Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 3, 2020

Preparation and characterization of tannin-based adhesives reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils for wood bonding

Uasmim Lira Zidanes ORCID logo, Matheus Cordazzo Dias, Mário Sérgio Lorenço, Elesandra da Silva Araujo, Maryella Júnnia Ferreira e Silva, Thaís Brito Sousa, Saulo Rocha Ferreira, Júlio César Ugucioni, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli, Maria Lucia Bianchi and Fábio Akira Mori
From the journal Holzforschung


Adhesives based on vegetable tannins are already a reality in the market. However, their use is still limited due to their low mechanical resistance and weak humidity resistance. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are being used as reinforcing materials in various composites, resulting in an improvement of mechanical proprieties in general. The objective of this work was to evaluate the incorporation of CNFs in adhesives made of tannins obtained from the Angico tree (Anadenanthera peregrine). Concentrations of nanofibrils at 1, 5, and 10% were added to the adhesives on a dry basis. Tests of viscosity, pH, solids content, and gel time were performed to determine the physical proprieties of the adhesives. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectra measurements were also determined to understand the interaction between tannins and CNFs. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were carried out to determine the thermal resistance of the composite. The FTIR and Raman characterization identified some differences in the peaks in the chemical composition of the adhesives with different percentages of CNFs. The adhesives showed no different decomposition in the thermogravimetric analyses. The shear strength in the glue line of the adhesive with 5% of CNFs in Toona ciliata woods was determined. Among all the adhesives analyzed, the one with 5% of CNFs produced an improvement in the mechanical resistance and humidity resistance on the glue line.

Corresponding author: Uasmim Lira Zidanes, Department of Forest Science, Federal University of Lavras, PO Box 3037, 372000-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil, E-mail:

Funding source: FINEP

Funding source: FAPEMIG

Award Identifier / Grant number: TEC-AUC-00026-16

Funding source: CNPq

Funding source: CAPES

Award Identifier / Grant number: 001


The authors would like to thank the Centre of Analysis and Chemical Prospecting of the Federal University of Lavras for technical support involving all analyses.

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding:We would like to thank FINEP, FAPEMIG (grant # TEC-AUC-00026-16), CNPq and CAPES (Finance Code 001) for supplying the equipment and financial support.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (

Received: 2020-01-30
Accepted: 2020-05-05
Published Online: 2020-08-03
Published in Print: 2021-02-23

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