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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 10, 2022

HSQC-NMR analysis of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra)-cultured cell lignin produced under different phytohormone conditions

Chen Qu, Shinjiro Ogita, Haruo Kawamoto and Takao Kishimoto
From the journal Holzforschung


Bamboo-cultured cells (BCCs) were produced under three phytohormone conditions. BCC lignin was then isolated and characterized by heteronuclear single-quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC-NMR) analysis. HSQC-NMR analysis revealed that all three BCC lignin samples were composed of guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), oxidized syringyl (S′), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. p-Coumaric acid (pCA) and ferulic acid (FA) were identified as well. Main lignin substructures, including β-O-4, β-5, and β-β, were also detected. However, β-O-4/α-O-4, spirodienone, dibenzodioxocin, or tricin structures were absent in the BCC lignin. The BCC lignin contained higher proportions of H, FA, and β-5 structures, but less proportions of S, S′, and β-O-4 structures than the mature bamboo lignin. The removal of auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from the subculture medium promoted G unit formations. Nevertheless, it suppressed H and pCA unit formations. Cytokinin 6-benzyladenine (BA) promoted H and β-β structure formations as well but suppressed β-O-4 formations than in the mature bamboo and BCC lignin produced under phytohormone free conditions.

Corresponding authors: Chen Qu, International Advanced Energy Science Research and Education Center, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan, E-mail: ; and Takao Kishimoto, Department of Biotechnology, Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, Imizu 939-0398, Japan, E-mail:


The authors thank Mr. Jiaqi Wang (Kyoto University) for kindly providing NMR analysis support.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (

Received: 2021-11-19
Accepted: 2022-02-11
Published Online: 2022-03-10
Published in Print: 2022-06-27

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