Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 6, 2020

Hydrophobic and UV-resistant properties of environmentally friendly nano-ZnO-coated wood

Yanan Wang, Xiaotong Wu, Yibo Wang, Yongqi Tian, Hongbo Mu and Jingkui Li
From the journal Holzforschung

Abstract

The combinations of nano-ZnO with wood through simple and efficient physical methods to prepare environmentally friendly and versatile Nano-ZnO-coated Wood have important research and practical implications. In this paper, an environmentally friendly nano-ZnO-coated wood was prepared by physical magnetron sputtering using Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongholica Litv. The micro-characteristics, structure, wettability and colour change of the ZnO-coated wood were characterized and studied. For samples with a sputtering time of more than 3 min, the surface water contact angle exceeded 130° and had good hydrophobic properties. After a 168 h accelerated ultraviolet (UV) ageing test, the total colour difference (ΔE) of the sample with a sputtering time of 75 min (200 °C) was 77% lower than that of the original wood. When the substrate was at 200 °C, the ZnO films deposited on the surface of the wood were evenly and densely arranged, forming almost a continuous film. It could be seen that the deposition of a nano-ZnO film on the surface of wood could significantly improve its hydrophobic properties and anti-UV photochromic properties.


Corresponding author: Jingkui Li, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China, E-mail:

Funding source: The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2572019BC02

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2572019BC02).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

Akhtari, M. and Nicholas, D. (2015). Effect of machined profile, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide particles on checking southern pine deck boards during weathering. IET Nanobiotechnol. 9: 103–106, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2014.0001. Search in Google Scholar

Clausen, C.A., Kartal, S.N., Arango, R.A., and Green, F. (2011). The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6: 427, https://doi.org/10.1186/1556-276x-6-427. Search in Google Scholar

Clausen, C.A., Green, F., and Nami Kartal, S. (2010). Weatherability and leach resistance of wood impregnated with nano-zinc oxide. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5: 1464–1467, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11671-010-9662-6. Search in Google Scholar

Colon, G., Ward, B.C., and Webster, T.J. (2006). Increased osteoblast and decreased Staphylococcus epidermidis functions on nanophase ZnO and TiO2. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 78: 595–604, https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.30789. Search in Google Scholar

Devi, R.R. and Maji, T.K. (2012). Effect of nano-ZnO on thermal, mechanical, UV stability, and other physical properties of wood polymer composites. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51: 3870–3880, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie2018383. Search in Google Scholar

Evans, P., Matsunaga, H., and Kiguchi, M. (2008). Large-scale application of nanotechnology for wood protection. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3: 577, https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.286. Search in Google Scholar

Fu, Y., Zhao, G., and Chun, S. (2006). Microstructure and physical properties of silicon dioxide/wood composite. Acta Mater. Compos. Sin. 23: 52–59. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-3851.2006.04.010. Search in Google Scholar

Gao, H., Liang, D.X., Li, J., Pang, G.S., and Fang, Z.X. (2016). Preparation and properties of nano TiO2-ZnO binary collaborative wood. Chem. J. Chinese Universities 37: 1075–1081. https://doi.org/10.7503/cjcu20150829. Search in Google Scholar

Gatoo, M.A., Naseem, S., Arfat, M.Y., Mahmood Dar, A., Qasim, K., and Zubair, S. (2014). Physicochemical properties of nanomaterials: implication in associated toxic manifestations. BioMed Res. Int. 2014: 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/498420. Search in Google Scholar

Ghorbani, M., Akhtari, M., Taghiyari, H.R., and Kalantari, A. (2012). Effects of silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on gas and liquid permeability of heat-treated Paulownia wood. Austrian J. For. Sci. 129: 106–123. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0609-009. Search in Google Scholar

Herrera, R., Sandak, J., Robles, E., Krystofiak, T., and Labidi, J. (2018). Weathering resistance of thermally modified wood finished with coatings of diverse formulations. Prog. Org. Coating 119: 145–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2018.02.015. Search in Google Scholar

Jin, C.D., Li, J.P., Han, S.J., Wang, J., Yao, Q.F., and Sun, Q.F. (2015). Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity. J. Alloys Compd. 635: 300–306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.02.047. Search in Google Scholar

Kong, L.Z., Tu, K.K., Guan, H., and Wang, X.Q. (2017). Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency. Appl. Surf. Sci. 407: 479–484, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.02.252. Search in Google Scholar

Lang, Q., Bi, Z., and Pu, J.W. (2015). Poplar wood–methylol urea composites prepared by in situ polymerization. II. Characterization of the mechanism of wood modification by methylol urea. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 132: 42406, https://doi.org/10.1002/app.42406. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y., Fu, Y., Yu, H., and Liu, Y. (2013). Process of in situ forming well-aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays on wood substrate using a two-step bottom-up method. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 407: 116–121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.06.043. Search in Google Scholar

Li, J.K., Wang, Y.N., Mu, H.B., and Qi, D.W. (2019). Preparation of nanoZnO /wood composite by magnetron sputtering and its physical property change. J. Beijing For. Univ. 41: 119–125. https://doi.org/10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180303. Search in Google Scholar

Lykidis, C., Mantanis, G., Adamopoulos, S., Kalafata, K., and Arabatzis, I. (2013). Effects of nano-sized zinc oxide and zinc borate impregnation on brown rot resistance of black pine (Pinus nigra L.) wood. Wood Mater. Sci. Eng. 8: 242–244, https://doi.org/10.1080/17480272.2013.834969. Search in Google Scholar

Ma, Y., Wang, W.L., and Liao, K.J. (2003). ZnO film growth in a preferred orientation. Mater. Rev. 17: 204–206. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1005-023X.2003.z1.063. Search in Google Scholar

