simonsen, J., Li, K. (2004) Application of ionic liquids for electrostatic control in wood. Holzforschung 58:280–285.10.1515/HF.2004.043Search in Google Scholar

Liu, W., Chen, T., Xie, T., Lai, F., Qiu, R. (2015) Oxygen plasma treatment of bamboo fibers (BF) and its effects on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of BF-unsaturated polyester composites. Holzforschung 69:449–455.10.1515/hf-2014-0097Search in Google Scholar

Maekawa, T., Fujita, M., Saiki, H. (1990) Periodical analysis of wood structure. III. Evaluation of two-dimensional arrangements of softwood tracheids on transverse sections. Bull. Kyoto Univ. Forests 62:275–281.Search in Google Scholar

Manfredi, L.B., Osa, O.D.L., Fernández, N.G., Vázquez, A. (1999) Structure–properties relationship for resols with different formaldehyde/phenol molar ratio. Polymer 40:3867–3875.10.1016/S0032-3861(98)00615-6Search in Google Scholar

Marian, J.E., Stumbo, D.A. (1962) Adhesion in Wood) Part. II. Physico-chemical surface phenomena and the thermodynamic approach to adhesion. Holzforschung 16:168–180.10.1515/hfsg.1962.16.6.168Search in Google Scholar

Marian, J.E., Stumbo, D.A., Maxey, C.W. (1958) Surface texture of wood as related to glue joint strength. Forest Prod. J. 8:345–351.Search in Google Scholar

Mendoza, M., Hass, P., Wittel, F.K., Niemz, P., Herrmann, H.J. (2010) Adhesive penetration in beech wood Part II: penetration model. Physics 46:1–7.Search in Google Scholar

Moghaddam, M.S., Heydari, G., Tuominen, M., Fielden, M., Haapanen, J., Mäkelä, J.M., Wålinder, M.E.P., Claesson, P.M., Swerin, A. (2016) Hydrophobisation of wood surfaces by combining liquid flame spray (LFS) and plasma treatment: dynamic wetting properties. Holzforschung 70:527–537.10.1515/hf-2015-0148Search in Google Scholar

Nearn, W.T. (1965) Wood-adhesive interface relations. Fed. Soc. Paint Technol. 37:720–733.Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen, T.T., Ji, X., Nguyen, T.H.V., Guo, M. (2017) Wettability modification of heat-treated wood (HTW) via cold atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma jet (APPJ). Holzforschung 71:543–560.10.1515/hf-2017-0004Search in Google Scholar

Qian, J., Zhang, W.B., Jin, Y.M., Li, Y.J., Feng, Z.Q. (1999) The study on the influence of electric field on bonding properties of poplar composites. China Wood Ind. 13:7–9.Search in Google Scholar

Qian, J., Jin, Y.M., Yu, Y.M., Yan, J.M., Zhang, H. (2002) Effects of potential difference of setting plate on Sakhu-bonding. J. Nanjing For. Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.). 26:41–43.Search in Google Scholar

Qian, J., Jin, Y.M., Shen, Z.H., Yu, Y.M., Lou, Y.S. (2005) Effect of intensity and work time of electric field onmoisture gradient of Pinus massoniana wood. J. Zhejiang Forestry College 22:193–197.Search in Google Scholar

Richman, D.E. (2015) Conformational responses to changes in the state of ionization of titrable groups in proteins. Holzforschung 54:604–608.Search in Google Scholar

Saville, D.A. (2003) ELECTROHYDRODYNAMICS: the Taylor-Melcher Leaky dielectric model. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29:27–64.10.1146/annurev.fluid.29.1.27Search in Google Scholar

Schäffer, E., Thurnalbrecht, T., Russell, T.P., Steiner, U. (2000) Electrically induced structure formation and pattern transfer. Nature 403:874–877.10.1038/35002540Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Schimleck, L.R., Jones, P.D., Peter, G.F., Daniels, R.F., Clarkiii, A. (2004) Nondestructive estimation of tracheid length from sections of radial wood strips by near infrared spectroscopy. Holzforschung 58:375–381.10.1515/HF.2004.057Search in Google Scholar

Sinha, A., Gupta, R., Nairn, J.A. (2011) Thermal degradation of bending properties of structural wood and wood-based composites. Holzforschung 65:221–229.10.1515/hf.2011.001Search in Google Scholar

Tang, L., Zhang, R., Wang, X., Yang, X., Zhou, X. (2015) Surface modification of poplar veneer by means of radio frequency oxygen plasma (RF-OP) to improve interfacial adhesion with urea-formaldehyde resin. Holzforschung 69:193–198.10.1515/hf-2014-0018Search in Google Scholar

Uehara, T., Sakata, I. (1990) Effect of corona discharge treatment on cellulose prepared from beech wood. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 41:1695–1706.10.1002/app.1990.070410728Search in Google Scholar

Xiao, H., He, B., Li, J. (2015) Surface modification of natural fibers by plasma for improving strength properties of paper sheets. Holzforschung 69:1001–1008.10.1515/hf-2014-0249Search in Google Scholar

Zhan, T., Lv, J., Zhou, X., Lu, X. (2015) Representative volume element (RVE) and the prediction of mechanical properties of diffuse porous hardwood. Wood Sci. Technol. 49:147–157.10.1007/s00226-014-0687-3Search in Google Scholar

Zhan, T., Lv, J., Jiang, J., Peng, H., Li, A., Chang, J. (2016a) Viscoelastic properties of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during moisture sorption processes determined by harmonic tests. Materials 9:1020.10.3390/ma9121020Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zhan, T., Lv, J., Zhang, H., Jiang, J., Peng, H., Chang, J. (2016b) Changes of time dependent viscoelasticity of Chinese fir wood and its frequency-dependency during moisture desorption processes. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 53:152–162.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, H., Pizzi, A., Zhou, X., Lu, X., Janin, G. (2014) Comparison of linear vibration welded joints in three different directions of wood tauari. Intern. Wood Prod. J. 5:228–232.10.1179/2042645314Y.0000000081Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, Y.K., Bao, F.C. (1998) The theoretical analysis on the relationship between longitudinal permeation of fluid in softwood and its anatomic structure. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 20:276–287.Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, M., Song, J., Li, T., Gong, A., Wang, Y., Dai, J., Yao, Y., Luo, W., Henderson, D., Hu, L. (2016) Highly anisotropic, highly transparent wood composites. Adv. Mater. 28:5181.10.1002/adma.201600427Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2017-10-19
Accepted: 2018-01-31
Published Online: 2018-02-28
Published in Print: 2018-07-26

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 8.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button