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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 29, 2020

Fabrication of highly stable and durable furfurylated wood materials. Part II: the multi-scale distribution of furfuryl alcohol (FA) resin in wood

  • Wanju Li , Minghui Liu , Hankun Wang and Yan Yu EMAIL logo
From the journal Holzforschung


The aim of this investigation was mainly to evaluate the multi-scale distribution of furfuryl alcohol (FA) resin in modified Chinese fir and poplar wood. 13C CP/MAS NMR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), Nanoindentation and Imaging Fourier transform infrared microscopy (Imaging FT-IR) were applied to describe the FA resin distribution in wood from bulk to cell wall scale. The results showed that FA resin were mainly located in the cell cavity of Chinese fir tracheids. For poplar, FA resin was mostly deposited in the cavity of fibers and ray cells, while little was found in the adjacent vessels. Lots of pits of wood cells were covered with FA resin which implied a higher risk of drying after wood furfurlation in practical production. Nanoindentation demonstrated that FA resin could easily infiltrate into the wood cell wall because both reduced modulus and hardness of the modified wood cell walls were significantly improved. This conclusion was further supported by the results of imaging FT-IR.

Corresponding author: Yan Yu, College of Material and Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, PR China; and Institute of New Bamboo and Rattan Based Materials, International Center for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing, 100102, PR China, E-mail:

Award Identifier / Grant number: 31770600

Award Identifier / Grant number: 31800474

Funding source: National Key R&D Program of China

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2017YFD0600803

Funding source: State Special Research Fund of Forestry Public Welfare of China

Award Identifier / Grant number: 201404510

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: We are grateful for the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31800474, no. 31770600) and National Key R&D Program of China (no. 2017YFD0600803), as well as State Special Research Fund of Forestry Public Welfare of China (no. 201404510).

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2019-11-13
Accepted: 2020-04-22
Published Online: 2020-06-29
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

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