Miklečić, J., Turkulin, H., and Jirouš-Rajković, V. (2017). Weathering performance of surface of thermally modified wood finished with nanoparticles-modified waterborne polyacrylate coatings. Appl. Surf. Sci. 408: 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.03.011. Search in Google Scholar

Nikulin, A.Y., Davis, J.R., Jones, N.T., Usher, B.F., Souvorov, A.Y., and Freund, A. (2000). Experimental observation of X-ray diffraction from a thin crystalline film at a 90° bragg reflection. Phys. Stat. sol. (a) 179: 103–108, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-396x(200005)179:1<103::aid-pssa103>3.0.co;2-i. Search in Google Scholar

Noël, M., Grigsby, W.J., Ormondroyd, G.A., and Spear, M.J. (2016). Influence of water and humidity on chemically modifying wood with polybutylene succinate bio-polyester. Int. Wood Prod. J. 7: 80–88, https://doi.org/10.1080/20426445.2016.1160559. Search in Google Scholar

Rosu, D., Teaca, C.A., Bodirlau, R., and Rosu, L. (2010). FTIR and color change of the modified wood as a result of artificial light irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 99: 144–149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.03.010. Search in Google Scholar

Schmalzl, K.J. and Evans, P.D. (2003). Wood surface protection with some titanium, zirconium and manganese compounds. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 82: 409–419, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(03)00193-9. Search in Google Scholar

Sun, Q., Yu, H., Liu, Y., Li, J., Lu, Y., and Hunt, J.F. (2010). Improvement of water resistance and dimensional stability of wood through titanium dioxide coating. Holzforschung 64: 757–761, https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2010.114. Search in Google Scholar

Su, C. and Li, J. (2010). The friction property of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256: 4220–4225, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.02.006. Search in Google Scholar

Tian, H., Yang, T., and Chen, Y. (2010). Synthesis and characterization of carbon/silica superhydrophobic multi-layer films. Thin Solid Films 518: 5183–5187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2010.04.044. Search in Google Scholar

Tomak, E.D., Ustaomer, D., Ermeydan, M.A., and Yildiz, S. (2018). An investigation of surface properties of thermally modified wood during natural weathering for 48 months. Measurement 127: 187–197, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.05.102. Search in Google Scholar

Tuong, V.M., Huyen, N.V., Kien, N.T., and Dien, N.V. (2019). Durable epoxy@ ZnO coating for improvement of hydrophobicity and color stability of wood. Polymers 11: 1388, https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091388. Search in Google Scholar

Tu, K., Wang, X., Kong, L., and Guan, H. (2018). Facile preparation of mechanically durable, self-healing and multifunctional superhydrophobic surfaces on solid wood. Mater. Des. 140: 30–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.11.029. Search in Google Scholar

Wallenhorst, L., Gurău, L., Gellerich, A., Militz, H., Ohms, G., and Viöl, W. (2018). Uv-blocking properties of Zn/ZnO coatings on wood deposited by cold plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure. Appl. Surf. Sci. 434: 1183–1192, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.10.214. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, L., Wang, Z., Ning, G.Y., Shen, Y., and Wang, X.M. (2018). Research progress of electromagnetic shielding wood-based conductive materials. Mater. Rev. 32: 2320–2328. https://doi.org/10.11896/j.issn.1005-023X.2018.13.024. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, C.Y., Piao, C., and Lucas, C. (2011). Synthesis and characterization of superhydrophobic wood surfaces. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 119: 1667–1672, https://doi.org/10.1002/app.32844. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, S., Shi, J., Liu, C., Xie, C., and Wang, C. (2011). Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on a wood substrate. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257: 9362–9365, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.05.089. Search in Google Scholar

Xue, X.M. and Nan, C.H. (2016). Comparison of FTIR spectra in seven conifer softwood samples. J. Anhui Agric. Univ. 43: 88–93. https://doi.org/10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20151224.023. Search in Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Wang, Z.S., Xu, J., Zhang, Z., Wang, H.C., Zhu, J., Wang, F.L., Wang, B., Qin, S.J., and Chen, L.Y. (2007). Characterization of low-Z material layer profiles in bilayer structures by X-ray reflectivity measurement. Optic Precis. Eng. 15: 1838–1843. Search in Google Scholar

Yin, B., Fang, L., Hu, J., Tang, A.Q., Wei, W.H., and He, J. (2010). Preparation and properties of super-hydrophobic coating on magnesium alloy. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257: 1666–1671, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.08.119. Search in Google Scholar

Yuan, B., Ji, X., Nguyen, T.T., Huang, Z., and Guo, M. (2019). UV protection of wood surfaces by graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets. Appl. Surf. Sci. 467: 1070–1075, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.10.251. Search in Google Scholar

Yuan, G.M., Wu, Y.Q., and Hu, Y.C. (2010). Research and progress on recombination mechanism of modification to wood by inorganic nano-material. J. Cent. South Univ. Forest. Technol 30: 163–167. https://doi.org/10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20151224.023. Search in Google Scholar

Yuan, G. M., Liu, T. Z., Zhang, N. N., Gong, F. F., and Chen, C. (2012). Study on structure characterization and mechanism of Chinese fir /nano-TiO2 composite. J. Cent. South Univ. Forest. Technol 32: 56–60. https://doi.org/10.14067/j.cnki.1673-923x.2012.01.016. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, G.Z., Yu, H.P., and Liu, Y. X. (2017). Performances of PEI / nano-ZrO2 / FAS composite coatings on wood surface via layer-by-layer assemble method. J. Forest. Eng 2: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2017.03.014. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-12-21
Accepted: 2020-06-04
Published Online: 2020-08-06
Published in Print: 2021-02-23

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston